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Fallen,  fallen,  a  silent  heap ;  their  heroes  all 
Sunk  in  their  urns: — Behold  the  pride  of  pomp, 
The  throne  of  nations  fallen  ;  obscured  in  dust 
E\en  yet  majestical — The  solemn  scene 
Elates  the  soul !  DYER. 





I..  MESSRNF.  .......  1 

II.  MYCENJE      .  .......  5 

HI.  MILETUS  .......        10 

IV.  NAUPLIA      .  .  .  .  .  .  20 

V.  NEMEA     ........       22 

VI.  NINEVEH      .  .  .  .  .  .  24 

VII.  NUMANTIA  .......        42 

VIII.  OLYMPIA        .  .  .  .  .  .  44 

IX.  PUTEOLI  .......       57 

x.  PALMYRA  (TADMOR)  .         .          .         .      .     60 

xi.  PATR.*:  .         .         .          .          .          .          .100 

XII.  PF.LLA  ........    103 

XIII.  PERGAMUS  .  .  .  .  .  .  .108 

XIV.  PERSEPOLIS  .  .  .  .  .  .     112 

XV.  FETRA    (WADY    MOUSA)  .....     137 

XVI.  PHIGALIA  .  .  .  .  .  .     156 

XVII.  PLATjEA  .  .  .  .  .  .  .     161 

XVIII.  P^KSTUM        ........     167 

XIX.  POMPEII  .  .  .  .  .  .  .177 

XX.  RAMA  ........     198 

XXI.  ROME        ........     200 

XXII.  SAGUNTUM  .......    304 

vj,i  CONTENTS. 


.  308 



XXIV.  SAMARIA      ..••"• 


.     317 
XXVI.     SARDIS  .... 






XXIX.    S1CVON  • 

.     .  348 



.  365 



.        .     372 

XXXIV.  SUSA  .  • 

.  381 


,     .  385 

XXXVI.  SYENE  .... 

.  387 


.     .  402 



.     .  479 

XL.    TYRE  . 

.  496 

XLI.    VF.II  •     • 


NO.  I.  —  JIESSENE. 

PATJSANIAS*  appears  to  have  had  great  interest  in 
the  history  of  the  Mes'senians ;  for  his  history  of 
their  wars  is  more  minute  and  animated  than  any 
other  part  of  his  narrative.  His  account  of  the  city 
gives  us  a  grand  idea  of  what  it  must  once  have 
been ;  and  the  present  splendid  remains  produce  a 
conviction  of  his  veracity. 

The  Avails  of  Messene  t,  built  of  hewn  stone, 
crowned  with  battlements,  and  flanked  Avith  towers, 
Avere  stronger  and  higher  than  those  of  Byzantium, 
Rhodes,  and  the  other  cities  of  Greece.  They  in- 
cluded Avithin  their  circuit  Mount  Ithome.  It  had 
a  large  public  square  or  forum,  ornamented  with 
temples,  statues,  and  a  splendid  fountain.  Beautiful 
edifices  Avere  on  every  side. 

The  Messenians  had  seA'eral  wars  with  the  Lace- 
daemonians ;  and  at  one  time  Avere  so  unfortunate  as 
to  be  reduced  to  the  condition  of  the  Helots.  They 
were  at  length,  hoAveA'er,  reinstated  by  the  Thebans, 
\vho  took  their  city  from  the  Spartans,  who  had 
possessed  it  a  long  time,  after  having  expelled  all 
*  Dodwell.  t  Barthelemy. 

VOL.  II.  B 


its  inhabitants.  Those  who  were  dispersed  in  differ- 
ent regions  of  Greece,  Italy,  and  Sicily,  on  the  first 
notice  given  them,  returned  with  incredible  joy  : 
animated  by  the  love  of  their  country,  natural  to  all 
men,  and  almost  as  much  by  their  hatred  of  the 
Spartans,  which  length  of  time  had  only  increased. 
They  built  themselves  a  city,  which,  from  the  ancient 
name,  was  called  Messene. 

After  their  return  they  fell  out  with  the  Acliaians, 
and  having  worsted  their  celebrated  general,  Philo- 
poemen,  they  had  the  meanness  and  atrocity  to  put 
him  to  death.  His  history  is  thus  related  by 
Rollin  :— 

"Dinocrates,  the  Messenian,  had  drawn  off  Messene 
from  the  Achaian  league ;  and  was  meditating  how 
he  might  best  seize  upon  a  considerable  post  near 
that  city.  Philopoemen,  then  seventy  years  of  age, 
and  generalissimo  of  the  Achaians  for  the  eighth 
time,  lay  sick.  However,  the  instant  the  news  of 
this  was  brought  him,  he  set  out,  notwithstanding 
his  indisposition,  made  a  counter-march,  and  ad- 
vanced towards  Messene  with  a  small  body  of  forces. 
Dinocrates,  who  had  marched  out  against  him,  was 
soon  put  to  flight ;  but  five  hundred  troopers,  who 
guarded  the  open  country  of  Messene,  happening  to 
come  up  and  reinforce  him,  he  faced  about  and 
routed  Philopoemen.  This  general,  who  was  solici- 
tous of  nothing  but  to  save  the  gallant  youths  who 
had  followed  him  in  this  expedition,  performed  the 
most  extraordinary  acts  of  bravery ;  but  happening 
to  fall  from  his  horse,  and  receiving  a  deep  wound  in 
the  head,  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  enemy,  who 
carried  him  to  Messene. 

"  Upon  the  arrival  of  the  news  that  Philopremen 
was  taken  prisoner,  and  on  his  way  to  the  city,  the 
Messenians  ran  to  the  gates  ;  not  being  able  to  per- 
suade themselves  of  the  truth  of  what  they  heard, 


till  they  saw  him  themselves  ;  so  greatly  improbable 
did  this  relation  appear  to  them.  To  satisfy  the 
violent  curiosity  of  the  inhabitants,  many  of  whom 
had  not  yet  been  able  to  get  a  sight  of  him,  they 
were  forced  to  show  the  illustrious  prisoner  on  the 
theatre.  When  they  beheld  Philopoemen,  dragged 
along  in  chains,  most  of  the  spectators  were  so  moved 
to  compassion,  that  the  tears  trickled  from  their  eyes. 
There  even  was  heard  a  murmur  among  the  people, 
which  resulted  from  humanity,  and  a  very  laudable 
gratitude  ;  "  That  theMessenians  ought  to  call  to  mind 
the  great  services  done  by  Philopoemen,  and  his  pre- 
serving the  liberty  of  Achaia,  by  the  defeat  of  Nabis 
the  tyrant."  But  the  magistrates  did  not  suffer  him 
to  be  long  exhibited  in  this  manner,  lest  the  pity  of 
the  people  should  be  attended  with  ill  consequences. 
They  therefore  took  him  away  on  a  sudden  ;  and, 
after  consulting  together,  caused  him  to  be  conveyed 
to  a  place  called  the  Treasury.  This  was  a  subter- 
raneous place,  whither  neither  light  nor  air  entered 
from  without,  and  had  no  door  to  it,  but  was  shut 
with  a  huge  stone  that  was  rolled  over  the  entrance 
of  it.  In  this  dungeon  they  imprisoned  Philopoamen, 
and  posted  a  guard  round  every  part  of  it. 

"As  soon  as  it  was  night,  and  all  the  people  were 
withdrawn,  Dinocratcs  caused  the  stone  to  be  rolled 
away,  and  the  executioner  to  descend  into  the  dun- 
geon with  a  dose  of  poison  to  Philopoemen,  command- 
ing him  not  to  stir  till  he  had  swallowed  it.  The 
moment  the  illustrious  Megalopolitan  perceived  "the 
first  glimmerings  of  light,  and  saw  the  man  advance 
towards  him,  with  a  lamp  in  one  hand  and  a  sword 
in  the  other,  he  raised  himself  with  the  utmost  diffi- 
culty, for  he  was  very  weak,  sat  down,  and  then 
taking  the  cup,  he  inquired  of  the  executioner,  whe- 
ther he  could  tell  what  was  become  of  the  young 
Megalopolitans  his  followers,  particularly  Lycortas  ? 
B  2 


The  executioner  answering,  that  he  heard  almost  all 
had  saved  themselves  by  flight,  Philopoemen  thanked 
him  by  a  nod,  and  looking  kindly  on  him,—  '  You 
bring  me,"  says  he,  "  good  news ;  and  I  find  we  are 
not  entirely  unfortunate;"  after  which,  without 
breathing  the  least  complaint,  he  swallowed  the 
deadly  dose,  and  laid  himself  again  on  his  c^pak. 
The  poison  was  very  speedy  in  its  effects  ;  for  Phi- 
lopoemen,  being  extremely  weak  and  feeble,  expired 
in  a  moment. 

"  When  the  news  of  his  death  spread  among  the 
Achaians,  all  their  cities  were  inexpressibly  afflicted. 
Immediately  all  their  young  men  who  were  of  age 
to  bear  arms,  and  all  their  magistrates,  came  to  Me- 
galopolis. Here  a  grand  council  being  summoned,  it 
was  unanimously  resolved  not  to  delay  a  moment 
the  revenge  of  so  horrid  a  deed ;  and,  accordingly, 
having  elected  on  the  spot  Lycortasfor  their  general, 
they  advanced  with  the  utmost  fury  into  Messene, 
and  filled  every  part  of  it  with  blood  and  slaughter. 
The  Messenians  having  now  no  refuge  left,  and  being 
unable  to  defend  themselves  by  force  of  arms,  sent  a 
.deputation  to  the  Achaians,  to  desire  that  an  end 
might  be  put  to  the  war,  and  to  beg  pardon  for  their 
past  faults.  Lycortas,  moved  at  their  intreaties,  did 
not  think  it  advisable  to  treat  them  as  their  furious 
and  insolent  revolt  seemed  to  deserve.  He  told 
them  that  there  was  no  other  way  for  them  to  ex- 
pect a  peaee,  but  by  delivering  up  the  authors  of 
the  revolt,  and  of  the  death  of  Philopoemen  ;  to  sub- 
mit all  their  affairs  to  the  disposal  of  the  Achaians, 
and  to  receive  a  garrison  into  their  citadel.  These 
conditions  were  accepted,  and  executed  immediately. 
Dinocrates,  to  prevent  the  ignominy  of  dying  by  an 
executioner,  laid  violent  hands  on  himself,  in  which 
he  was  imitated  by  all  those  who  had  advised  the 
putting  Ph  lopremen  to  death." 


A  mere  village*  now  occupies  the  site  of  Messene, 
and  this  is  situated  on  its  ruins,  about  three  quarters 
of  a  mile  from  the  great  gate,  which,  of  its  kind,  is 
the  most  magnificent  ruin  in  Greece. 

A  circular  wall,  composed  of  large  regular  blocks, 
incloses  an  area  of  sixty-two  feet  diameter.  In  this 
wall  are  two  gates,  one  facing  Cyparissaii,  and  the 
other  looking  towards  Laconia.  The  architraves 
have  fallen ;  but  that  which  belonged  to  the  Laco- 
nian  gate  remains  entire,  with  one  end  on  the  ground, 
and  the  other  leaning  against  the  wall. 

There  are  the  remains,  also,  of  a  stadium,  and  of  a 
theatre,  one  of  the  smallest  in  Greece.  Several  other 
traces,  masses  of  fine  walls,  and  heaps  of  stones,  that 
are  scattered  about  the  place,  are  overgrown  or 
nearly  concealed  by  large  trees  and  luxuriant 

NO.  II. — MYCEN.E. 

THIS  city  was  the  capital  of  Agamemnon,  who  was 
the  commancler-in -chief  of  the  assembled  Greeks, 
before  the  walls  of  Troy.  This  event  took  place, 
B.C.  1184;  and  the  present  ruins  are  supposed  to 
be  the  ruins  of  the  city  before  that  event. 

Perseus  translated  the  seat  of  his  kingdom  from 
Argos  to  Mycenae.  The  kings  who  reigned  at  My- 
cenae, after  Perseus,  were  Erectryon,  Sthenelus,  and 
Eurystheus.  The  last,  after  the  death  of  Hercules, 
declared  open  war  against  his  descendants,  appre- 
hending they  might  some  time  or  other  attempt  to 
dethrone  him  ;  which,  as  it  happened,  was  done  by 
the  Heraclidas ;  for,  having  killed  Eurystheus  in 
battle,  they  entered  victorious  into  Peloponnesus  ; 
and  made  themselves  masters  of  the  country.  But 
a  plague  obliged  them  to  quit  the  country.  Three 

t  Barthelemy  ;  Rollin  ;  Dodwell ;  Clarke. 


years  after  this,  being  deceived  by  the  ambiguous 
expression  of  the  oracle,  they  made  a  second  attempt, 
which  likewise  proved  fruitless.  This  was  about 
twenty  years  before  the  taking  of  Troy. 

Atreus,  the  son  of  Pelops,  uncle  by  the  mother's 
Bide  to  Eurystheus,  was  the  latter's  successor.  And 
in  this  manner  the  crown  came  to  the  descendants  of 
Pelops,  from  whom  Peloponnesus,  which  before  was 
called  Apia,  derived  its  name.  The  bloody  hatred  of 
the  two  brothers,  Atreus  and  Thyestes,  is  known  to 
all  the  world. 

Plisthenes,  the  son  of  Atreus,  succeeded  his  father 
in  the  kingdom  of  Mycenae,  which  he  left  to  his  son 
Agamemnon,  who  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Orestes. 
The  kingdom  of  Mycense  was  filled  with  enormous 
and  horrible  crimes,  from  the  time  it  came  into  the 
family  of  Pelops. 

Tisamenes  and  Penthilus,  sons  of  Orestes,  reigned 
after  their  father,  and  were  at  last  driven  out  by  the 

The  length  of  the  Acropolis  of  Mycense,  is  about 
four  hundred  yards,*  and  its  breadth  about  two 
hundred.  The  whole  circuit  of  this  citadel  can  still 
be  made  out ;  and,  in  some  places,  the  walls  remain 
to  the  height  of  fifteen  or  twenty  feet.  They  are 
constructed  of  huge  stones,  and  belong  to  that  style 
of  building  commonly  called  Cyclopean.  This  de- 
scription of  wall  building  is  recognised  by  its  massy 
materials,  and  by  a  certain  style  of  rudeness  ;  in 
•which,  however,  different  epochs  are  easily  distin- 
guished. The  oldest  part  of  the  walls  of  Mycenas, 
resembles  the  Cyclopean  walls  of  Tiryns,  a  place  to 
the  south,  about  seven  miles  distant,  which  are  appa- 
rently nothing  more  than  huge  masses  of  unwrought 
stone,  placed  one  above  another,  with  the  interstices 
filled  up  by  smaller  materials. ^ 

*  Knight. 


The  citadel  of  Mycense  is  of  an  irregular  oblong 
form,  and  is  now  chiefly  an  object  of  curiosity  for 
the  gate,  or  great  entrance,  to  the  north  and  west 
angle.  The  approach  to  this  gate  is  by  a  passage 
of  fifty  feet  long,  and  thirty  wide,  formed  by  two 
parallel  and  projecting  walls,  which  was  a  part  of 
the  fortification,  and  were  obviously  designed  to  com- 
mand the  entrance,  and  annoy  any  enemy  who  might 
venture  to  attack  the  place.  The  door  is  formed  of 
three  stones,  two  upright,  and  a  cross-stone,  forming 
a  soffit.  This  last  is  fifteen  feet  long,  four  wide,  and 
six  feet  seven  inches  thick  in  the  middle,  but  di- 
minishes towards  each  end.  On  this  stone  stands 
another  of  a  triangular  shape,  which  is  twelve  feet 
long,  ten  high,  and  two  thick.  Two  lions  are  cut 
in  relief  on  the  face  of  this  stone,  standing  on  their 
hind  legs,  on  opposite  sides  of  a  round  pillar,  on 
which  their  forepaws  rest. 

The  kingdom  of  the  Argives*  was  divided  into 
two  portions,  by  Acrisius  and  his  brother  Proatus. 
Argos  and  Mycenas  were  their  capitals.  These,  as 
belonging  to  the  same  family,  and  distant  only  about 
six  miles  and  a  quarter  from  each  other,  had  one 
tutelary  deity,  Juno ;  and  were,  jointly,  proprietors 
of  her  temple,  the  Heraeum.  This  renowned  temple 
was  adorned  with  curious  sculpture,  and  numerous 
statues.  The  image  was  very  large,  made  by  Po- 
lycletus,  of  gold  and  ivory,  sitting  on  a  throne. 
Among  the  offerings  was  a  shield,  taken  by  Mene- 
laus,  from  Euphorbus,  at  Ilium  ;  an  altar  of  silver, 
on  which  the  marriage  of  Hebe  with  Hercules  was 
represented ;  a  golden  crown  and  purple  robe,  given 
by  Nero ;  and  a  peacock  of  gold,  set  with  precious 
stones,  dedicated  by  Hadrian. 

Near  it  were  the  remains  of  a  more  ancient  temple, 

*  Chandler. 


which  had   been  hurned  ;  a  taper  setting  some  gar- 
lands on  fire,  while  the  priestess  was  sleeping. 

The  cause  of  the  destruction  of  Mycenae  is  said  to 
have  been  this : — Eighty  of  its  heroes  accompanied 
the  Spartans  to  the  defile  of  Thermopylae  and  shared 
with  them  the  glory  of  their  immortal  deed.  This  is 
said  so  to  have  excited  the  jealousy  of  their  sister  city, 
Argos,  that  it  was  never  afterwards  forgiven.  The 
Argives,  stung  by  the  recollection  of  the  opportunity 
they  had  thus  lost  of  signalising  themselves,  and 
unable  to  endure  the  superior  fame  of  their  neigh- 
bours, made  war  against  Mycena?,  and  destroyed 
it.  This  event  happened  about  five  centuries  before 
Christ.  AVe  cannot,  however,  believe  that  the  Ar- 
gives, who  were  an  exceedingly  mild  and  benevo- 
lent people,  could  have  done  such  an  act  of  atrocity 
as  this. 

Strabo  could  not  imagine  where  Mycena?  could 
have  stood.  He  says,  that  not  a  single  vestige 
remained.  Pausanias,  however,  who  lived  at  a 
much  later  period,  found  its  colossal  ruins,  and 
described  them  as  they  are  seen  at  this  very  day. 

"  It  is  not,"  says  Dr.  Clarke,  "  merely  the  circum- 
stance of  seeing  the  architecture  and  the  sculpture  of 
the  heroic  ages,  which  renders  a  view  of  Myceiue  one 
of  the  highest  gratifications  a  literary  traveller  can 
experience ;  the  consideration  of  its  remaining  at  this 
time,  exactly  as  Pausanias  saw  it  in  the  second 
century,  and  in  such  a  state  of  preservation,  that  an 
alto-relievo,  described  by  him,  yet  exists  in  the 
identical  position  he  has  assigned  for  it,  adds  greatly 
to  the  interest  excited  by  these  remarkable  ruins  : 
indeed,  so  singularly  does  the  whole  scene  correspond 
with  his  account  of  the  place,  that,  in  comparing 
them  together,  it  might  be  supposed,  a  single  hour 
had  not  elapsed  since  he  was  himself  upon  tho 


Everything*  conspires  to  render  these  ruins  pre- 
eminently interesting ;  whether  we  consider  their 
venerable  a-e,  the  allusions  made  to  them  in  such 
distant  periods,  when  they  were  visited  by  Sophocles, 
Euripides  and  other  poets  and  historians  of  Greece, 
as  the  classical  antiquities  of  their  country  ;  or  the 
indisputable  examples  they  afford  of  the  architecture, 
sculpture,  mythology  and  customs  of  the  heroic  ages. 

The  walls  consist  of  huge  unhewn  masses  of  stone, 
so  fitted  and  adapted  to  each  other,  as  to  have  given 
rise  to  an  opinion,  that  the  power  of  man  was  in- 
adequate to  the  labour  necessary  in  building  them. 

One  of  the  first  things  that  is  noticed  is  a  tu- 
mulus of  an  immense  size.  This  has  been  opened, 
and  the  entrant  is  no  longer  concealed.  This 
sepulchre  has  been  erroneously  called  the  "  treasury 
of  Atreus  ;"  and  the  "  monument  of  Agamemnon." 
"  That  this  sepulchre,"  says  Clarke,  "  could  not  have 
been  the  treasury  uf  Atreus,  is  evident  from  Pausanias's 
description,  because  it  was  without  the  walls  of  the 
Acropolis ;  and  that  it  cannot  be  the  monument  of 
Agamemnon,  because  it  was  ic it/tin  the  citadel." 

In  regard  to  the  tomb  of  Agamemnon,  the  follow- 
ing account  has  been  given  by  }Ir.  Turner :  "  I 
entered  by  a  subterraneous  passage,  opened  by  Lord 
Elgin,  and  was  surprised  to  find  myself  in  an  immense 
dome,  about  ninety  feet  high,  and  fifty  round  the 
bottom.  It  had  two  doors,  one  into  the  open  air, 
and  another  into  an  interior  chamber,  which  was 
thoroughly  dark,  and,  I  was  told,  very  small.  It  was 
built  of  immense  stones,  and  was  in  excellent  preserva- 
tion. The  tomb  being  subterraneous,  there  are  no 
traces  above-ground,  and  you  might  walk  over  it  for 
years,  without  suspecting  that  you  were  walking  over 
so  interesting  a  ruin." 

The  other  antiquities  must  remain  for  the  more 


attentive  examination  of  future  travellers  ;  who,  as  it 
is  hoped,  will  visit  the  ruins  provided  with  the  neces- 
sary implements  for  making  researches,  where,  with 
the  slightest  precaution,  they  will  be  little  liable  *  to 
interruption,  the  place  being  as  destitute  of  inhabi- 
tants, and  almost  as  little  known,  as  it  was  in  the 
time  of  Strabo ;  when  it  was  believed  that  not  a 
vestige  could  be  found  t. 


THIS  celebrated  city  was  the  capital  of  Ionia, 
situated,  inthe  time  ofPausanias,  ten  stadia  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Meander ;  but  that  river  accumulated 
its  deposit,  afterwards,  so  closely,  that  the  town  was 
removed,  in  process  of  time,  more  than  three  miles 
within  the  land.  Of  its  origin  there  are  two  accounts : 
some  ascribing  it  to  a  colony  from  Crete,  under  the 
conduct  of  Miletus  ;  some  to  Sarpedon ;  and  others  to 
Neleus,  the  son  of  Codrus,  king  of  Athens,  who  died 
there,  and  whose  tomb  was  in  existence  for  many  ages. 
"  Alyattes,  king  of  Sardis,  made  war  upon  the 
Milesians  in  the  following  manner,"  says  Herodotus. 
"  As  the  time  of  harvest  approached,  he  marched  an 
army  into  their  country  to  the  sound  of  the  pastoral 
pipe,  harp,  and  flutes,  played  upon  by  women  as  well 
as  men.  On  his  arrival  in  their  territories,  he  neither 
hunted,  nor  in  any  respect  injured  their  edifices, 
which  stood  in  the  fields ;  but  he  totally  destroyed 
the  produce  of  their  lands,  and  then  returned.  As 
the  Milesians  were  securely  situated  near  the  sea,  all 
attacks  upon  their  city  would  probably  have  proved 
.ineffectual.  His  motive  for  not  destroying  their 
buildings  was,  that  they  might  be  induced  again  to 
cultivate  their  lands,  and  that  on  every  repetition  of 
his  excursions,  he  might  be  secure  of  plunder." 

*  Clarke.        t  Strabo  ;  Pansani:  s  ;  Rollin  ;  Wilder;  Banthe- 
lemy  ;  Chandler  ;  Turner  ;  Clarke. 


In  this  manner  the  war  was  protracted  during  a 
period  of  eleven  years ;  the  Milesians  receiving  no 
succour  from  any  of  their  neighbours,  except  the 
'natives  of  Chios.  In  the  twelfth  year  of  the  war  the 
enemy  again  set  fire  to  the  corn,  and  a  sudden 
wind  springing  up,  the  flames  caught  the  temple  of 
Minerva  and  burnt  it  to  the  ground.  Alyattes,  sup- 
posing that  the  Milesians  must  be  destitute  of  corn 
from  these  repeated  conflagrations,  sent  word  that  an 
ambassador  would  be  at  Miletus  to  make  a  truce, 
until  he  had  rebuilt  the  temple.  When  Thrasy- 
bulus,  king  of  Miletus,  heard  this,  he  directed  all  the 
corn  that  could  be  in  any  way  collected,  to  be 
brought  into  the  public  market-place ;  and  at  an 
appointed  time  ordered  the  Milesians  to  commence  a 
scene  of  feasting  and  dances.  When  Alyattes  heard 
of  this  festivity,  convinced  that  he  had  been  mistaken 
as  to  the  hope  of  starving  the  Milesians  out,  he  not 
only  immediately  offered  peace,  but  entered  into  a 
strict  alliance  with  them,  and  forthwith  erected  two 
temples  to  Minerva  instead  of  one. 

The  lonians  having  been  drawn  into  revolt  through 
the  intrigues  and  ambitious  views  of  two  persons, 
Aristagoras  and  Hysteius,  the  Persians,  having 
roxited  the  lonians,  laid  siege  to  Miletus,  both  by  sea 
and  land.  They  not  only  undermined  the  walls,  but 
applied  every  species  of  military  machines  against  it. 
The  oracle  had  declared  : — 

And  thou,  Miletus,  versed  in  51]  too  long, 
Shalt  be  the  prey  and  plunder  of  the  strong  : 
Your  wives  shall  stoop  to  wash  a  long-hair'd  train, 
And  others  guard  our  Didymaeau  fane. 

This  prophecy  was  fulfilled.  The  city  was  taken 
and  utterly  destroyed.  The  greater  part  of  the  Mile- 
sians were  slain  by  the  Persians,  who  at  that  time 
wore  long  hair ;  and  their  wives  and  children  were 
carried  into  slavery.  Those  who  survived,  were 


sent  to  Susa ;  Darius  treating  tlicm  with  great 

The  Milesians,  continues  Herodotus,  on  suffering 
these  calamities  from  the  Persians,  did  not  meet 
with  the  return  from  the  people  of  Sybaris,  which 
they  might  justly  have  expected.  When  Sybaris 
was  taken  by  the  Crotoniati,  the  Milesians  had 
shaved  their  heads,  and  discovered  every  testimony 
of  sorrow ;  for  betwixt  these  two  cities  a  strict  hos- 
pitality prevailed.  And  here  we  must  give  room  for 
a  beautiful  instance  of  sensibility  on  the  part  of  the 
Athenians.  When  they  heard  of  the  destruction  of 
Miletus,  they  gave  way  to  many  indications  of  sor- 
row; and  some  years  after  the  capture  of  Miletus, 
a  drama,  written  by  Phrynicus,  being  represented  at 
Athens,  the  whole  audience  melted  into  tears.  The 
poet,  for  thus  reminding  them  of  so  terrible  a  cala- 
mity, was  fined  a  thousand  drachma?,  and  the  piece 
forbidden  to  be  played  in  future. 

A  bloody  battle  was  fought  under  the  walls  of  the 
town,  between  the  Athenians  and  Argivcs  on  one 
side,  and  the  Peloponnesiane  assisted  by  the  Persians 
and  the  revolted  Milesians  on  the  other.  The  for- 
tune of  the  day  turned  to  the  side  of  the  Athenians; 
and  they  would  have  entered  the  city  and  recovered 
their  authority,  had  not  a  fleet  of  fifty-five  sail, 
belonging  to  the  enemy,  compelled  them  to  draw  off 
their  forces  and  retire. 

B.C.  412*.  In  this  year  the  inhabitants  of 
Miletus  joined  the  Lacedaemonian  party  against 
Athens.  When  the  Athenians  heard  of  this,  they 
voted  the  expenditure  of  a  thousand  talents,  which, 
in  more  prosperous  times,  they  had  deposited  in 
the  citadel,  under  the  sanction  of  a  decree  of  the 
senate  and  people,  to  reserve  it  for  an  occasion  of  the 
utmost  danger.  This  enabled  them  to  recruit  their 
*  Gillies. 


fleet ;  and  having  secured  the  fidelity  of  the  Lesbians, 
they  endeavoured  to  recover  their  authority  in 

Lysander  of  LacedcEmon  acted  a  great  atrocity  at 
Miletus.  Apprehending  that  those  who  were  then 
at  the  head  of  the  people,  would  escape  his  revenge, 
he  swore  that  he  would  do  them  no  harm.  These 
chiefs,  giving  credit  to  his  oath,  appeared  therefore 
in  public ;  but  no  sooner  had  they  done  so,  than  the 
treacherous  Lysander  gave  leave  to  the  nobles  of 
the  town  to  put  them  all  to  death,  which  they  imme- 
diately did,  although  the  number '  amounted  to  no 
less  than  eight  hundred !  He  caused,  also,  an  incre- 
dible number  of  persons,  who  were  of  the  party 
opposed  to  him,  to  be  massacred ;  and  this  he  did 
not  only  to  gratify  his  own  malice  and  revenge,  but 
to  serve  the  enmity,  malice,  and  avarice  of  his  friends, 
whom  he  took  delight  in  supporting  in  the  gratifica- 
tion of  their  passions  by  the  death  of  their  enemies. 

The  Milesians,  when  free  from  a  foreign  yoke,  were 
often  reduced  to  a  state  of  vassalage  by  domestic 
tyrants,  who  governed  them  with  absolute  sway,  and 
made  them  feel  all  the  evils  of  a  foreign  subjection. 
In  the  time  of  Antiochus  II.,  for  instance,  we  read  of 
one  Timarclms,  who,  reigning  in  Miletus,  and  prac- 
tising all  manner  of  cruelties,  was  driven  out  by  that 
prince,  and  rewarded  by  the  citizens  with  the  title  of 

When  Alexander  left  Ephesus,  he  marched  to 
Miletus.  But  the  city,  expecting  succours  from  the 
Persians,  closed  its  gates  against  him.  Memnon, 
one  of  the  most  valiant  commanders  of  Darius,  who 
had  shut  himself  up  in  the  fortress,  determined  to 
make  as  stout  a  defence  as  possible.  The  Macedo- 
nian, however,  attacked  him  skilfully  and  vigour- 
ously,  sending  fresh  troops  to  supply  the  places  of 
those  that  were  wearied  ;  yet  finding  his  troops  still 


repulsed  in  all  directions,  the  garrison  being  well  sup- 
plied with  every  thing  necessary  for  a  siege,  he 
planted  all  his  machines  against  the  walls,  made  a 
great  number  of  breaches,  and  attempted  new  sca- 
lados  wherever  they  were  attached.  At  length  the 
besieged,  after  many  brave  efforts,  fearful  of  being 
taken  by  storm,  capitulated.  When  he  had  suc- 
ceeded, Alexander  acted  in  a  manner  much  more 
noble  and  generous  than  he  had  done  before,  or  did 
after  in  many  cases ; — he  treated  the  Milesians  with 
great  humanity.  The  foreigners,  however,  that  had 
taken  part  with  them,  he  sold  as  slaves. 

Miletus  is  thus  described  in  the  pages  of  Barthelemy, 
whose  Travels'of  Anacharsis,as  we  have  before  observed, 
have  all  the  authority  of  an  ancient  author : — "  When 
at  Miletus,  we  surveyed  with  admiration  its  temples, 
festivals, manufactures,  harbours,  and  the  innumerable 
concourse  of  ships,  mariners,  and  workmen,  there  per- 
petually in  motion.  This  city  is  an  abode  of  opulenge, 
learning,  and  pleasure; — it  is  the  Athens  of  Ionia. 
Within  the  walls  the  city  is  adorned  by  the  productions 
of  art;  and  without,  embellished  by  the  riches  of  nature. 
How  often  have  we  directed  our  steps  to  the  banks 
of  the  Mseander,  which,  after  having  received  a  mul- 
titude of  rivers,  and  bathed  the  walls  of  various  cities, 
rolls  its  waters  in  innumerable  windings  through  the 
plain  which  is  honoured  by  bearing  its  name,  and 
proudly  ornaments  its  course  with  the  plenty  it 
creates!  How  often,  seated  on  the  turf,  which  bor- 
ders its  flowery  margin,  surrounded  on  all  sides  with 
the  most  delightful  prospects,  and  unable  to  satiate 
our  senses  with  the  purity  and  serene  splendour  of 
the  air  and  sky,  have  we  not  felt  a  delicious  languor 
insinuate  into  our  souls,  and  throw  us,  if  I  may  so 
speak,  into  the  intoxication  of  happiness  !  Such  is 
the  influence  of  the  climate  of  Ionia :  and  as  moral 
causes,  far  from  correcting,  have  only  tended  to 


increase  it,  the  lonians  have  become  the  most  effe- 
minate, but,  at  the  same  time,  are  to  be  numbered 
among  the  most  amiable  people,  of  Asiatic  Greece. 
In  their  ideas,  sentiments,  and  manners,  a  certain 
softness  prevails,'  which  constitute  the  charm  of 
society ;  and  in  their  music  and  dancing  is  a  liberty, 
which  at  first  offends,  and  then  seduces.  They  have 
added  new  charms  to  pleasure,  and  enriched  their 
luxury  by  inventions.  Numerous  festivals  occupy 
them  at  home,  or  attract  them  to  the  neighbouring 
cities,  where  the  men  appear  in  magnificent  habits, 
and  the  women  in  all  the  elegance  of  female  orna- 
ment, and  with  all  the  desire  of  pleasing." 

St.  Paul,  in  his  way  from  Corinth  to  Jerusalem, 
passed  through  Miletus ;  and  as  he  went  by  sea,  and 
would  not  take  Ephesus  in  his  way,  he  caused  the 
priests  and  bishops  of  the  church  of  Ephesus  to  come 
to  Miletus*. 

Miletus  fell  under  subjection  to  the  Romans,  and  be 
came  a  considerable  place  under  the  Greek  emperors. 
Then  it  fell  under  the  scourge  of  the  Turks ;  one  of 
the  sultans  of  which  (A.  D.  1175)  sent  twenty  thou- 
sand men,  with  orders  to  lay  waste  the  Roman  impe- 
rial provinces,  and  bring  him  sand,  water,  and  an 

*  Acts  xx.  ver.  13.  And  we  went  before  to  ship,  and  sailed  unto 
Assos,  there  intending  to  take  in  Paul  :  for  so  had  he  appointed, 
minding  himself  to  go  afoot. 

14.  And  when  he  met  with  us  at  Assos,  we  took  him  in,  and 
came  to  Mitylene. 

15.  And  we  sailed  thence,  and  came  the  next  day  over  against 
Chios  ;  and  the  next  day  we  arrived  at  Samos,  and  tamed  at  Tro- 
gyllium  ;  and  the  next  day  we  came  to  Miletus. 

16.  For  Paul  had  determined  to  sail  by  Ephesus,  because  he 
would  not  spend  the  time  in  Asia  :  for  he  hasted,  if  it  were  possible 
for  him,  to  be  at  Jerusalem  the  day  of  Pentecost. 

17.  And  from  Miletus  he  sent  to  Ephesus,  and  called  the  ciders 
of  the  church. 

18.  And  when  they  were  come  to  him,  he  said  unto  them,  Ye 
know,  from  the  first  day  that  I  came  into  Asia,  after  what  manner 
I  have  been  with  you  at  all  seasons. 



oar.  All  the  cities  on  the  Mteander  were  then 
mined :  since  which,  little  of  the  history  of  Miletus 
has  been  known. 

The  Milesians  early  applied  themselves  to  naviga- 
tion ;  in  the  spirit  of  which  they,  in  the  process  of 
time,  planted  not  less  than  eighty  colonies,  in  different 
parts  of  the  world  ;  and  as  we  are  ourselves  so  largely 
engaged  in  colonisation,  perhaps  an  account  of  the 
colonies,  sent  out  by  the  Milesians,  may  not  be  deemed 





Islands  in  the  Propontis. 

Miletopolis,  in  Mysia. 


Priaptia.  Ptesus.  Arisba. 

Colonim.  Lainpsacus.  Limnar*. 

Pariuai.  Gai-getta.  Percote. 

Zaleia,  at  tljc  foot  of  Mount  Ida. 
Scepsis,  on  that  mountain. 


lasus.  I  Latinos.  j          Heraclea. 


Icaria.  |  Leros. 








Phasis  and  Dioscorias. 






















Theodosia.  Panticapaeura. 

Nymphaea.  Myrnecion. 


Phanngoria.         |        Hermonassa.         |  Cephi. 

Tanais  in  Sarmatia ;  Salamis  in  Cyprus  ;  Naucratis,  Chemis, 
Paralia  in  Egypt ;  Arnpe  on  the  Tigris  ;  Clauda,  on  the  Euphrates. 

From  this  list  we  may  imagine  to  what  a  height 
of  power  and  civilisation  this  city  must  have  once 
attained.  Babylon  stands  in  a  wilderness  and  a 
desert  by  its  side. 

Miletus  was  adorned  with  superb  edifices  ;  and  was 
greatly  celebrated  for  its  trade,  sciences,  and  arts.  It 
gave  birth  also  to  many  eminent  persons ;  amongst 
whom  may  be  particularly  mentioned,  Thales  *, 
Anaximenes  t,  Anaximander  |,  Hecatceus  §,  Timo  • 
theus  ||,  also  the  celebrated  Aspasia,  the  wife  of 
Pericles.  It  was  also  famous  for  its  excellent  wool, 
with  which  were  made  stuffs  and  garments,  held  in 
the  highest  reputation  both  for  softness,  elegance,  and 

It  had  a  temple  dedicated  to  Apollo  Didymaeus, 
which  was  burnt  by  Xerxes.  The  Milesians,  how- 
ever, soon  after  rebuilt  it,  and  upon  so  large  a  scale, 
that  Strabo  describes  it  as  having  been  equal  in  extent 
to  a  village ;  so  large  indeed  was  it,  that  it  could 
never  be  covered.  It  stood  in  a  thick  grove.  With 
what  magnificence  and  prodigious  spirit  this  edifice 

*  He  was  the  first  that  accurately  calculated  eclipses  of  the  sun  ; 
he  discovered  the  solstices ;  he  divided  the  heavens  into  five  zones, 
and  recommended  the  division  of  the  year  into  three  hundred  and 
sixty-five  days. 

•f  The  inventor  of  sun-dials  and  the  gnomon.  This  philosopher 
had  nevertheless  many  curious  opinions  ;  amongst  which  may  be 
mentioned,  that  air  was  the  parent  of  every  created  heing  ;  and  that 
the  sun,  moon,  and  stars,  had  been  made  from  the  earth. 

£  He  taught  that  men  were  horn  of  earth  and  water,  mixed 
together  by  the  heat  of  the  sun. 

§  An  historian.  ||  A  musician. 

VOL.   II.  C 


was  designed,  may  in  some  measure  be  collected  from 
the  present  remains.  Strabo  called  it  the  "  greatest 
of  all  temples;"  adding  that  it  continued  without  a  roof 
on  account  of  its  bigness  ;  Pausanias  mentions  it  as 
unfinished,  but  as  one  of  the  wonders  peculiar  to 
Ionia ;  and  Vitruvius  mentions  this  among  the  four 
temples,  which  have  raised  their  architects  to  the 
summit  of  renown*. 

There  was  a  magnificent  theatre  also  built  of  stone, 
but  cased  with  marble,  and  greatly  enriched  with 
sculptures.  There  was  also  one  temple  of  Venus  in 
this  town,  and  another  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Miletus  is  now  called  Palatskia  (the  palaces).  Not- 
withstanding its  title,  and  the  splendour  of  its  ancient 
condition,  it  is  but  a  mean  place  now.  The  principal 
relic  of  its  former  magnificence  is  a  ruined  theatre, 
measuring  in  length  four  hundred  and  fifty-seven 
feet.  The  external  face  of  this  vast  fabric  is  marble. 
The  front  has  been  removed.  A  few  seats  only 
remain,  and  those,  as  usual,  ranged  on  the  slope  of  a 
hill.  The  vaults  which  supported  the  extremities, 
with  the  arches  or  avenues  of  the  two  wings,  are 
constructed  with  such  solidity,  that  they  will  not 
easily  be  demolished.  The  entrance  of  the  vault  is 
nearly  filled  up  with  rubbish ;  but  when  Dr.  Chandler 
crept  into  it,  led  by  an  Armenian,  with  a  candle  in  a 
long  paper  lantern,  innumerable  bats  began  flitting 
about  them  ;  and  the  stench  was  intolerable. 

The  town  was  spread  with  rubbish  and  overgrown 
with  thickets.  The  vestiges  of  "  the  heathen  city," 
are  pieces  of  wall,  broken  arches,  and  a  few  scattered 
pedestals  and  inscriptions,  a  square  marble  urn,  and 
many  wells.  One  of  the  pedestals  has  belonged  to  a 
statue  of  the  Emperor  Hadrian,  who  was  a  friend  to 
the  Milesians,  as  appears  from  the  titles  of  Saviour 
and  Benefactor,  bestowed  upon  him.  Another  lias 

*  Ionian  Antiquities. 


supported  the  Emperor  Severus,  and  has  a  long  in- 
scription, with  this  preamble  :  "  The  senate  and 
people  of  the  city  of  the  Milesians,  the  first  settled 
in  Ionia*  and  the  mother  of  many  and  great  cities 
both  in  Pontus  and  Egypt,  and  in  various  other  parts 
of  the  world"  This  lies  among  the  bushes  behind 
the  theatre. 

Several  piers  of  an  aqueduct  are  standing.  Near 
the  ferry  is  a  large  couchant  lion,  of  white  marble ; 
and  in  a  Turkish  burying-ground  another  ;  and  traces 
remain  of  an  old  fortress.  Besides  these,  there  are  a 
considerable  number  of  forsaken  mosques;  and  among 
the  ruins  are  several  fragments  of  ancient  churches. 

Wheler  says,  that  in  his  time,  there  were  many 
inscriptions,  most  of  them  defaced  by  time  and 
weather ;  some  upon  single  stones,  others  upon  very 
large  tombs.  On  one  of  them  were  carved  two 
women  hunting,  with  three  dogs ;  the  foremost  hold- 
ing a  hare  in  its  mouth. 

"  Miletus,"  says  Dr.  Chandler,  from  whom  we 
have  borrowed  several  passages  in  this  article,  "  was 
once  powerful  and  illustrious.  The  early  navigators 
extended  its  commerce  to  remote  regions ;  the  whole 
Euxine  Sea,  the  Propontis,  Egypt,  and  other  coun- 
tries, were  frequented  by  its  ships,  and  settled  by  its 
colonies.  It  withstood  Darius,  and  refused  to  admit 
Alexander.  It  has  been  styled  the  metropolis  and 
head  of  Ionia ;  the  bulwark  of  Asia ;  chief  in  war 
and  peace ;  mighty  by  sea ;  the  fertile  mother, 
which  had  poured  forth  her  sons  to  every  quarter. 
It  afterwards  fell  so  low  as  to  furnish  a  proverbial 
saying,  '  The  Milesians  were  once  great ;'  but  if  we 
compare  its  ancient  glory,  and  its  subsequent  humi- 
liation, with  its  present  state,  we  may  justly  exclaim, 
'  Miletus,  howr  much  lower  art  thou  now  fallen*  !'  " 

*  Herodotus  ;  Strabo  ;  Pausanias  ;  Quintus  Curtius  ;  Ptidcaux  ; 
Chandler  ;  Stuart ;  Barthelemy  ;  Gillies. 
.     C  2 



THIS  town,  now  called  Napoli  di  Romania,  is 
situate  along  the  foot  of  the  rocky  promontory, 
which  projects  into  the  sea,  at  the  head  of  the 
gulf  of  Napoli.  Its  walls  were  built  by  the  Ve- 

Ancient  Nauplia,  which  is  said  to  have  been  built 
by  Nauplius,  absurdly  called  the  son  of  Neptune, 
became  the  chief  naval  arsenal  of  the  Argives. 
Even  so  early  as  the  time  of  Pausanias,  however, 
it  had  become  desolate;  only  a  few  remains  of  a 
temple,  and  of  the  walls,  then  existing.  Its  modern 
history  is  rather  interesting. 

The  Venetians  obtained  possession  in  1460.  In 
1495  it  surrendered  to  Bajazet,  but  was  again  taken 
by  the  Venetians,  under  Morozini,  in  1586,  after 
a  month's  siege,  and  became  the  head -quarters  of 
that  nation,  in  the  Morea.  In  1714,  it  was  treach- 
erously given  up  to  Ali  Coumourgi,  and  was  the 
seat  of  Turkish  government,  and  residence  of  the 
Pasha  of  the  Morea;  till  Tripolizzi  was  selected 
as  being  more  central ;  when  it  became  subject  to 
the  Bey  of  Argos.  The  crescent  remained  unin- 
terruptedly flying  on  this  fortress,  till  the  12th  of 
December  1822,  when  it  surrendered  to  the  Greeks, 
after  a  long  and  tedious  blockade ;  the  Turkish 
garrison  having  been  reduced  to  such  a  state  of 
starvation,  as  to  feed  on  the  corpses  of  their  com- 
panions. In  1825,  Ibrahim  Pasha  made  a  fruitless 
attempt  to  surprise  the  place ;  and  it  has  been  the 
strong -hold  of  the  Greeks  in  their  struggle  for 
liberty.  In  April,  1826,  the  commission  of  govern- 
ment held  their  sittings  here ;  but  were  obliged 
to  retire  to  jEgina,  on  account  of  civil  dissentions, 
and  two  of  the  revolted  chiefs  being  in  possession 
of  the  Palamadi.  During  the  presidency  of  Capo 


d'Istrias,  who  always  resided,  and  was  assassinated 
in  the  town,  it  again  became  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment; and  on  the  31st  of  January,  1833,  Otho,  Prince 
of  Bavaria,  arrived  here,  as  first  king  of  restored 

The  strength  of  Napoli  is  the  citadel,  which  is 
called  the  Palamadi,  over  whose  turreted  walls  a 
few  cypresses  raise  their  sombre  heads.  It  stands 
on  the  easternmost  and  highest  elevation  of  the 
promontory,  and  completely  overhangs  and  com- 
mands the  town.  To  all  appearance  it  is  impreg- 
nable, and,  from  its  situation  and  aspect,  has  been 
termed  the  Gibraltar  of  Greece.  It  is  seven  hun- 
dred and  twenty  feet  above  the  sea;  and  has  only 
one  assailable  point,  where  a  narrow  isthmus  con- 
nects it  with  the  main  land ;  and  this  is  overlooked 
by  a  rocky  precipice. 

Mr.  Dodwell  made  fruitless  inquiries  in  respect  to 
the  caves  and  labyrinths  near  Nauplia,  which  are 
said  to  have  been  formed  by  the  Cyclops ;  but  a 
minute  examination  is  neither  a  safe  nor  easy  under- 
taking. "  The  remains  that  are  yet  unknown,"  says 
he,  "  will  be  brought  to  light,  when  the  reciprocal 
jealousy  of  the  European  powers  permits  the  Greeks 
to  break  their  chains,*  and  to  chase  from  their  out- 
raged territory  that  host  of  dull  oppressors,  who 
have  spread  the  shades  of  ignorance  over  the  land 
that  was  once  illuminated  by  science,  and  who, un- 
consciously trample  on  the  venerable  dust  of  the 
Pelopidse  and  the  Atridae." 

Nauplia  is  a  miserable  village ;  the  houses  have 
nothing  p'eculiar  about  them,  but  are  built  in  the 
common  form  of  the  lowest  habitations  of  the  villages 
of  France  and  Savoy.  The  inhabitants  are  indolent. 
"  The  indolence  of  the  Napolitans,"  says  M.  La 
Martine,  "  is  mild,  serene,  and  gay — the  carelessness 
*  This  was  written  in  1806,  and  published  in  1819. 


of  happiness;  while  that  of  the  Greek  is  heavy, 
morose,  and  sombre ;  it  is  a  vice,  which  punishes 
itself."  * 

A  town  of  Argolis,  greatly  distinguished  by  the 
games  once  celebrated  there.  These  games  (called  the 
Nemean  games)  were  originally  instituted  by  the 
Argives  in  honour  of  Archemorus,  who  died  from 
the  bite  of  a  serpent ;  and,  afterwards,  renewed  in 
honour  of  Hercules,  who  in  that  neighbourhood  is  said 
to  have  destroyed  a  lion  by  squeezing  him  to  death. 

These  games  consisted  of  foot  and  horse  races,  and 
chariot  races  ;  boxing,  wrestling,  and  contests  of  every 
kind,  both  gymnastic  and  equestrian.  They  were 
celebrated  on  the  liJth  of  our  August,  on  the  1st  and 
3rd  of  every  Olympiad  ;  and  continued  long  after 
those  of  Olympia  were  abolished. 

In  the  neighbouring  mountains  is  still  shown  the 
den  of  the  lion,  said  to  have  been  slain  by  Hercules ; 
near  which  stand  the  remains  of  a  considerable 
temple,  dedicated  to  Jupiter  Nemeus  and  Cleome- 
nes,  formerly  surrounded  by  a  grove  of  cypresses. 

Of  this  temple  three  columns  only  are  remaining. 
These  columns,  two  of  which  belonging  to  the  space 
between  antae,  support  their  architrave.  These 
columns  are  four  feet  six  inches  and  a  half  in  dia- 
meter, and  thirty-one  feet  ten  inches  and  a  half  in 
height,  exclusive  of  the  capitals.  The  single  co- 
lumn is  five  feet  three  inches  diameter,  and  belongs 
to  the  peristyle.  The  temple  was  hexastyle  and 
peripteral,  and  is  supposed  to  have  had  fourteen 
columns  on  the  sides.  The  general  intercolumnia - 
tion  is  seven  feet  and  a  half,  and  those  at  the  angles 
five  feet  eleven  inches  and  a  quarter.  It  stands  upon 

*  Pausaaias ;  Dodwcll ;  La  Marline. 


three  steps,  each  of  which  is  one  foot  two  inches  in 
height.  The  capital  of  the  exterior  column  has 
been  shaken  out  of  its  place,  and  will  probably  ere 
long  fall  to  the  ground.  "  I  have  not  seen  in  Greece," 
continues  Mr.  Dodwell,  "  any  Doric  temple,  the 
columns  of  which  are  of  such  slender  proportions  as 
those  of  Nemea.  The  epistylia  are  thin  and 
meagre,  and  the  capitals  too  small  for  the  height  of 
the  columns.  It  is  constructed  of  a  soft  calcareous 
stone,  which  is  an  aggregate  of  sand  and  small  petri- 
fied shells,  and  the  columns  are  coated  with  a  fine 
stucco.  Pausanias  praises  the  beauty  of  the  temple ; 
but,  even  in  his  time,  the  roof  had  fallen,  and  not  a 
single  statue  was  left." 

No  fragments  of  marble  are  found  amongst  the 
ruins,  but  an  excavation  would  probably  be  well  re- 
paid, as  the  temple  was  evidently  thrown  down -at 
one  moment,  and  if  it  contained  any  sculptured 
marbles,  they  are  still  concealed  by  the  ruins. 

Near  the  temple  are  several  blocks  of  stones,  some 
fluted  Doric  frustra,  and  a  capital  of  small  dimen- 
sions. This  is  supposed  to  have  formed  part  of  the 
sepulchre  of  Archemorus.  Mr.  Dodwell,  however, 
found  no  traces  of  the  tumulus  of  Lycurgus,  his 
father,  king  of  Nemea,  mentioned  by  Pausanias, 
nor  any  traces  of  the  theatre  and  stadium. 

Beyond  the  temple  is  a  remarkable  summit,  the 
top  of  which  is  flat,  and  visible  in  the  gulf  of 
Corinth.  On  one  side  is  a  ruinous  church,  with 
some  rubbish ;  perhaps  where  Osspaltes  and  his 
father  are  said  to  have  been  buried.  Near  it  is  a 
very  large  fig-tree.  To  this  a  goatherd  repaired 
daily  before  noon  with  his  flock,  which  huddled 
together  in  the  shade  until  the  extreme  heat  was 
over,  and  then  proceeded  orderly  to  feed  in  the  cool 
upon  the  mountain. 

"  Nemea,"    continues   Mr.  Dodwell,    "  is  more 


characterised  by  gloom  than  most  of  the  places  I 
have  seen.  The  splendour  of  religious  pomp,  and 
the  long  animation  of  gymnastic  and  equestrian 
exercises,  have  been  succeeded  by  the  dreary  vacancy 
of  a  death-like  solitude.  AVe  saw  no  living  creatures 
but  a  ploughman  and  his  oxen,  in  a  spot  which  was 
once  exhilarated  by  the  gaiety  of  thousands,  and 
resounded  with  the  shouts  of  a  crowded  popula- 


Of  Nineveh,  the  mighty  city  of  old, 
How  like  a  star  she  fell  aiid  pass'd  away  ! 


THE  Assyrian  empire  was  founded  by  Ashur,  the 
son  of  Shem,  according  to  some  writers ;  but  accord- 
ing to  others,  by  Nimrod  ;  and  to  others,  by  Ninus. 

Ninus,  according  to  Diodorus  Siculus,  is  to  be 
esteemed  the  most  ancient  of  the  Assyrian  kings. 
Being  of  a  warlike  disposition,  and  ambitious  of  that 
glory  which  results  from  courage,  says  he,  he  armed 
a  considerable  number  of  young  men,  that  were  brave 
and  vigorous  like  himself ;  trained  them  up  in  labo- 
rious exercises  and  hardships,  and  by  that  means 
accustomed  them  to  bear  the  fatigues  of  war  patiently, 
and  to  face  dangers  with  intrepidity.  What  Dio- 
dorus states  of  Ninus,  however,  is  much  more  appli- 
cable to  his  father,  Nimrod,  the  son  of  Cush,  grand- 
son of  Cham,  and  great-grandson  of  Noah  ;  he  who 
is  signalised  in  scripture  as  having  been  "  a  mighty 
hunter  before  the  Lord ;"  a  distinction  which  he 
gained  from  having  delivered  Assyria  from  the  fury 
and  dread  of  wild  animals ;  and  from  having,  also, 
by  this  exercise  of  hunting,  trained  up  his  followers 
to  the  use  of  arms,  that  he  might  make  use  of  them 
for  other  purposes  more  serious  and  extensive. 

*  Barthelerny  ;  Dodwell ;  Rees  ;  Brewster. 

RUINS    OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  "    25 

The  next  king  of  Assyria  was  NINTTS,  the  son  of 
Nimrod.  This  prince  prepared  a  large  army,  and  in 
the  course  of  seventeen  years  conquered  a  vast  extent 
of  country ;  extending  to  Egypt  on  one  side,  and  to 
India  and  Bactriana  on  the  other.  On  his  return  he 
resolved  on  building  the  largest  and  nohlest  city  in 
the  world ;  so  extensive  and  magnificent,  as  to  leave 
it  in  the  power  of  none,  that  should  come  after  him, 
to  build  such  another.  It  is  probable,  however,  that 
Nimrod  laid  the  foundations  of  this  city,  and  that 
Ninus  completed  it :  for  the  ancient  writers  often 
gave  the  name  of  founder  to  persons,  who  were  only 
entitled  to  the  appellation  of  restorer  or  improver. 

This  city  was  called  NINEVEH.  Its  form  and 
extent  are  thus  related  by  Diodorus,  who  states  that 
he  took  his  account  from  Ctesias  the  Gnidian  : — "  It 
was  of  a  long  form ;  for  on  both  sides  it  ran  out 
about  twenty-three  miles.  The  two  lesser  angles, 
however,  were  only  ninety  furlongs  a-piece  ;  so  that 
the  circumference  of  the  whole  was  about  seventy- 
four  miles.  The  walls  were  one  hundred  feet  in 
height ;  and  so  broad,  that  three  chariots  might  be 
driven  together  upon  it  abreast ;  and  on  these  walls 
were  fifteen  hundred  turrets,  each  of  which  was  two 
hundred  feet  high." 

When  the  improver  had  finished  the  city,  he  ap- 
pointed it  to  be  inhabited  by  the  richest  Assyrians ; 
but  gave  leave,  at  the  same  time,  to  people  of  other 
nations  (as  many  as  would)  to  dwell  there ;  and, 
moreover,  allowed  to  the  citizens  at  large  a  consider- 
able territory  next  adjoining  them. 

Having  finished  the  city,  Ninus  marched  into  Bac- 
tria ;  his  army  consisting  of  one  million  seven  hundred 
thousand  men,  two  hundred  thousand  horse,  and 
sixteen  thousand  chariots  armed  with  scythes.  This 
number  is,  doubtless,  greatly  exaggerated.  With  so 
large  a  force,  he  could  do  no  otherwise  than  conquer 

26    •  RUINS    OF    ANCIE!S7T    CITIES. 

a  great  number  of  cities.  But  having,  at  last,  laid 
siege  to  Bactria,  the  capital  of  the  country,  it  is  said 
that  lie  would  probably  have  failed  in  his  enterprise 
against  that  city,  had  he  not  been  assisted  by  the 
counsel  of  Semiramis,  wife  to  one  of  his  officers,  who 
directed  him  in  what  manner  to  attack  the  citadel. 
By  her  means  he  entered  the  city,  and  becoming 
entire  master  of  it,  he  got  possession  of  an  immense 
treasure.  He  soon  after  married  Semiramis ;  her 
husband  having  destroyed  himself,  to  prevent  the 
effects  of  some  threats  that  Ninus  had  thrown  out 
against  him.  By  Semiramis,  Ninus  had  one  son, 
whom  he  named  Ninyas  ;  and  dying  not  long  after, 
Semiramis  became  queen  :  who,  to  honour  his  me- 
mory, erected  a  magnificent  monument,  which  is  said 
to  have  remained  a  long  time  after  the  destruction  of 
the  city. 

The  history  of  this  queen  is  so  well  known,*  that 
we  shall  not  enlarge  upon  it ;  we  having  already 
done  so  in  our  account  of  Babylon ;  for  she  was  one 
of  the  enlargers  of  that  mighty  city. 

There  is   a  very  great   difference  of  opinion,  in 
regard  to  the  time  in  which  Semiramis  lived.     Ac- 
cording to  A.  c. 
Sanchoniathon,  she  lived       .     1200 

Herodotus 500 

Syncellus 2177 

Petavius 2060 

Helvicus 2248 

Eusebms 1984 

Archbishop  Usher  .     .     .     .     1215 

Alexander's  opinion  of  this  celebrated  woman  may 

be  gathered  from  the  following  passage  of  his  speech  to 

his  army: — "You  wish  to  enjoy  me  long;  and  even,  if 

it  were  possible,  for  ever ;  but,  as  to  myself,  I  compute 

*  See  Herod,  i.  c.  184  ;  Diodor.  Sic.  ii. ;  Pompon.  Mela,  i. 
c.  3  :  Justin,  i.  c.  1  ;  Val.  Max.  is.  c.  3. 


the  length  of  my  existence,  not  by  years,  but  by  glory. 
I  might  have  confined  my  ambition  within  the  narrow 
limits  of  Macedonia ;  and,  contented  with  the  king- 
dom my  ancestors  left  me,  have  waited,  in  the  midst 
of  pleasures  and  indolence,  an  inglorious  old  age.  I 
own  that  if  my  victories,  not  my  years,  are  com- 
puted, I  shall  seem  to  have  lived  long ;  but  can  you 
imagine,  that  after  having  made  Europe  and  Asia  but 
one  empire,  after  having  conquered  the  two  noblest 
parts  of  the  world,  in  the  tenth  year  of  my  reign  and 
the  thirtieth  of  my  age,  that  it  will  become  me  to 
stop  in  the  midst  of  so  exalted  a  career,  and  discon- 
tinue the  pursuit  of  glory  to  which  I  have  entirely 
devoted  myself  ?  Know,  that  this  glory  ennobles  all 
things,  and  gives  a  true  and  solid  grandeur  to  what- 
ever appears  insignificant.  In  what  place  soever  I 
may  fight,  I  shall  fancy  myself  upon  the  stage  of  the 
world,  and  in  presence  of  all  mankind.  I  confess 
that  I  have  achieved  mighty  things  hitherto ;  but  the 
country  \ve  are  now  in  reproaches  me  that  a  woman 
has  done  still  greater.  It  is  Semiramis  I  mean.  How 
many  nations  did  she  conquer !  How  many  cities 
were  built  by  her  !  What  magnificent  and  stupendous 
works  did  she  finish !  How  shameful  is  it,  that  I 
should  not  yet  have  attained  to  so  high  a  pitch  of 
glory  !  Do  but  second  my  ardour,  and  I  will  soon 
surpass  her.  Defend  me  only  from  secret  cabals  and 
domestic  treasons,  by  which  most  princes  lose  their 
lives ;  I  take  the  rest  upon  myself,  and  will  be 
answerable  to  you  for  all  the  events  of  the  war." 

"  This  speech,"  says  Rollin,  "  gives  us  a  perfect 
idea  of  Alexander's  character.  He  had  no  notion  of 
true  glory.  He  did  not  know  either  the  principle, 
the  rule,  or  end  of  it.*  He  certainly  placed  it  where 
it  was  not.  He  was  strongly  prejudiced  in  vulgar 
error,  and  cherished  it.  lie  fancied  himself  born 
merely  for  glory ;  and  that  none  could  be  acquired 


but  by  unbounded,  unjust,  and  irregular  conduct.  In 
his  impetuous  sallies  after  a  mistaken  glory,  he  fol- 
lowed neither  reason,  virtue,  nor  humanity ;  and  as 
if  his  ambitious  caprice  ought  to  have  been  a  rule  and 
standard  to  all  other  men,  he  was  surprised  that 
neither  his  officers  nor  soldiers  would  enter  into  his 
views,  and  that  they  lent  themselves  very  unwillingly 
to  support  his  ridiculous  enterprises."  These  remarks 
are  well  worthy  the  distinguished  historian  who 
makes  them. 

Semiramis  was  succeeded  by  her  son  Ninyas ;  a 
weak  and  effeminate  prince,  who  shut  himself  up  in  the 
city,  and,  seldom  engaging  in  affairs,  naturally  became 
an  object  of  contempt  to  all  the  inhabitants.  His  suc- 
cessors are  said  to  have  followed  his  example ;  and 
some  of  them  even  went  beyond  him  in  luxury  and 
indolence.  Of  their  history  no  trace  remains. 

At  length  we  come  to  Pull,  supposed  to  be  the  father 
of  Sardanapalus ;  in  whose  reign  Jonah  is  believed  to 
have  lived.  "The  word  of  the  Lord,"  says  the  Hebrew 
scripture,  "came  unto  Jonah,  the  son  of  Amittai, 
saying,  Arise,  go  to  Nineveh,  that  great  city,  and 
cry  against  it ;  for  their  wickedness  is  come  up  before 
me."  Jonah,  instead  of  acting  as  he  was  commanded, 
went  to  Joppa,  and  thence  to  Tarshish.  He  was 
overtaken  by  a  storm,  swallowed  by  a  whale,  and 
thrown  up  again.  Being  commanded  again,  he  arose 
and  went  to  Nineveh,  "  an  exceedingly  great  city  of 
three  days'  journey;"  where,  having  warned  the 
inhabitants,  that  in  forty  days  their  city  should  be 
overthrown,  the  people  put  on  sackcloth,  "  from  the 
greatest  of  them  even  to  the  least."  The  king  sat  in 
ashes,  and  proclaimed  a  fast.  "  Let  neither  man  nor 
beast,"  said  the  edict,  "  herd  nor  flock,  taste  any 
thing ;  let  them  not  feed,  nor  drink  water ;'  but  let 
man  and  beast  be  covered  with  sackcloth ;  and  cry 
mightily  unto  God;  yea,  let  them  turn  every  one 


from  his  evil  way,  and  from  the  violence  that  is  in 
their  hands.  Who  can  tell  if  God  will  turn  and 
repent,  and  turn  away  from  his  fierce  anger,  that  we 
perish  not  ? " 

On  the  king's  issuing  this  edict,  the  people  did  as 
they  were  commanded,  and  the  ruin  was  delayed. 
On  finding  this,  the  prophet  acted  in  a  very  unworthy 
manner.  To  have  failed  as  a  prophet  gave  him  great 
concern  ;  insomuch,  that  he  desired  death.  "  Take, 
I  beseech  thee,  O  Lord,  my  life  from  me ;  for  it  is 
better  for  me  to  die  than  to  live."  "  Shall  I  not 
spare  Nineveh,"  answered  the  Lord,  "  that  great  city, 
wherein  are  more  than  six-score  thousand  persons, 
that  cannot  discern  between  their  right  hand  and 
their  left  hand  ;  and  also  much  cattle  ?" 

Sardanapalus  was,  beyond  all  other  sovereigns  re- 
corded in  history,  the  most  effeminate  and  voluptuous ; 
the  most  perfect  specimen  of  sloth,  luxury,  coward- 
ice,  crime,  and  elaborate  folly,  that  was,  perhaps, 
ever  before  exhibited  to  the  detestation  of  mankind. 
He  clothed  himself  in  women's  attire,  and  spun  fine 
wool  and  purple  amongst  throngs  of  concubines. 
He  painted  likewise  his  face,  and  decked  his  whole 
body  with  other  allurements.  He  imitated,  also,  a 
woman's  voice ;  and  in  a  thousand  respects  dis- 
graced his  nature  by  the  most  unbounded  licentious- 
ness and  depravity.  He  even  wished  to  immortalise 
his  impurities ;  selecting  for  his  epitaph  the  follow- 
ing lines  : — 

Haec  habeo  qnae  edi,  quseque  exsaturata libido 
Hausit ;  at  ilia  jacent  m uhu  et  proeclara  rclicta. 

"  This  epitaph,"  says  Aristotle,  "  is  only  fit  for  a 

*  The  character  of  Sardanapalus  has  been  treated  more  gently  by 
a  modern  poet.  "  The  Sardanapalus  of  Lord  Byron  is  pretty 
nearly  such  a  person  as  the  Sardanapalus  of  history  may  be  sup- 
posed to  have  been,— young,  thoughtless,  spoiled  by  flattery  and 


Through  all  the  city  sounds  the  voice  of  joy, 

And  tipsy  merriment.     On  the  spacious  walls, 

That,  like  huge  sea-cliffs,  gird  the  city  in, 

Myriads  of  wanton  feet  go  to  and  fro  ; 

Gay  garments  rustle  in  the  scented  breeze  ; 

Crimson  and  azure,  purple,  green,  and  gold  ; 

Laugh,  jest,  and  passing  whisper  are  hoard  there  ; 

Timbrel  and  lute,  and  dulcimer  and  song  ; 

And  many  feet  that  tread  the  dance  arc  seen, 

And  arms  unflung,  and  swaying  head-plumes  crown'd  : 

So  is  that  city  steep'd  in  revelry*. 

In  this  dishonourable    state   Sardanapalus    lived 
several  years.     At  length   the  governor    of   Media, 
having  gained  admittance  into  his  palace,  and  seen 
with  his  own  eyes  a  king  guilty  of  such  criminal 
excesses ;  enraged  at  the  spectacle,   and  not  able  to 
endure  that  so  many  brave  men  should  be  subject  to 
a  prince  more  soft  and   effeminate  than  the   women 
themselves,  immediately  resolved  to  put  an  end  to  his 
dominion.     He  therefore  formed  a  conspiracy  against 
him  ;  'and  in  this  he  was  joined  by  Belesis,  governor 
of  Babylon,    and  several   others.     Supporting  each 
other  for  the  same  end,  the  one  stirred  up  the  Medes 
and  Persians  ;  the  other  inflamed  the  inhabitants  of 
unbounded  self-indulgence  ;  but,  with  a  temper  naturally  amiable, 
and  abilities  of  a  superior  order,  he  affects    to  undervalue  the  san- 
guinary renown  of  his  ancestors,  as  an  excuse  for  inattention  to 
the  most  necessary  duties  of  his  rank  ;  and  flatters  himself,  while 
he  is  indulging  his  own  sloth,  that  he  is  making  his  people  happy. 
Yet,  even  in  his  fondness  for  pleasure,  there  lurks  a  love  of  con- 
tradiction.     Of  the   whole  picture,    selfishness  is  the  prevailing 
feature  ; — selfishness  admirably  drawn,  indeed ;  apologised  for  by 
every  palliating  circumstance  of  education  and  habit,  and  clothed 
in  the  brightest  colours   of  which  it  is  susceptible,  fiom   youth, 
talents,  and  placidity.      But  it  is  selfishness  still;  and  we  should 
have  been  tempted  to  quarrel  with  the  art  which  made   vice  and 
frivolity  thus  amiable,  if  Lord  Byron  had  not,  at  the  same  time, 
pointed  out  with  much  skill  the  bitterness  and  weariness  of  spirit 
which  inevitably  wait  on  such  a  character ;  and  if  he  had  not  given 
a  fine  contrast  to  the   picture,  in   the   accompanying  portraits   of 
Salarnenes  and  Myrrha." — HEBKR. 

*  Atherstone's  "  Fall  of  Nineveh." 


Babylon.  They  gained  over,  also,  the  king  of 
Arabia.  Several  battles,  however,  were  fought,  in 
all  of  which  the  rebels  were  repulsed  and  defeated. 
They  became,  therefore,  so  greatly  disheartened,  that 
at  length  the  commanders  resolved  every  one  to 
return  to  their  respective  countries;  and  they  had 
done  so,  had  not  Belesis  entertained  great  faith  in  an 
astrological  prediction.  He  was  continually  con- 
sulting the  stars  ;  and  at  length  solemnly  assured  the 
confederated  troops,  that  in  five  days  they  would  be 
aided  by  a  support,  they  were  at  present  unable  to 
imagine  or  anticipate; — the  gods  having  given  to 
him  a  decided  intimation  of  so  desirable  an  interfer- 
ence. Just  as  he  had  predicted,  so  it  happened  ;  for 
before  the  time  he  mentioned  had  expired,  news 
came  that  the  Bactrians,  breaking  the  fetters  of  ser- 
vitude, had  sprung  into  the  field,  and  were  hastening 
to  their  assistance. 

Sardanapalu?,  not  knowing  any  thing  of  the  revolt 
of  the  Bactrians,  and  puffed  up  by  former  successes, 
was  still  indulging  in  sloth  and  idleness,  and  prepar- 
ing beasts  for  sacrifice,  plenty  of  wine,  and  other 
things  necessary  wherewith  to  feast  and  entertain  his 
soldiers.  While  the  army  was  thus  indulging  itself, 
Arbaces,  receiving  intelligence,  by  some  deserters,  of 
the  security  and  intemperance  of  the  enemy,  fell  in 
upon  them  in  the  night  on  a  sudden ;  and  being  in 
due  order  and  discipline,  and  setting  upon  such  as 
were  in  confusion,  he  being  before  prepared,  and  the 
other  altogether  unprovided,  they  easily  broke  into 
their  camp,  and  made  a  great  slaughter  of  some,  forcing 
the  rest  into  the  city.  Upon  this,  Sardanapalus  com- 
mitted the  charge  of  his  whole  army  to  his  wife's 
brother,  (Salamenes,)  and  took  upon  himself  the 
defence  of  the  city.  But  the  rebels  twice  defeated  the 
king's  forces  ;  once  in  the  open  field,  and  the  second 
time  before  the  walls  of  the  city;  in  which  last 


engagement  Salamenes  was  killed,  and  almost  all  his 
army  lost ;  some  being  cut  off  in  the  pursuit,  and 
the  rest  (save  a  very  few)  being  interrupted,  and 
prevented  from  entering  into  the  city,  were  driven 
headlong  into  the  Euphrates ;  and  so  great  was  the 
number  destroyed,  that  the  river  became  dyed  with 
the  blood,  and  retained  that  colour  for  a  great  dis- 
tance and  a  long  course  together. 

Sardanapalus,  now  perceiving  that  his  kingdom 
was  like  to  be  lost,  sent  away  his  three  sons  and  his 
three  daughters,  with  a  great  deal  of  treasure,  into 
Paphlagonia,  to  Cotta,  the  governor  there,  his  most 
entire  friend ;  and  sent  posts  into  all  the  provinces 
of  the  kingdom,  in  order  to  raise  soldiers,  and  to 
make  all  other  preparations  necessary  to  endure  a 
siege  ;  being  greatly  encouraged  to  do  this  from  an 
acquaintance  with  an  ancient  prophecy;  viz. — that 
Nineveh  could  never  be  taken  by  force,  till  the  river 
should  become  a  foe  to  the  city. 

The  enemy,  on  the  other  hand,  grown  more  cou- 
rageous by  their  successes,  eagerly  urged  on  the 
siege.  They  made,  nevertheless,  but  little  impres- 
sion on  the  besieged,  by  reason  of  the  strength  of 
the  walls ;  for  balistae  to  cast  stones,  testudos  to 
cast  up  mounts,  and  battering-rams,  were  not  known 
in  those  ages.  The  city  was  also  well  supplied  with 
every  thing  needful.  The  siege,  therefore,  lasted 
two  years  :  during  which  time  nothing  to  any  pur- 
pose was  done,  save  that  the  walls  were  sometimes  as- 
saulted, and  the  besieged  penned  up  in  the  city.  At 
length,  in  the  third  year,  an  unfortunate  circum- 
stance took  place.  This  was  no  other  than  the  over- 
flowing of  the  Euphrates,  and  from  continual  rains, 
coming  up  into  a  part  of  the  city,  and  tearing  down 
thirty  furlongs  of  the  walls  in  length. 

When  the  king  found  this — conceiving  it  to  be  no 
other  than  a  fulfilment  of  the  prophecy,  on  the  im- 


probability  of  which  he  had  so  strongly  relied — he 
gave  himself  up  to  despair ;  caused  a  large  pile  of 
wood  to  be  made  in  one  of  the  courts  of  his  palace  ; 
heaped  together  all  his  gold,  silver,  and  wearing 
apparel  ;  and  inclosing  his  eunuchs  and  concubines 
in  an  apartment  within  the  pile,  caused  it  to  be  set  on 
fire  ;  when  all  perished  in  the  flames  in  common  with 

When  the  revolters  heard  of  this,  they  entered 
through  several  breaches  made  in  the  walls,  and 
took  the  city.  They  clothed  Arbaces  with  a  royal 
robe,  proclaimed  him  king,  and  invested  him  with 
despotic  authority  :  in  gratitude  for  which  Arbaces 
rewarded  every  one  according  to  his  deserts.  He 
showed  great  clemency,  also,  to  the  inhabitants  of 
Nineveh  ;  for  though  he  dispersed  them  into  several 
villages,  he  restored  every  one  to  his  estate.  He, 
nevertheless,  razed  the  city  to  the  ground.  The  sum, 
found  in  the  palace  and  elsewhere,  appears  to  be 
incredible  :  for  it  is  stated  to  have  been  no  less  than 
equivalent  to  25,000,000,000  of  pounds  sterling. 
The  fire  lasted  more  than  fifteen  days.  Thus,  after 
a  continuance  of  thirty  generations,  the  Assyrian  em- 
pire was  overturned,  in  the  year  of  the  world,  3080  ; 
and  before  Christ  868.  Thus  far  Diodorus ;  but 
Usher,  and  many  other  historians,  amongst  whom 
may  be  mentioned  Herodotus,  state,  that  the  Assy- 
rian empire,  from  Ninus,  lasted  only  520  years. 

Several  kings  reigned  after  this,  under  what  is 
called  the  second  Assyrian  empire.  For  on  the  fall 
of  the  former,  three  considerable  kingdoms  were 
generated,  viz : — that  of  the  Medes,  which  Arbaces, 
on  the  fall  of  Nineveh,  restored  to  its  liberty  ;  that 
of  the  Assyrians  of  Babylon,  which  was  given  to 
Belesis,  governor  of  that  city ;  and  that  of  the  Assy- 
rians of  Nineveh. 

The  first  king  that  reigned  in  Nineveh,  after  the 

VOL.  II.  D 


death  of  Sardanapalus,  is  called  in  Scripture  Tiglatlt- 
Pileser*;  the  second  Salmanascr,  in  whose  reign, 
Tobit,  with  Anna  his  wife,  and  his  son  Tobias,  was 
carried  captive  into  Assyria,  where  he  became  one  of 
Salmanaser's  principal  officers.  That  king  having 
died  after  a  reign  of  fourteen  years,  he  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  Sennacherib ;  he,  whose  army  was  cut  off 
in  one  night  before  the  walls  of  Jerusalem.  He  had 
laid  siege  to  that  city  some  time  before,  but  had 
inarched  against  Egypt,  which  country  having  sub- 
dued, he  once  more  sat  down  before  the  sacred  city  : 
"  And  it  came  to  pass,  that  the  angel  of  the  Lord 
went  out,  and  smote  in  the  camp  of  the  Assyrians  a 
hundred  and  four  score  and  five  thousand  ;  and  when 
they  arose  early  in  the  morning,  behold,  they  were  all 
dead  corpsest."  After  so  terrible  a  blow,  the  pre- 
tended king  of  kings,  as  he  presumed  to  call  himself, 
"  this  triumpher  over  nations,  and  conqueror  of  gods," 
returned  to  his  own  country,  where  "  it  came  to 
pass,  as  he  was  worshipping  in  the  house  of  Nisroch, 
his  god,  that  he  was  struck  by  his  two  sons|,  who 
smote  him  with  the  sword :  and  Esarhaddon,  his 
youngest  son,  reigned  in  his  stead§."  The  destruc- 
tion that  fell  upon  his  army,  has  been  thus  described 
by  a  celebrated  poet  of  modern  times. 


"  The  Assyrian  came  down  like  a  wolf  on  the  fold, 
And  his  cohorts  were  gleaming  in  purple  and  gold  ; 
And  the  sheen  of  their  spears  was  like  stars  on  the  sea, 
When  the  blue  wave  rolls  nightly  on  deep  Galilee. 

*      ii. 

"  Like  the  leaves  of  the  forest  when  summer  is  green, 
That  hobt  with  their  banners  at  sunset  were  seen  ; 
Like  the  leaves  of  the  forest  when  autumn  hath  blown, 
That  host  on  the  morrow  lay  withered  and  strown. 

»  JElian  calls  him  Thilgamus.  t  2  Kings. 

J  Adrauinielech  and  Sharezer.  §  2  Kings,  xix.  ver.  37. 



"  For  the  angel  of  death  spread  his  wings  on  the  blast, 
And  breathed  in  the  face  of  the  foe  as  he  passed  ; 
And  the  ej  es  of  the  sleepers  waxed  deadly  and  chill, 
And  their  hearts  but  once  heaved,  and  for  ever  grew  still. 


"  And  there  lay  the  steed,  with  his  nostril  all  wide, 
But  through  it  there  rolled  not  the  breath  of  his  pride  ; 
And  the  foam  of  his  gasping  lay  white  on  the  turf, 
And  cold  as  the  spray  of  the  rock-beating  surf. 
•    v. 

*'  And  there  lay  the  rider  distorted  and  pale, 
With  the  dew  on  his  brow,  and  the  rust  on  his  mail  ; 
And  the  tents  were  all  silent,  the  banners  alone, 
The  lances  unlifted,  the  trumpet  unblown. 


"  And  the  widows  of  Ashur  are  loud  in  their  wail ; 
And  the  idols  are  broke  in  the  temple  of  Baal  ; 
And  the  might  of  the  Gentile,  unstnote  by  the  sword, 
Hath  melted  like  snow  in  the  glance  of  the  Lord." 

Esarhaddon  was  succeeded  by  Nebuchodonosor  the 
First,  in  whose  reign  Tobit  died*.  Perceiving  his  end 
approaching,  that  good  old  man  called  his  children  to 
him,  and  advised  them  to  lose  no  time,  after  they 
had  buried  him  and  their  mother,  but  to  quit  the  city, 
before  its  ruin  came  on.  "  The  ruin  of  Nineveh," 
said  he,  "  is  at  hand  ;  the  wickedness  of  the  city  will 
occasion  its  ruin." 

Nahum  represents  the  wickedness  of  this  city,  too, 
in  terms  exceedingly  vividt:  "  Woe  to  the  bloody 
city  !  It  is  all  full  of  lies  and  robbery."  "  It  shall 
come  to  pass,  that  all  they  that  look  upon  thee  shall 
flee  from  thee,  and  say,  Nineveh  is  laid  waste;  who 
will  bemoan  her  ?  "  "  The  gates  of  thy  land  shall  be 
set  wide  open  unto  thine  enemies  ;  the  fire  shall  de- 
vour thy  bars."  "  The  sword  shall  cut  thee  off;  it 
shall  eat  thee  up  like  the  canker-worm."  "Thy  nobles 
shall  dwell  in  the  dust ;  thy  people  be  scattered  upon 
the  mountains,  and  no  man  shall  gather  them." 

*  Tobit,  xiv.  ver.  5,  13  f  Nahum,  chap.iii. 



Zephaniah,  also,  issued  similar  denunciations*. 
"The  Lord  will  make  Nineveh  a  desolation,  and 
dry  like  a  wilderness :  and  flocks  shall  lie  down  in 
the  midst  of  her ;  both  the  cormorant  and  the  bittern 
shall  lodge  in  it ;  their  voice  shall  sing  in  the  win- 
dows ;  desolation  shall  be  in  the  thresholds."  "  This 
is  the  rejoicing  city,  that  dwelt  carelessly,  that  said 
in  her  heart,  '/  am,  and  there  is  none  beside  me.' 
How  shall  she  become  a  desolation  ;  a  place  for  beasts 
to  lie  down  in !  every  one  that  passes  by  shall  hiss 
and  wag  his  hand." 

The  ruin,  predicted,  came  in  the  reign  of  Saracus. 
Cyaxares,  king  of  the  Medes,  entering  into  an  alli- 
ance with  the  king  of  Babylon,  they  joined  their 
forces  together,  laid  siege  to  the  city,  took  it,  slew 
their  king,  and  utterly  destroyed  it. 

"  God,"  says  the  historian,  "  had  foretold  by  his 
prophets,  that  he  would  bring  vengeance  upon  that 
impious  city,  for  the  blood  of  his  servants,  where- 
with the  kings  thereof  had  gorged  themselves,  like 
ravenous  lions ;  that  he  himself  would  march  at  the 
head  of  the  troops  that  should  come  to  besiege  it ; 
that  he  would  cause  consternation  and  terror  to  go 
before  him ;  that  he  would  deliver  the  old  men,  the 
mothers,  and  their  children,  into  the  merciless  hands 
of  the  soldiers ;  and  that  all  the  treasures  of  the  city 
should  fall  into  the  hands  of  rapacious  and  insatiable 
plunderers;  and  that  the  city  itself  should  be  so 
totally  destroyed,  that  not  so  much  as  a  footstep  of 
it  should  be  left;  and  that  the  people  should  ask 
hereafter,  Where  did  the  proud  city  of  Nineveh 
stand?"  t 

*  Zephaniah,  chap.  ii. 

t  Soon  after  the  great  fire  of  London,  the  rector  of  St.  Michael, 
Qucenhithe,  preached  a  sermon  before  the  Lord  Mayor  and  corpo- 
ration of  London,  in  which  lie  instituted  a  parallel  between  the 
cities  of  London  and  Nineveh,  to  show  that  unless  the  inhabitants 


This  prophecy  has  been  fulfilled  only  in  part ;  the 
absolute  completion  of  it  remains  still  to  be  fulfilled. 
In  the  time  of  Hadrian,  the  ruins  of  it  still  existed ; 
and  at  a  subsequent  period  a  great  battle  was  fought 
on  the  space  left  among  the  ruins,  between  Hera- 
clius,  Emperor  of  Constantinople,  and  Rhazates, 
general  to  Chosroes,  king  of  Persia.  On  that  me- 
morable day,  Heraclius,  on  his  horse  Phallas,  sur- 
passed the  bravest  of  his  warriors ;  his  hip  was 
wounded  with  a  spear ;  the  steed  was  wounded  in 
the  thigh;  but  he  carried  his  master  safe  and  victo- 
rious through  the  triple  phalanx  of  the  enemy.  In 
the  heat  of  the  action,  three  valiant  chiefs  were 
successively  slain  by  the  sword  and  lance  of  the 
emperor ;  amongst  whom  was  Rhazates  himself. 
He  fell  like  a  soldier ;  but  the  sight  of  his  head 
scattered  grief  and  despair  through  the  fainting 
ranks  of  the  Persians.  In  this  battle,  which  was 
fiercely  fought  from  day-break  to  the  eleventh  hour, 
twenty-eight  standards,  besides  those  which  might 
be  torn  or  broken,  were  taken  from  the  Persians  ; 
the  greatest  part  of  their  army  was  cut  to  pieces, 
and  the  victors,  concealing  their  own  loss,  passed 
the  night  on  the  field.  They  acknowledged  that 
on  this  occasion  it  was  less  difficult  to  kill  than  to 
discomfit  the  soldiers  of  Chosroes.  The  conquerors 
recovered  three  hundred  Roman  standards,  as  well 
as  a  great  number  of  captives,  of  Edessa  and  Alex- 

of  the  former  repented  of  their  many  public  and  private  vices,  and 
reformed  their  lives  and  manners,  as  did  the  Ninevites  on  the 
preaching  of  Jonah,  they  might  justly  be  expected  to  become  the 
objects  of  the  signal  vengeance  of  Heaven  :  putting  them  in  mind 
of  the  many  dreadful  calamities  that  have,  from  time  to  time, 
befallen  the  English  nation  in  general,  and  the  great  City  of  London, 
in  particular ;  and  of  the  too  great  reason  there  was  to  apprehend 
some  yet  more  signal  vengeance  from  the  hands  of  Omnipotence, 
since  former  judgments  had  not  proved  examples  sufficient  to  warn 
and  amend  a  very  wicked  people. 


andria.  Soon  after  this  battle,  Chosroes  felt  com- 
pelled to  fly  :  he  was  afterwards  deposed,  thrown 
into  a  dungeon,  where  he  was  insulted,  famished, 
tortured,  and  at  length  murdered  by  one  of  his 
own  sons. 

We  have  given  an  account  of  its  ancient  size  and 
splendour :  we  must  now  give  some  account  of  the 
ruins  which  still  remain  :  for  though  some  writers 
insist,  that  even  the  dust  of  this  vast  city  has  dis- 
appeared, it  is  certain  that  some  of  its  walls  still 
subsist,  beside  the  city  of  Mosul. 

Mosul  was  visited  by  Captain  Kinneir,  in  the 
years  1813-14.  "  About  a  mile  before  .we  entered 
Mosul,"  says  he,  "  we  passed  two  artificial  tumuli, 
and  extensive  ramparts,  supposed  to  be  the  ruins  of 
the  ancient  Nineveh.  The  first  tumulus  is  about 
three  quarters  of  a  mile  in  circumference.  It  has 
the  same  appearance,  and  is  of  about  the  same  height, 
as  those  we  saw  at  Susa.  The  circumference  of  the 
other  is  not  so  considerable;  but  its  elevation  is 
greater,  and  on  the  top  stands  the  tomb  of  Jonah, 
the  prophet,  round  which  has  been  erected  a  village, 
called  Nunia." 

Captain  Kinneir  proceeds  to  state,  that  the  Jews 
go  in  pilgrimage  to  this  tomb ;  which  is  a  small 
and  insignificant  building,  crowned  with  a  cupola. 
The  rampart  is  esteemed,  by  some,  to  have  been 
thrown  up  by  Nadir  Shah,  when  he  besieged  Mosul. 
Captain  Kinneir,  however,  had  no  doubt  that  this 
opinion  is  founded  in  error,  since  they  in  no  way 
resembled  the  field-works  which  an  army,  such  as 
that  of  Nadir  Shah,  was  likely  to  erect.  I  cannot 
doubt,  therefore,"  says  he,  "  that  they  are  the  ves- 
tiaes  of  some  ancient  city,  probably  Nineveh;  or 
that  Larissa,  described  by  Xenophon."  In  regard 
to  Mosul,  he  describes  it  as  a  sombre-looking  town, 
fast  dwindling  into  insignificance. 


These  ruins  were  subsequently  visited  by  Mr.  Rich, 
the  East  India  Company's  resident  at  Bagdat.  They 
lie  on  the  eastern  banks  of  the  Tigris*.  To  the 
north  are  the  Gara  mountains,  on  the  chain  of  which 
snow  is  said  to  lie  in  clefts  and  sheltered  situations 
from  one  year  to  another.  The  Tigris  is  here  about 
four  hundred  feet  broad,  its  depth,  for  the  most  part, 
about  two  fathoms ;  and  near  the  bridge  was  fought 
the  celebrated  battle  between  Chosroes'  troops  and 
those  of  Ileraclius,  to  which  we  have  just  now 
alluded.  On  the  eastern  side  of  this  bridge  many 
remains  of  antiquity  have  been  found,  consisting,  for 
the  most  part,  of  bricks,  some  of  which  are  whole 
and  some  in  fragments,  and  pieces  of  gypsum,  some 
of  which  are  covered  with  inscriptions,  in  cruciform 
character  t.  There  are  also  narrow  ancient  passages, 
with  apertures  or  doors,  opening  one  into  the  other, 
dark,  narrow,  and  vaulted,  appearing  as  if  designed 
as  vaults  for  the  reception  of  dead  bodies. 

Mr.  Rich  afterwards  through  the  area  of 
Nineveh  to  the  first  wall  of  the  inclosure.  He  found 
it  a  line  of  earth  and  gravel,  out  of  which  large  hewn 
stones  are  frequently  dug,  as  out  of  all  the  walls  of 
the  area.  Beyond  was  a  ditch  still  very  regular ; 
beyond  which  was  a  wall,  and  beyond  that  another 
wall  larger  than  any.  "  The  area  of  Nineveh,"  says 
Mr.  Rich,  "  is,  on  a  rough  guess,  about  one  and  a 
half  to  two  miles  broad,  and  four  miles  long.  On 
the  river  on  the  west  side  there  are  only  remains  of 
one  wall ;  and  I  observed  the  same  at  the  north  and 
south  extremities ;  but  on  the  east  side  there  are  the 
remains  of  three  walls.  The  west  one  appears  to 
have  run  a  little  in  front  of  Nebbi  Yunus.  Between 
it  and  the  river  the  ground  is  subject  to  frequent 

*  Diodorus  says,  that  Nineveh  stood  on  the  Euphrates  :  but 
tills  is  contrary  to  all  evidence. 

•f  One  of  these  is  in  the  British  Museum, 


inundations  and  changes ;  but  it  has  not  interfered 
with  the  area," 

Mr.  Rich  did  not  observe  at  the  angles  of  the  walls 
any  traces  of  towers,  bastions,  or  any  works  of  that 
kind.  These  walls  are  not  more  than  from  ten  to 
fifteen  feet  high.  Large  masses  of  hewn  stone  are  fre- 
quently dug  up,  and  bricks  are  ploughed  up  perpe- 
tually. There  is  also  a  piece  of  grey  stone,  shaped 
like  the  capital  of  a  column,  such  as  at  this  day  sur- 
mounts the  wooden  pillars  or  posts  of  Turkish,  or 
rather  Persian,  verandahs ;  but  there  was  no  carving 
on  it.  Pottery,  too,  is  often  found,  and  other  Baby-- 
Ionian fragments ;  also  bits  of  brick  adhering  to  them. 
These  are  found  near  a  mound,  called  the  Mount  of 
Koyunjuk,  the  height  of  which  is  about  forty-three 
feet,  and  its  circumference  7691  feet.  Its  sides  are 
very  steep,  and  its  top  nearly  flat. 

Some  years  ago,  a  very  large  bas-relief  was  dug  up 
among  the  ruins,  representing  men  and  animals, 
covering  a  grey  stone  about  ten  or  eleven  feet  in 
height.  All  the  town  of  Mosul  left  their  houses  to 
go  and  see  this  remarkable  specimen  of  antiquity ; 
but  not  one  had  the  taste  to  endeavour  to  preserve  it. 
It  was  in  a  few  days,  therefore,  cut  up  or  broken  to 

One  day,  as  Mr.  Rich  was  riding  along  on  the  out- 
side of  the  walls,  his  attention  was  directed  to  an 
object  of  great  antiquity.  "  Some  people  had  been 
digging  for  stones,"  says  he,  "  and  had  dug  a  hole  in 
the  ground,  from  which  they  had  turned  up  many 
large  hewn  stones  with  bitumen  adhering  to  them. 
I  examined  the  excavation,  which  was  about  ten 
feet  deep,  and  found  it  consisted  of  huge  stones,  laid 
in  layers  of  bitumen  and  lime-mortar.  I  brought 
away  some  specimens  of  them  sticking  together.  I 
also  saw  some  layers  of  red  clay,  which  were  very 
thick,  and  had  become  as  indurated  as  burnt  brick ; 


but  there  was  not  the  least  appearance  of  reeds  or 
straw  having  been  used.  This  mass  appeared  to 
have  been  a  foundation  or  superstructure.  We  found 
among  the  rubbish  some  pieces  of  coarse  unglazed 
pottery.  It  would  not  have  been  possible  to  tell, 
from  the  appearance  of  the  surface  of  the  ground, 
that  there  had  been  building  beneath — a  water- 
course full  of  pebbles  had  even  passed  over  it.  It  is, 
therefore,  very  difficult  to  say  to  what  extent  ves- 
tiges of  building  may  exist  outside  the  inclosures, 
the  area  of  which  may  have  been  the  royal  quarter ; 
but  certainly  was  never  sufficient  for  the  city  of 

"  Except  the  ruins  of  some  large  and  lofty  tur- 
rets," says  Mr.  Morier,  "  like  that  of  Babel  or 
Belus,  the  cities  of  Babylon  and  Nineveh  are  so 
completely  crumbled  into  dust,  as  to  be  wholly  un- 
distinguishable,  but  by  a  few  inequalities  of  the 
surface  on  which  they  once  stood.  The  humble  tent 
of  the  Arab  now  occupies  the  spot  formerly  adorned 
with  the  palaces  of  kings ;  and  his  flocks  procure  but 
a  scanty  pittance  of  food,  amidst  fallen  fragments  of 
ancient  magnificence.  The  banks  of  the  Euphrates  and 
Tigris,  once  so  prolific,  are  now,  for  the  most  part, 
covered  with  impenetrable  brushwood ;  and  the 
interior  of  the  province,  which  was  traversed  and 
fertilised  with  innumerable  canals,  is  destitute  of 
either  inhabitants  or  vegetation." 

Among  the  ruins  is  a  wall,  and  on  the  borders  of 
that  the  peasants  of  the  neighbourhood  assemble 
every  year,  and  sacrifice  a  sheep,  with  music  and 
other  festivities ;  a  superstition  far  anterior  to  the 
religion  they  now  possess.  "  One  thing  is  suffi- 
ciently obvious,"  says  Mr.  Rich,  "  to  the  most 
careless  observer,  and  that  is,  the  equality  of 
age  of  all  the  vestiges  discovered  here.  Whether 
they  belonged  to  Nineveh  or  some  other  city,  is 


another  question ;  but  that  they  are  all  of  the  same 
age  and  character  does  not  admit  of  a  doubt." 

Mr.  Rich  took  measurements  of  the  mounds,  that 
still  exist  among  these  ruins,  and  did  not  neglect  to 
cut  his  name  on  the  wall  of  what  is  called  Thisbe's 
Well.  "  Some  traveller  in  after  times,"  says  he,  with 
an  agreeable  enthusiasm,  "  when  her  remembranqe 
lias  long  been  swept  away  by  the  torrent  of  time, 
may  wonder,  on  reading  the  name  of  Mary  Rich*,  who 
the  adventurous  female  was,  who  had  visited  the 
ruins  of  Nineveh.  He  will  not  be  aware,  that  had 
her  name  been  inscribed  at  every  spot  she  had  visited 
in  the  course  of  her  weary  pilgrimage,  it  would  be 
found  in  places,  compared  with  which,  Mousul  is  the 
centre  of  civilisation." 

F.rom  the  circumstance  that  from  all  the  mounds 
large  stones,  sometimes  with  bitumen  adhering  to 
them,  are  frequently  dug  out,  Mr.  Rich  was  inclined 
to  believe,  that  but  few  bricks  were  used  in  the 
building  of  this  once  vast  city.  There  is,  however, 
not  much  certainty  as  to  this,  or  in  regard  to  what 
kind  of  architecture  it  was.  for  the  most,  or,  indeed, 
any  part  constructed ;  for  though  its  walls  may  bo- 
traced  in  a  multitude  of  directions,  nothing  now 
remains  beside  a  few  mounds,  some  bricks,  and  large 
stones,  hewn  into  a  shape  which  evidently  prove,  that 
they  once  formed  the  houses  or  the  temples  of  a  cityt. 


THIS  city  stood  near  the  river  Douro ;  out  of  the 
ruins  of  which  has  arisen  the  town  of  Soria.  Accord- 
ing to  Strabo,  it  was  the  capital  of  Celtiberia. 

Strong  by  nature  and  art,  and  by  the  number  of 
its  inhabitants,  it  was  built  upon  a  hill,  difficult  of 

,     *  Daughter  of  Sir  James  Mackintosh,  and  wife  of  Mr.  Rich. 

•f  Herodotus  ;  Diodorus  Siculus  ;  TElian  ;  Prideanx  ;  Rollin  ; 
Stackhouse  ;  Gibbon ;  Rees  ;  Brewster  ;  Kinneir  ;  Morier ;  Rich. 


access,  and  on  three  sides  surrounded  by  mountains. 
Its  extent  was,  also,  so  great,  that  it  had  within  its 
circuit  pasture  for  cattle.  It  wa.s  unprotected  by 
walls  or  towers ;  yet  it  bravely  maintained  itself,  for 
a  considerable  time,  against  the  power  of  the  Romans. 
The  cruelty  and  injustice  of  the  Romans  during  this 
war  is  justly  stigmatised,  as  being  altogether  un- 
worthy a  great  and  powerful  people.  The  inha- 
bitants at  first  gained  some  advantages  over  the 
Roman  forces,  till  Scipio  Africanus  was  commanded 
to  finish  the  war,  and  to  destroy  Numantia  alto- 
gether. With  an  army  of  sixty  thousand  men  he 
began  the  siege.  He  was  opposed  by  the  inhabitants 
with  great  skill  and  courage,  though  their  force  did 
not  exceed  four  thousand  men.  Finding  themselves, 
however,  greatly  pressed,  the  Numantians  gave  them- 
selves up, — first  to  despair,  and  then  to  fury.  Their 
provisions,  too,  at  length  began  to  fail ;  and  they 
were  constrained  to  feed  upon  the  flesh  of  horses ;  then 
on  that  of  their  slain  companions ;  and,  lastly,  they 
drew  lots  to  kill  and  devour  each  other.  After  a  multi- 
tude of  misfortunes,  they  signified  a  desire  to  capitu- 
late ;  but  Scipio  having  demanded,  that  they  should 
surrender  unconditionally  on  the  next  day,  the  Nu- 
mantians refused  ;  and  when  they  obtained  a  longer 
time,  instead  of  surrendering,  they  retired  and  set  fire 
to  their  houses,  and  destroyed  themselves ;  so  that  not 
even  one  remained  to  grace  the  triumph  of  the  con- 
queror. This,  however,  has  been  denied  by  some 
writers,  who  insist,  that  a  number  of  Numantines 
delivered  themselves  into  the  hands  of  Scipio,  and 
that  fifty  of  them  were  drawn  in  triumph  at  Rome, 
and  that  the  rest  were  sold  as  slaves.  This  occurred 
in  the  year  of  Rome  629. 

Not  a  vestige  remains,  but  a  few  traces  at  a  place 
called  Puente  Gavay,  a  spot  difficult  of  access*. 
*   Strabo  ;  Plutarch  ;  Brvdonc  ;  Swinburne  ;   Jose. 



THIS  city,  known  likewise  by  the  name  of  Pisa, 
was  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Alpheus,  at  the 
foot  of  an  eminence  called  the  Mount  of  Saturn.  It 
is  peculiarly  worthy  of  attention ;  since  it  was  near 
its  walls  that  the  most  celebrated  games,  from  the 
institution  of  which  all  occurrences  were  dated  in 
Greece*,  were  held. 

For  nearly  the  whole  of  what  follows,  in  regard 
to  the  games,  we  are  indebted  to  Rollin ;  ours  being 
an  abstract. 

There  were  four  kinds  of  games  solemnised  in 
Greece.  The  Olympic,  so  called  from  Olympia,  near 
which  they  were  celebrated  after  the  expiration  of 
every  four  years,  in  honour  of  Jupiter  Olympicus. 
The  Pythic,  sacred  to  Apollo  Pythius,  also  cele- 
brated every  four  years.  The  Nemean,  which  took 
their  name  from  Nemea,  a  city  and  forest  of  Pele- 
ponnesus,  instituted  by  Hercules,  solemnised  every 
two  years.  And  lastly,  the  Isthmian;  celebrated 
upon  the  isthmus  of  Corinth,  from  four  years  to  four 
years,  in  honour  of  Neptune.  That  persons  might 
be  present  at  these  public  sports  with  greater  quiet 
and  security,  there  was  a  general  suspension  of  arms 
and  cessation  of  hostilities,  throughout  all  Greece, 
during  the  time  of  their  celebration. 

The  Greeks  thought  nothing  comparable  to  a 
victory  in  these  games.  They  looked  upon  it  as  the 
perfection  of  glory,  and  did  not  believe  it  permitted 
to  mortals  to  desire  any  thing  beyond  it.  Cicero 
assures  us,  that  with  them  it  was  no  less  honourable 

v  *  The  computation  of  time  by  Olympiads,  which  began  about 
four  hundred  years  after  the  destruction  of  Troy,  was  used  until  the 
reign  of  Theodosius  the  Great ;  when  a  new  mode  of  reckoning,  by 
indictions,  or  from  the  victory  of  Augustus  at  Actium,  was  intro- 
duced ;  the  Olympic  games,  in  the  general  assembly,  were  abolished  ; 
and  the  image,  made  by  Phidias,  was  removed  to  Constantinople. — 


than  the  consular  dignity,  in  its  original  splendour 
with  the  ancient  Romans. 

We  shall  confine  ourselves  to  the  Olympic  games, 
which  continued  five  days. 

The  combats,  which  had  the  greatest  share  in 
the  solemnity  of  the  public  games,  were  boxing,  - 
wrestling,  the  pancratium,  the  discus  or  quoit,  and 
racing.  To  these  may  be  added  the  exercises  of 
leaping,  throwing  the  dart,  and  that  of  the  trochus 
or  wheel ;  but  as  these  were  neither  important,  nor 
of  any  great  reputation,  we  shall  content  ourselves 
with  having  only  mentioned  them. 

athletas  was  given  to  those  who  exercised  themselves 
with  design  to  dispute  the  prizes  in  the  public  games. 
The  art,  by  which  they  formed  themselves  for  these 
encounters,  was  called  gymnastic,  from  the  athletse's 
practising  naked. 

Those  who  were  designed  for  this  profession  fre- 
quented, from  their  most  tender  age,  the  gymnasia 
or  palaestrae,  which  were  a  kind  of  academies  main- 
tained for  that  purpose  at  the  public  expense.  In 
these  places,  such  yoiing  people  were  under  the  direc- 
tion of  different  masters,  who  employed  the  most 
effectual  methods  to  inure  their  bodies  for  the  fatigues 
of  the  public  games,  and  to  form  them  for  the  com- 
bats. The  regimen  they  were  under  was  very  severe. 
At  first  they  had  no  other  nourishment  but  dried  figs, 
nuts,  soft  cheese,  and  a  gross  heavy  sort  of  bread. 
They  were  absolutely  forbid  the  use  of  wine,  and 
enjoined  continence. 

Who,  in  the  Olympic  race,  the  prize  would  gain, 
Has  borne  from  early  youth  fatigue  and  pain, 
Excess  of  heat  and  cold  has  often  tried, 
Love's  softness  banish'd,  and  the  glass  denied. 

The  athletas,  before  their  exercises,  were  rubbed 
with  oils  and  ointments,  to  make  their  bodies  more 


supple  and  vigorous.  At  first  they  made  use  of  a 
belt,  with  an  apron  or  scarf  fastened  to  it,  for  their 
more  decent  appearance  in  the  combats ;  but  one  of 
the  combatants  happening  to  lose  the  victory  by  this 
covering's  falling  off,  that  accident  was  the  occasion 
of  sacrificing  modesty  to  convenience,  and  retrenching 
the  apron  for  the  future.  The  athlete  were  only 
naked  in  some  exercises,  as  wrestling,  boxing,  the 
pancratium,  and  the  foot-race. 

It  was  necessary  that  their  morals  should  be 
unexceptionable,  and  their  condition  free.  No  stranger 
was  admitted  to  combat  in  the  Olympic  games ;  and 
when  Alexander,  the  son  of  Amyntas,  king  of  Ma- 
cedon,  presented  himself  to  dispute  the  prize,  his 
competitors,  without  any  regard  to  the  royal  dignity, 
opposed  his  reception  as  a  Macedonian,  and  conse- 
quently a  barbarian  and  a  stranger ;  nor  could  the 
judge  be  prevailed  upon  to  admit  him  till  he  had 
proved,  in  due  form,  that  his  family  was  originally 
descended  from  the  Argives. 

They  were  made  to  take  an  oath,  that  they  would 
religiously  observe  the  several  laws  prescribed  in 
each  kind  of  combat,  and  do  nothing  contrary  to  the 
established  orders  and  regulations  of  the  games. 
Fraud,  artifice,  and  excessive  violence,  were  abso- 
lutely prohibited;  and  the  maxim  so  generally  re- 
ceived elsewhere,  that  it  is  indifferent  whether  an 
enemy  is  conquered  by  deceit  or  valour,  was  banished 
from  these  combats. 

It  is  time  to  bring  our  champions  to  blows,  and 
to  run  over  the  different  kinds  of  combats  in  which 
they  exercised  themselves. 

WRESTLING  is  one  of  the  most  ancient  exercises  of 
which  we  have  any  knowledge,  having  been  practised 
in  the  time  of  the  patriarchs,  as  the  wrestling  of  the 
angel  with  Jacob  proves*. 

*  Gen.  xxxii.  24. 


Wrestling  among  the  Greeks,  as  well  as  other 
nations,  was  practised  at  first  with  simplicity,  little 
art,  and  in  a  natural  manner  ;  the  weight  of  the 
body,  and  the  strength  of  the  muscles,  having  more 
share  of  it,  than  address  or  skill. 

The  wrestlers,  before  they  began  their  combats, 
were  rubbed  all  over  in  a  rough  manner,  and  after- 
wards anointed  with  oils,  which  added  to  the  strength 
and  flexibility  of  their  limbs.  But  as  this  unction, 
in  making  the  skin  too  slippery,  rendered  it  difficult 
for  them  to  take  hold  of  each  other,  they  remedied 
that  inconvenience,  sometimes  by  rolling  themselves 
in  the  dust  of  the' palaestrae,  sometimes  by  throwing 
a  fine  sand  upon  each  other,  kept  for  that  purpose  in 
the  porticoes  of  the  gymnasia. 

Thus  prepared,  the  wrestlers  began  their  combat. 
They  were  matched  two  against  two,  and  sometimes 
several  couples  contended  at  the  same  time. 

OF  BOXING,  OR  TUB  CESTUS. — The  combatants 
covered  their  fists  with  a  kind  of  offensive  arms  called 
cestus,  and  their  heads  with  a  sort  of  leather  cap,  to 
defend  their  temples  and  ears,  which  were  most 
exposed  to  blows,  and  to  deaden  their  violence.  The 
cestus  was  a  kind  of  gauntlet  or  glove,  made  of 
straps  of  leather,  and  plated  with  brass,  lead,  or  iron, 
inside.  Their  use  was  to  strengthen  the  hands  of  the 
combatants,  and  to  add  violence  to  their  blows. 

Boxing  was  one  of  the  rudest  and  most  dangerous 
of  the  gymnastic  combats ;  because,  besides  the  danger 
of  being  crippled,  the  combatants  ran  the  hazard  of 
losing  their  lives.  They  sometimes  fell  down  dead,  or 
dying,  upon  the  sand  ;  though  that  seldom  happened, 
except  the  vanquished  person  persisted  too  long 
in  not  acknowledging  his  defeat :  yet  it  was  common 
for  them  to  quit  the  fight  with  a  countenance  so  dis- 
figured, that  it  was  not  easy  to  know  them  after- 


OF  THE  PANCRATIUM. — The  Pancratium  was  so 
called  from  two  Greek  words*  which  signify  that  the 
whole  force  of  the  body  was  necessary  for  succeeding 
in  it.  It  united  boxing  and  wrestling  in  the  same 
fight,  borrowing  from  one  its  manner  of  struggling 
and  throwing,  and  from  the  other,  the  art  of  dealing 
blows,  and  of  avoiding  them  with  success. 

OF  THE  Discus,  OB  QUOIT. — The  discus  was  a 
kind  of  quoit  of  a  round  form,  made  sometimes  of 
wood,  but  more  frequently  of  stone,  lead,  or  other 
metal,  as  iron  or  brass.  Those  who  used  this  exercise 
were  called  Discoboli ;  that  is,  flingers  of  the  discus. 

The  athletae,  in  hurling  the  discus,  put  themselves 
into  the  best  posture  they  could,  to  add  force  to  their 
cast.  He  that  flung  the  discus  farthest  was  the  victor. 

The  most  famous  painters  and  sculptors  of  anti- 
quity,intheirendeavours  to  represent  naturally  the  atti- 
tudes of  the  discoboli,  have  left  posterity  many  master- 
pieces in  their  several  arts.  Quintilian  exceedingly 
extols  a  statue  of  this  kind,  which  had  been  finished 
with  infinite  care  and  application  by  the  celebrated 

OF  THE  PENTATHLUM. — The  Greeks  gave  this 
name  to  an  exercise  composed  of  five  others  : — 
wrestling,  running,  leaping,  throwing  the  dart,  and 
the  discus.  It  is  believed  that  this  sort  of  combat 
was  decided  in  one  day,  and  sometimes  the  same 
morning  ;  and  that  the  prize,  which  was  single,  could 
not  be  given  but  to  the  victor  in  all  those  exercises. 

OF  RACES. — Of  all  the  exercises  which  theathletEe 
cultivated  with  so  much  pains  and  industry,  for  their 
appearance  in  the  public  games,  running  was  in  the 
highest  estimation,  and  held  the  foremost  rank. 

The  place  where  the  athletae  exercised  themselves 

*    Hav  Kpdras. 

-f-  There  is  a  fine  specimen  in  the  Townley  gallery,  at  the 
British  Museum. 


in  running,  was  generally  called  the  Stadium  by  the 
Greeks  ;  as  was  that  wherein  they  disputed  in  earnest 
for  the  prize.  Under  that  denomination  was  included 
not  only  the  space  in  which  the  athletas  ran,  but  also 
that  which  contained  the  spectators  of  the  gymnastic 

The  middle  of  the  Stadium  was  remarkable  only 
by  the  circumstance  of  having  the  prizes  allotted  to 
the  victors  set  up  there.  St.  Chrysostom  draws  a 
fine  comparison  from  this  custom.  "  As  the  judges," 
says  he,  "  in  the  races  and  other  games,  expose  in  the 
midst  of  the  Stadium,  to  the  view  of  the  champions, 
the  crowns  which  they  are  to  receive  ;  in  like  manner 
the  Lord,  by  the  mouth  of  his  prophets,  has  placed 
the  prizes  in  the  midst  of  the  course,  which  he  designs 
for  those  who  have  the  courage  to  contend  for  them." 

There  were  three  kinds  of  races,  the  chariot,  the 
horse,  and  the  foot-race. 

1.  OF  THE  FOOT-RACE. — The  runners,  of  whatever 
number  they  were,  ranged  themselves  in  a  line,  after 
having  drawn  lots  for  their  places.      Whilst  they 
waited  the  signal  to  start,  they  practised,  by  way  of 
prelude,  various  motions  to  awaken  their  activity, 
and  to  keep  their  limbs  pliable  and  in  a  right  temper. 
They  kept  themselves  breathing  by  small  leaps,  and 
making  little  excursions,  which  were  a  kind  of  trial 
of  their  speed  and  agility.     Upon  the  signal's  being 
given,  they  flew  towards  the  goal,  with   a  rapidity 
scarcely  to  be  followed  by  the  eye,  which  was  solely  to 
decide  the  victory  ;  for  the  Agnostic  laws  prohibited, 
upon  the  penalty  of  infamy,  the  attaining  it  by  any 
foul  method. 

2.  OF  THE  HORSE-RACES. — The  race  of  a  single 
horse  with  a  rider  was  less  celebrated  by  the  ancients; 
yet  it  had  its  favourers  amongst  the  most  considerable 
persons,  even  kings  themselves,  and  was  attended  with 
uncommon  glory  to  the  victor. 

VOL.  II.  E 


3.  OP  THE  CHARIOT-RACES. — This  kind  of  race 
was  the  most  renowned  of  all  the  exercises  used  in 
the  games  of  the  ancients,  and  that  from  whence 
most  honour  redounded  to  the  victors.  It  is  plain 
they  were  derived  from  the  constant  custom  of  princes, 
heroes  and  great  men,  of  fighting  in  battle  upon 
chariots.  Homer  has  an  infinity  of  examples  of  this 
kind.  All  those,  who  presented  themselves  in  the 
Olympic  games  to  dispute  the  prize  in  the  chariot 
races,  were  persons  considerable  either  for  their  riches, 
their  birth,  their  employments,  or  great  actions. 
Kings  themselves  aspired  passionately  to  this  glory, 
from  the  belief  that  the  title  of  victor  in  these  games 
was  scarcely  inferior  to  that  of  conqueror,  and  that  the 
Olympic  palm  added  new  dignity  to  the  splendours 
of  a  throne. 

The  chariots  were  generally  drawn  by  two  or 
four  horses.  Sometimes  mules  supplied  the  place 
of  horses.  These  chariots,  upon  a  signal  given, 
started  together.  Their  places  were  regulated  by 
lot,  which  was  not  an  indifferent  circumstance  as 
to  the  victory ;  for  being  to  turn  round  a  boundary, 
the  chariot  on  the  left  was  nearer  than  those  on  the 
right,  which  in  consequence  had  a  greater  compass  to 
take.  They  ran  twelve  times  round  the  Stadium. 
He  that  came  in  first  the  twelfth  round  was  victor. 
The  chief  art  consisted  in  taking  the  best  ground  at 
the  turning  of  the  boundary ;  for  if  the  charioteer 
drove  too  near  it,  he  was  in  danger  of  dashing  the 
chariot  to  pieces ;  and  if  he  kept  too  wide  of  it,  his 
nearest  antagonist  might  get  foremost. 

To  avoid  such  danger,  Nestor  gave  the  following 
directions  to  his  son  Antilochus,  who  was  going  to 
dispute  the  prize  in  the  chariot-races.  "  My  son," 
says  he,  "  drive  your  horses  as  near  as  possible  to  the 
turning ;  for  which  reason,  always  inclining  your  body 
over  your  chariot,  get  the  left  of  your  competitors;  and 


encouraging  the  horse  on  the  right,  give  him  the  rein, 
whilst  the  near-horse,  hard  held,  turns  the  boundary 
so  close  to  it,  that  the  nave  of  the  wheel  seems  to 
graze  upon  it ;  hut  have  a  care  of  running  against 
the  stone,  lest  you  wound  your  horses,  and  dash  the 
chariot  in  pieces." 

It  was  not  required,  that  those  who  disputed 
the  victory  should  enter  the  lists,  and  drive  their 
chariots  in  person.  Their  being  spectators  of  the 
games,  or  sending  their  horses  thither,  was  sufficient. 

No  one  ever  carried  the  ambition  of  making  a 
great  figure  in  the-  public  games  of  Greece  so  far  as 
Alcibiades,  in  which  he  distinguished  himself  in  the 
most  splendid  manner,  by  the  great  number  of  horses 
and  chariots,  which  he  kept  only  for  the  races.  It  is 
not  easy  to  comprehend,  how  the  wealth  of  a  private 
person  should  suffice  to  so  enormous  an  expense  : 
but  Antisthenes,  the  scholar  of  Socrates,  who  relates 
what  he  saw,  informs  us,  that  many  cities  of  the 
allies,  in  a  kind  of  emulation  with  each  other,  sup- 
plied Alcibiades  with  all  things  necessary  for  the 
support  of  such  magnificence.  Equipages,  horses, 
tents,  sacrifices,  the  most  exquisite  provisions,  the 
most  delicate  wines ;  in  a  word,  all  that  was  neces- 
sary to  the  support  of  his  table  or  train. 

We  must  not  omit,  in  speaking  of  the  Olympic 
games,  to  notice  that  ladies  were  admitted  to  dispute 
the  prize  in  them  as  well  as  the  men,  which  many  of 
them  obtained.  Cynisca,  sister  of  Agesilaus,  king 
of  Sparta,  first  opened  this  new  path  of  glory  to 
her  sex,  and  was  proclaimed  victrix  in  the  race  of 
chariots  with  four  horses.  This  victory,  which  till 
then  had  no  example,  did  not  fail  of  being  celebrated 
with  all  possible  splendour. — A  magnificent  monu- 
ment was  erected  in  Sparta  in  honour  of  Cynisca-; 
and  the  Lacedaemonians,  though  otherwise  very 



little  sensible  to  the  charms  of  poetry,  appointed 
a  poet  to  transmit  this  new  triumph  to  posterity, 
and  to  immortalize  its  memory  by  an  inscription  in 


THE  VICTORS.  —  These  honours  and  rewards  were 
of  several  kinds.  The  spectators'  acclamations  in 
honour  of  the  victors  were  only  a  prelude  to  the 
rewards  designed  them.  These  rewards  were  dif- 
ferent wreaths  of  wild  olive,  pine,  parsley,  or  laurel, 
according  to  the  different  places  where  the  games 
were  celebrated.  Those  crowns  were  always  attend- 
ed with  branches  of  palm,  that  the  victors  carried 
in  their  right  hands.  As  he  might  be  victor  more 
than  once  in  the  same  games,  and  sometimes  on  the 
same  day,  he  might  also  receive  several  crowns  and 

"When  the  victor  had  received  the  crown  and 
palm,  a  herald,  preceded  by  a  trumpeter,  conducted 
him  through  the  Stadium,  and  proclaimed  aloud  his 
name  and  country. 

When  he  returned  to  his  own  country,  the  peo- 
ple came  out  in  a  body  to  meet  him,  and  conducted 
him  into  the  city,  adorned  with  all  the  marks  of  his 
victory,  and  riding  upon  a  chariot  drawn  by  four 
horses.  He  made  his  entry  not  through  the  gates, 
but  through  a  breach  purposely  made  in  the  walls. 
Lighted  torches  were  carried  before  him,  and  a 
numerous  train  followed,  to  do  honour  to  the  pro- 

One  of  the  most  honourable  privileges  granted 
to  the  athletic  victors,  was  the  right  of  taking  place 
at  the  public  games.  At  Sparta  it  was  a  custom 
for  the  king  to  take  them  with  him  in  military  ex- 
peditions, to  fight  near  his  person,  and  to  be  his 
guard;  which,  with  reason,  was  judged  very  honour- 


able.  Another  privilege,  in  which  the  useful  united 
with  the  honourable,  was  that  of  being  maintained 
for  the  rest  of  their  lives  at  the  expense  of  their 
country.  They  were  also  exempted  from  all  civil 
offices  and  employments. 

The  praises  of  the  victorious  athletae  were, 
amongst  the  Greeks,  one  of  the  principal  subjects 
of  their  lyric  poetry.  "We  find,  that  all  the  odes 
of  the  four  books  of  Pindar  turn  upon  it,  each  of 
which  takes  its  title  from  the  games,  in  which  the 
combatants  signalised  themselves,  whose  victories 
those  poems  celebrate. 

Sculpture  united  with  poetry  to  perpetuate  the 
fame  of  the  champions.  Statues  were  erected  to 
the  victors,  in  the  very  place  where  they  had  been 
crowned,  and  sometimes  in  that  of  their  birth  also, 
which  was  commonly  clone  at  the  expense  of  their 
country.  Amongst  the  statues  which  adorned  Olym- 
pia,  were  those  of  several  children  of  ten  or  twelve 
years  old,  who  had  obtained  the  prize  at  thaii  age  in 
the  Olympic  games.  They  did  not  only  raise  such 
monuments  to  the  champions,  but  to  the  very  horses 
to  whose  swiftness  they  were  indebted  for  the  Ago- 
nistic crown  :  and  Pausanias  mentions  one,  which 
was  erected  in  honour  of  a  mare,  called  Aura,  whose 
history  is  worth  repeating.  Phidolas,  her  rider, 
having  fallen  off  in  the  beginning  of  the  race,  the 
mare  continued  to  run  in  the  same  manner  as  if  he 
had  been  upon  her  back.  She  outstripped  all  the 
rest,  and  upon  the  sound  of  the  trumpets,  which 
was  usual  toward  the  end  of  the  race  to  animate  the 
competitors,  she  redoubled  her  vigour  and  courage, 
turned  round  the  goal,  and,  as  if  she  had  been  sensi- 
ble of  the  victory,  presented  herself  before  the  judges 
of  the  games. 

Nor  did  the  entertainments  finish  here.     There 


was  another  kind  of   competition;    and  that,   too, 
which  does  not  at  all  depend  upon  the  strength,  a 
tivity,  and  address  of  the  body,  and  may  be  called, 
with  reason,  the  combat  of  the  mind ;  wherein  the 
orators,   historians,   and  poets,  made  trial  of  then 
capacities,   and  submitted  their  productions  to  t 
judgment  of  the  public. 

It  was  a  great  honour,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
a  most  sensible  pleasure  for  writers,  who  are  gene- 
rally fond  of  fame  and  applause,  to  have  known  how 
to  reconcile  the  voices  in  their  favour  of  so  nume- 
rous and  select  an  assembly  as  that  of  the  Olympic 
aames,  in  which  were  present  all  the  finest  geniuses 
of  Greece,  and  all  the  best  judges  of  the  excellence 
of  a  work.  This  theatre  was  equally  open  to  his- 
tory, eloquence,  and  poetry. 

Herodotus  read  his  history  in  the  Olympic 
games  to  all  Greece,  assembled  at  them,  and  was 
heard  with  such  applause,  that  the  nanies  of  the 
nine  Muses  were  given  to  the  nine  books  whicl 
compose  his  work,  and  the  people  cried  out  wherever 
he  passed,  «  That  is  he,  who  has  written  our  history, 
and  celebrated  our  glorious  successes  against  the 

Anciently,  Olympia  was  surrounded  by  wal 
had    two  temples,— one  dedicated  to    Jupiter,    and 
another  to    Juno ;    a    senate-house,    a  theatre,  and 
many  other  beautiful  edifices,  and  also  an  mnumerabl 
multitude  of  statues. 

The  temple  of  Jupiter  was  built  with  the  spoils, 
taken  from  certain  states  which  had  revolted  ;  it  was 
of  the  Doric  order;  sixty-eight  feet  high,  two 
hundred  and  thirty  long,  and  ninety-five  broad. 
This  edifice  was  built  by  an  able  architect,  name( 
Libon  •  and  it  was  adorned  by  two  sculptors  of  equal 
skill  who  enriched  the  pediments  of  the  principal 


front  with  elaborate  and  elegant  ornaments.  The  sta- 
tue of  the  god,  the  work  of  Phidias,  was  of  gold 
and  ivory,  fifty  cubits  high.  On  the  one  pediment, 
CEnomaus  and  Peleus  were  disputing  the  prize  of  the 
race  in  the  presence  of  Jupiter ;  on  the  other  was 
the  battle  of  the  Centaurs  and  the  Lapithas.  On  the 
summit  of  each  pediment  was  a  Victory,  of  gilt 
brass  ;  and  at  each  angle  a  large  vase  of  the  same 

This  statue  was  the  finest  the  world  ever  saw. 
"  Indeed,"  says  Mr.  Dodwell ;  and  he  is  borne  out 
by  the  authorities  of  all  those  ancient  writers  who 
have  written  of  it,  "  it  appears  to  have  united  all 
the  beauty  of  form,  and  all  the  splendour  of  effect, 
that  are  produced  by  the  highest  excellence  of  the 
statuary  and  the  painter." 

The  altar  in  this  temple*  was  composed  of  ashes 
from  the  thighs  of  the  victims,  which  were  carried 
up  and  consumed  on  the  top  with  wood  of  the  white 
poplar-tree.  The  ashes,  also,  of  the  Prytanseum,  in 
which  a  perpetual  fire  was  kept  on  a  hearth,  were 
removed  annually,  on  a  fixed  day,  and  spread  on  it, 
being  first  mingled  with  water  from  the  Alpheus. 
The  people  of  Elis  sacrificed  daily,  and  private 
persons  as  often  as  they  chose. 

Olympiat  preserved,  much  longer  than  Delphi, 
and  with  less  diminution,  the  sacred  property,  of 
which  it  was  a  similar  repository.  Some  images 
were  removed  by  Tiberius  Nero.  His  successor, 
Caius  Caligula,  who  honoured  Jupiter  with  the 
familiar  appellation  of  brother,  commanded  that  his 
image  should  be  transported  to  Rome  ;  but  the  archi- 
tects declared  it  was  impossible,  without  destroying 
the  work. 

*   Chandler.  f  Chandler. 


The  god,  in  the  time  of  Pausanias,  retained  his 
original  splendour.  The  native  offerings  of  crowns 
and  chariots,  and  of  charioteers,  and  horses,  and 
oxen,  in  brass,  the  precious  images  of  gold^ivory, 
or  amber,  and  the  curiosities  consecrated  in  the 
temples,  the  treasuries,  and  other  edifices,  could 
not  be  viewed  without  astonishment.  The  number 
of  statues  within  the  grove,  was  itself  an  amazing 
spectacle.  Many  were  the  works  of  Myron,  Lysip- 
pus,  and  the  prime  artists  of  Greece.  Here  kings 
and  emperors  were  assembled  ;  and  Jupiter  towered 
in  brass  from  twelve  to  thirty  feet  high !  Let  the 
reader  peruse  the  detail  given  by  Pausanias,  and 
imagine,  if  he  can,  the  entertainment  which  Olympia 
must  then  have  afforded  to  the  antiquary,  the  con- 
noisseur, and  historian. 

Of  all  splendour,  the  temple  of  Juno  alone  can 
be  ascertained  with  any  degree  of  certainty.  The 
soil,  which  has  been  considerably  elevated,  covers 
the  greater  part  of  the  ruin.  The  walls  of  the 
cella  rise  only  two  feet  from  the  ground.  "  We 
employed,"  says  Mr.  Dodvvell,  "  some  Turks  to 
excavate;  and  we  discovered  some  frusta  of  the 
Doric  order,  of  which  the  flutings  were  thirteen 
inches  wide,  and  the  diameter  of  the  whole  column 
seven  feet  three  inches.  We  found,  also,  part  of  a 
small  column  of  Parian  marble,  which  the  intervals 
of  the  flutings  show  to  have  been  of  the  Ionic  or 
the  Corinthian  order.  The  work  of  ruin,  however, 
is  constantly  going  on ;  and  lately  the  people  of 
Lalla  (a  town  in  the  neighbourhood)  have  even 
rooted  up  some  of  the  foundations  of  this  once 
celebrated  sanctuary,  in  order  to  use  the  materials 
in  the  construction  of  their  houses*". 

•  Clarke;  Pausanias;  Plutarch;  Rollin ;  Chandler;  Barthe- 
lemy ;  Dodwell. 



A  MARITIME  city  of  Campania,  between  Baize  and 
Naples.  It  was  founded  by  a  colony  from  Cumse. 
It  was,  in  the  first  instance,  called  Dicsearchia, 
("  Just  Power*,")  and  afterwards  Puteoli,  from  the 
great  number  of  wells  that  were  in  the  neighbour- 

It  was  delightfully  situated  on  a  point  projecting 
into  the  sea,  nearly  in  the  centre  of  the  bay  of  Puz- 
zuoli.  It  was  the  sea-port  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Cannae  ;  and  a  rendezvous  for  merchants  from  Greece, 
Sicily,  and  all  parts  of  Italy.  The  attractions  of  the 
town,  also,  on  account  of  its  hot  baths  and  mineral 
waters,  allured  the  more  opulent  citizens  of  Rome  to 
its  vicinity. 

In  the  square  of  the  town  stands  a  beautiful 
marble  pedestal,  covered  with  bas-reliefs,  represent- 
ing the  fourteen  towns  of  Asia  Minor,  destroyed  by 
an  earthquake,  and  rebuilt  by  Tiberius.  It  supported 
a  statue  of  that  emperor,  erected  by  the  same  cities 
as  a  monument  of  gratitude.  The  cathedral  stands 
on  the  ruins  of  a  temple,  and  is  built  chiefly  of 
ancient  materials. 

A  temple  of  Serapis  offers  many  subjects  of  ob- 
servation. Half  of  its  buildings,  however,  are  still 
buried  under  the  earth  thrown  upon  it  by  volcanic 
commotions,  or  accumulated  by  the  windings  of  the 
hill.  The  inclosure  is  square,  environed  by  buildings 
for  priests,  and  baths  for  votaries  ;  in  the  centre  re- 
mains a  circular  platform,  with  four  flights  of  steps 
up  to  it ;  vases  for  fire,  a  central  altar,  rings  for  vic- 

*  "-This  name  indicates,"  says  Mr. Swinburne,  "  that  they  pur- 
sued, or  wished  to  be  thought  to  pursue,  a  line  of  conduct  in  com- 
mercial transactions,  which  it  would  be  happy  lor  mankind,  all 
maritime  powers  would  adopt." 


tims,  and  other  appendages  of  sacrifice,  entire  and 
not  displaced ;  but  the  columns  that  held  its  roof 
have  been  removed  to  the  new  palace  of  Caserta. 
The  temple  itself  was  not  discovered  till  A.D.  1750, 
on  the  removal  of  some  rubbish  and  bushes,  which 
had,  till  then,  partly  concealed  it  from  observa- 

Behind  this  place  of  worship,  stand  three  pillars 
without  capitals,  part  of  the  pronaos  of  a  large 
temple.  These  are  of  Cipoline  marble,  and  at  the 
middle  of  their  height,  are  full  of  holes  eaten  in 
them  by  the  file-fish*. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Puteoli  are  many  relics 
of  ancient  grandeur,  of  which  none  deserves  more 
attention  than  the  Campanian  "Way,  paved  with  lava, 
and  lined  on  each  side  with  venerable  tombs,  the 
repositories  of  the  dead,  which  are  richly  adorned 
with  stucco  in  the  inside.  This  road  was  made  in 
the  most  solid,  expensive  manner,  by  order  of  Domi- 
tian,  and  is  frequently  the  subject  of  encomium  in 
the  poems  of  Statius. 

One  of  the  most  striking  monuments  of  the  city 
is  the  remains  of  the  mole  that  formed  the  ancient 
part.  Several  of  its  piers  still  stand  unbroken  ;  they 
are  sunk  in  the  water,  and  once  supported  arches 
(to  the  number  of  twenty-five,)  part  of  which  re-- 
main above  the  water. 

At  the  end  of  this  mole  began  the  bridge  of  Cali- 
gula, which  extended  across  part  of  the  bay  to 
Baiee,  no  less  than  half  a  mile  in  length  in  a  straight 
line.  This  structure  has  long  since  been  swept 

On  the  hill  behind  the  town  are  the  remains  of  an 
amphitheatre,   called,   after  that  at  Rome,  the  Coli- 
seum.      It  was   of  considerable   magnitude.       The 
*  Pholas  dactylus^ 


gates,  and  a  large  portion  of  the  vault  and  under 
apartments,  remain.  One  of  these  apartments,  or 
rather  dungeons,  in  which  St.  Januarius,  the  patron 
saint  of  Naples,  was  confined,  is  now  turned  into  a 
damp  and  gloomy  chapel ;  the  arena  is  a  garden ; 
vines,  fig-trees,  and  pomegranates,  have  gradually 
crept  up  the  circumference,  and  now  cover  the  slope, 
and  run  over  the  ruin*. 

It  is  easy  to  guess  what  the  animation  and  splen- 
dour of  Puteoli  must  have  been,  at  the  time  when 
the  riches  of  the  East  were  poured  into  its  bosom ; 
and  when  its  climate,  wit,  and  beauty,  allured  the 
most  opulent  Romans  to  its  vicinity. 

Cicero  had  a  marine  villa  here,  called  Puteolanum. 
Pliny  relates  that  it  was  on  the  shore,  and  adorned 
with  a  portico,  which  seems  to  have  been  remarkable 
for  its  beauty.  He  adds  that  Cicero  erected  h^ere  a 
monument,  and  that,  shortly  after  his  death,  a 
fountain  of  warm  water,  very  wholesome  for  the 
eyes,  burst  forth,  and  gave  occasion  to  an  epigram, 
which  the  philosopher  quotes  with  applauset.  The 
portico  is  fallen,  the  groves  are  withered,  the  foun- 
tain dried  up,  and  not  a  vestige  of  the  retreat 
left  behind  to  mark  its  situation.  The  verses 
remain,  and  perpetuate  the  glory  of  the  orator,  the 
fame  of  the  fountain,  the  beauty  of  the  villa,  and 
what  is  more  honourable  than  all  united,  the  grati- 
tude of  Cicero's  freed-man,  Tullius. 

St.  Paul  landed  here  in  his  way  from  Rhegium 
to  Rome ;  and  found  Christians  even  in  that  early 
age.  In  the  museum  of  Portici  is  a  picture 
presenting  a  view  of  ancient  Puteoli,  supposed  to 
have  been  painted  before  St.  Paul  landed  there. 
"  The  picture,"  says  Mr.  Williams,  "  is  of  course  very 
different  from  the  present  state  of  the  city ;  but  still 
*  Eustace.  t  Plin.  xxx.  c.  3. 


a  likeness  may  be  traced,  if  we  keep  in  view  the  site 
of  the  various  temples,  and  other  objects,  the  foun- 
dations of  which  are  still  visible." 

On  the  sea  shore,  near  Puzzuoli,  are  also  found 
seals,  coins,  cornelians,  and  agates ;  bearing  impres- 
sions of  corn,  grapes,  and  vine-branches,  ants,  eagles, 
and  other  animals.  These  are  thrown  up  by  the 
waves,  after  violent  storms ;  and  commemorate  the 
magnificence  of  a  city,  now  forming  part  of  the  Medi- 
terranean bed*. 

NO.  X. — PALMYRA.    (TADMOR.) 

"  As  patience  is  the  greatest  of  friends  to  the  unfortunate,  so  is 
time  the  greatest  of  friends  to  the  lovers  of  landscape.  It  resolves 
the  noblest  works  of  art  into  the  most  affecting  ornaments  of  created 
things.  The  fall  of  empires,  with  which  the  death  of  great  cha- 
racters is  so  immediately  associated,  possesses  a  prescriptive  title,  as 
it  were,  to  all  our  sympathy  ;  forming  at  once  a  magnificent,  yet 
melancholy  spectacle  ;  and  awakening  in  the  mind  all  the  grandeur 
of  solitude.  Who  would  not  be  delighted  to  make  a  pilgrimage  to 
the  East  to  see  the  columns  of  Persepolls,  and  the  still  more  mag- 
nificent ruins  of  Palmyra  ?  Where  awe  springs,  as  it  were,  personi- 
fied from  the  fragments,  and  proclaims  instructive  lessons  from 
the  vicissitudes  of  fortune.  Palmyra,  once  a  paradise  in  the  centre 
of  inhospitable  deserts,  the  pride  of  Solomon,  the  capital  of  Zenobia, 
and  the  wonder  and  admiration  of  all  the  East,  now  lies  'majestic 
though  in  ruins!'  Its  glory  withered,  time  has  cast  over  it  a  sa- 
cred grandeur,  softened  into  grace.  History,  by  its  silence,  mourns 
its  melancholy  destiny ;  while  immense  masses  and  stupendous 
columns  denote  the  spot,  where  once  the  splendid  city  of  the  desert 
reared  her  proud  and  matchless  towers.  Ruins- are  the  only  legacy 
the  destroyer  left  to  posterity." — HARMONIES  OF  NATURE. 

THIS  city  was  the  capital  of  Palmyrcne,  a  country  on 
the  eastern  boundaries  of  Syria,  its  origin  is  uncer- 
tain ;  but  a  portion  of  its  history  is  exceedingly  in- 
teresting ;  and  its  vast  assemblage  of  ruins  are  beheld 
with  astonishment  and  rapture  by  the  curious,  the 
learned,  and  the  elegant. 

*  Pliny  ;  Swinburne  ;  Eustace  ;  Wilkinson. 


It  was  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  large  plain,  sur- 
rounded on  three  sides  by  a  long  chain  of  mountains. 
It  stands  in  a  desert,  in  the  pachalic  of  Damascus, 
about  forty-eight  leagues  from  Aleppo,  and  about 
the  same  distance  from  Damascus,  eighty-five  miles 
west  from  the  Euphrates,  and  about  one  hundred  and 
seventeen  from  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean. 

History  is,  for  the  most  part,  silent  in  regard  to 
the  early  history  of  this  city.  It  is  said  to  have  been 
built  by  Solomon,  after  he  had  conquered  the  king  of 
Hamathzoba,  within  whose  dominion  the  country 
lay,  in  which  the  city  was  afterwards  erected.  He 
called  it  Tadmor*,  which  some  have  construed  as 
the  place  of  Palmst;  and  sometimes  "Tadmor  in 
the  Wilderness." 

We  are  assured  by  Josephus,  that  this  was  the 
city  which  the  Greeks  and  Romans  afterwards  called 
Palmyra.  His  words  are  : — "  Now,  Solomon  went 
in  the  desert  above  Syria,  and  possessed  himself 
of  it ;  and  built  there  a  very  great  city,  which  was 
distant  two  days'  journey  from  the  upper  Syria, 
and  one  day's  journey  from  the  Euphrates,  and  six 
long  days'  journey  from  Babylon  the  great.  Now 
the  reason  why  this  city  lay  so  remote  from  those 

*  The  persons  who  visited  Palmyra  in  1678,  found  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood "  a  garden,  full  of  palm-trees  ;"  but  when  Mr.  Wood 
was  there,  not  a  single  one  remained.  "  The  name_of  Palmyra," 
says  Mr.  Ad'lison,  "  is  supposed  by  some  to  have  been  derived  from 
the  word  Palma,  indicative  of  the  number  of  palm-trees  that  grew 
here  ;  but  that  name  was  given  by  the  Greeks,  and,  although 
Palma  signifies  palm-tree  in  the  Latin,  yet  in  the  Greek  tongue  it 
Las  a  very  different  signification.  Neither  does  Tadmor  signify 
palm-tree  in  the  Syrian  language,  nor  in  the  Arabic  ;  nor  does 
Thadamoura,  as  the  place  is  called  by  Josephus,  signify  palm-tree  in 
the  Hebrew.  Neither  do  palms  thrive  in  Syria,  as  the  climate  is 
too  severe  for  them  in  the  winter." 

t  1  Kings,  ix.  18.     2  Chron.  viii.  4. 


parts  of  Syria,  that  are  inhabited,  is  this  :  that  below 
there  is  no  water  to  be  had  ;  and  that  it  is  in  that 
place  only  that  there  are  springs  and  pits  of  water. 
When,  therefore,  he  had  built  that  city,  and  encom- 
passed it  with  very  strong  walls,  he  gave  it  the  name 
of  Tadmor  ;  and  that  is  the  name  it  is  still  called  by 
at  this  day  among  the  Syrians*  :  but  the  Greeks 
name  it  Palmyra." 

That  the  city  was  built  by  Solomon  is  most  pro- 
bable ;  but  that  the  present  ruins  have  any  relation  to 
buildings  of  his  erection  is  very  improbable:  indeed  we 
must  assume  it  as  certain  that  they  arenot ;  they  being 
entirely  those  of  the  Greek  orders.  With  the  excep- 
tion of  four  Ionic  half-columns  in  the  Temple  of  the 
Sun,  and  two  in  one  of  the  mausoleums,  the  whole 
architecture  of  Palmyra  is  Corinthian.  Neither  his- 
tory nor  even  tradition,  moreover,  speaks  of  any  other 
architect  than  Solomon. 

Some  have  been  disposed  to  give  it  an  earlier 
existencet.  The  Arabic  translator  of  Chronicles 
makes  Palmyra  older  than  Solomon ;  John  of  An- 
tioch,  surnamed  Melala,  says,  that  he  built  it  on  the 
spot  where  David  slew  Goliah,  in  memory  of  that 
action ;  and  Abul-Farai  mentions  in  what  year,  with 
the  particulars.  These  and  other  accounts  of  the  early 
state  of  Palmyra,  which  might  be  collected  from  the 
Arabic  authors,  bear  such  evident  marks  of  fable  and 
•wild  conjecture,  that  we  shall  pass  them  over. 

Notwithstanding  this,  we  assume  the  city  to  have 
been  founded  by  the  celebrated  king  to  whom  the 

*  It  is  a  well  known  and  very  true  observation,  that  is  made  by 
Ammianus  Marcellinus  (lib.  xiv.),  that  the  Greek  and  Roman 
names  of  places  never  took  among  the  natives  of  Syria  ;  which  is 
the  reason  why  most  places  retain  their  first  and  oiiginal  names  at 
this  day WHISTON. 

t  Wood. 


honour  is  given  :   who  built  the  temples  is  totally 

The  motives  which  tempted  Solomon  to  build  a 
city  in  a  plain,  now  altogether  a  desert,  we  copy 
from  Mr.  Addison's  Travels  to  Damascus  : — "  The 
astonishment  that  takes  hold  of  the  mind  at  the 
strange  position  of  this  magnificent  city,  at  one 
time  the  capital  of  the  East,  on  the  edge  of  the 
great  desert,  and  surrounded  for  several  days'  jour- 
ney on  all  sides  by  naked  solitary  wilds,  is  removed 
by  marking  well  the  peculiarity  of  its  geographical 
position.  The  great  caravans  coming  to  Europe, 
laden  with  the  rich  merchandise  of  India,  would  na- 
turally come  along  the  Persian  gulf,  through  the 
south  of  Persia,  to  the  Euphrates,  the  direct  line ; 
their  object  then  would  be  to  strike  across  the  great 
Syrian  desert  as  early  as  possible,  to  reach  the  large 
markets  and  ports  of  Syria.  With  more  than  600 
miles  of  desert  without  water,  between  the  mouth  of 
the  Euphrates  and  Syria,  they  would  naturally  be 
obliged  to  keep  along  the  banks  of  that  river,  until 
the  extent  of  desert  country  became  diminished.  They 
would  then  find  the  copious  springs  of  Tadmor  the 
nearest  and  most  convenient  to  make  for;  and  in 
their  direct  route  from  the  north  of  India  along  the 
Euphrates.  These  springs  would  then  immediately 
become  most  important,  and  would  naturally  attract 
the  attention  of  a  wise  prince  like  Solomon,  who 
would  '  fence  them  with  strong  walls.'  Here  the 
caravans  would  rest  and  take  in  water ;  here  would 
congregate  the  merchants  from  adjacent  countries  and 
Europe;  and  from  hence  the  great  caravan  would  be 
divided  into  numerous  branches,  to  the  north,  south, 
and  west*.  A  large  mart  for  the  exchange  of  com- 
modities would  be  established,  and  an  important  city 
*  Ch.  ix.  ver.  18. 


would  quickly  arise.  The  choice  of  this  spot  by 
Solomon,  we  may  naturally  consider  founded  on  a 
policy  of  enriching  himself  by  drawing  the  commerce 
of  India  through  his  dominions,  from  which  com- 
merce, probably,  he  derived  the  wealth  for  which  he 
is  so  celebrated.  In  the  chapter,  succeeding  that  in 
which  Solomon  is  mentioned  to  have  built  Tadmor  in 
the  wilderness,  we  read  that  '  the  weight  of  gold  that 
came  to  Solomon  in  one  year,  was  six  hundred  three 
score  and  six  talents  of  gold*;  besides  that  he  had 
of  the  merchantmen,  and  of  the  traffic  of  the  spice- 
merchants,  and  of  all  the  kings  of  Arabia,  and  of  the 
governors  of  the  country.' " 

The  city  which  Solomon  built  was  destroyed  by 
Nebuchadnezzar ;  but  who  rebuilt  it  is  entirely  un- 
known. It  is  not  mentioned  by  Xenophon,  in  his 
history  of  the  expedition  of  Cyrus  the  younger, 
though  he  gives  a  very  accurate  account  of  the  desert, 
and  must  have  left  this  place  not  a  great  way  to  the 
right  in  his  march  towards  Babylon.  Nor  is  it  once 
alluded  to  by  Diodorus,  nor  Plutarch,  nor  Arrian, 
nor  Quintus  Curtius,  nor,  indeed,  by  any  of  the 
biographers  or  historians  of  Alexander ;  although  he 
marched  through  this  desert  to  Thapsacus. 

Nor  is  it  taken  any  notice  of  as  being  in  existence 
even  in  the  time  of  Seleucus  Nicator,  he  who  built 
so  many  cities  in  Syria  ;  nor  is  it  once  mentioned  in 
the  history  of  his  successor.  It  is  not  even  men- 
tioned so  lately  as  the  time  in  which  Pompey  the 
Great  conquered  the  country  in  which  it  is  situated. 
No  notice  is  taken  iu  Roman  history  of  its  being  in 
any  way  existing,  till  the  time  of  Mark  Antony; 
who,  after  the  battle  at  Philippi,  marched  against  it, 
as  we  are  told  by  Appian,  with  a  view  of  plundering 
it ;  but  the  inhabitants  escaped  with  their  effects 
*  Ch.  x.  v.14. 


over  the  Euphrates.  This  very  circumstance  proves 
it  to  have  heen  at  that  time  no  very  large  place ; 
added  to  which,  it  seems  to  he  certain,  that  none  of 
these  temples,  &c.,  could  have  heen  in  existence ;  for 
the  Romans  had,  for  some  time,  heeri  alive  to  the 
benefits  of  works  of  art ;  especially  paintings,  sculp- 
ture, and  architecture.  His  sole  object,  in  going 
thither,  was  to  plunder  the  Pahnyrene  merchants,  who 
were  supposed  to  have  acquired  considerable  wealth, 
by  selling  the  commodities  of  India  and  Arabia. 

Added  to  all  this,  Strabo,  the  best  and  most  accu- 
rate geographer  of  ancient  times,  does  not  once  speak 
of  its  name.  The  first  description  of  this  now  cele- 
brated place  is  by  Pliny ;  and  it  runs  thus  : — "  Pal- 
myra is  remarkable  for  situation,  a  rich  soil,  and 
pleasant  streams.  It  is  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  a 
vast  sandy  desert,  which  totally  separates  it  from  the 
rest  of  the  world,  and  has  preserved  its  independence 
between  the  two  great  empires  of  Rome  and  Parthia, 
whose  first  care,  when  at  war,  is  to  engage  it  in  their 
interest.  It  is  distant  from  Seleucia  three  hundred 
and  thirty-seven  miles  ;  from  the  Mediterranean  two 
hundred  and  three ;  and  from  Damascus  one  hun- 
dred and  seventy-six." 

These  distances  are  not  quite  accurate,  being  too 
great.  Palmyra  is  also  mentioned  by  Ptolemy,  who 
makes  it  the  capital  of  sixteen  cities  in  Syria  Palmy- 
rena.  Trajan  and  Hadrian  made  expeditions  into  the 
East,  and  must  have  passed  through  this  city,  or  near 
it.  Nothing,  however,  is  said  of  it.  Had  the  tem- 
ples been  there  at  that  time,  Hadrian,  who  was  so 
great  a  patron  of  the  elegant  arts,  would,  there  can 
be  no  doubt,  have  valued  them.  Some,  indeed,  insist 
that  he  repaired  the  city;  and  that  it  was  thence 
called  Hadrianopolis. 

The  Palmyrenes  submitted  to  that  emperor  about 
the  year  130.  Hadrian,  then,  making  a  tour  through 

VOL.   II.  P 


Syria  into  Egypt,  delighted  with  the  situation  and 
native  strength  of  the  place,  is  said  to  have  deter- 
mined on  furnishing  it  with  various  splendid  edifices 
and  ornaments ;  and  it  is  probable,  that  he  then  con- 
ferred upon  it  the  privileges  of  "  Colonia  Juris 
Italici,"  which,  as  we  learn  from  Ulpian,  it  actually 
enjoyed,  and  the  inhabitants  were  thence  induced  by 
gratitude  to  call  themselves  "  Hadrianopolitae."  It 
is  supposed  that  many  of  its  marble  pillars,  particn  - 
larly  those  of  the  long  porticoes,  were  the  gift  of  this 
emperor.  It  must,  nevertheless,  be  borne  in  mind, 
that  all  this  is  little  better  than  conjecture.  Mr. 
Halifax,  however,  says,  "  that  as  the  most  ancient  in- 
scription, he  met  with  at  Palmyra,  was  dated  the  three 
hundred  and  fourteenth  year  from  the  death  of  Alex- 
ander, that  is,  ten  years  before  Christ,  and  another, 
dated  between  twenty  and  thirty  years  before  Hadrian, 
consequently  before  the  Romans  got  footing  there,  he 
concluded,  that  the  sumptuous  structures  he  saw 
there  were  not  raised  by  the  Romans." 

From  an  inscription  on  the  shaft  of  a  column  in 
the  long  portico,  where  all  the  inscriptions  seem  to 
have  been  under  statues,  it  appears  that,  in  the  reign 
of  Alexander  Severus,  they  joined  that  emperor  in 
his  expedition  against  the  Persians. 

From  this  time  to  the  reign  of  Gallienus,  no  men- 
tion is  made  of  this  city  :  but  then  it  became  so  con- 
spicuous, that  its  history  will  be  a  subject  of  interest 
to  all  succeeding  times. 

The  following  is  an  abstract  of  the  history  of  this 
period,  presented  to  us  in  the  pages  of  Gibbon,  Mr. 
Wood,  and  other  writers.  A  place  possessed  of 
such  singular  advantages,  and  situated  at  a  con- 
venient distance  from  the  gulf  of  Persia,  and  the 
Mediterranean,  was  soon  frequented  by  the  caravans, 
which  conveyed  to  the  nations  of  Europe  a  consider- 
able part  of  the  rich  commodities  of  India.  Palmyra 


insensibly  increased  into  an  opulent  and  independent 
city ;  and,  connecting  the  Roman  and  Parthian 
empire  by  the  mutual  benefits  of  commerce,  was 
suffered  to  observe  an  humble  neutrality;  till  at  length, 
after  the  victories  of  Trajan,  the  little  republic  sank 
into  the  bosom  of  Rome,  and  flourished  more  than 
one  hundred  and  fifty  years  in  the  subordinate  yet 
honourable  rank  of  a  colony ;  and  it  is  during  this 
period  of  peace,  Mr.  Gibbon  is  disposed  to  believe, 
that  the  wealthy  Palmyrians  constructed  those 
temples,  palaces  and  porticoes  of  Grecian  architecture, 
the  ruins  of  which  in  modern  times  have  excited  so 
much  admiration  and  wonder. 

The  Roman  affairs  in  the  East  had  been  for  some 
time  in  a  very  deplorable  condition,  when  Odenatus, 
a  Palmyrenc,  but  of  what  family  or  rank  originally 
in  the  state  is  not  agreed  *,  made  so  judicious  a  use 
of  his  situation  between  the  two  rival  powers  of 
Rome  and  Persia,  as  to  succeed  in  getting  the  balance 
of  power  into  his  hands.  It  appears,  that  he  declared 
in  favour  of  different  interests,  as  alterations  of  affairs 
rendered  necessary.  At  length  he  joined  the  shattered 
remains  of  the  Roman  army  in  Syria,  routed  Sapor, 
the  Persian  king,  and  advanced  as  far  as  Ctesiphon, 
the  capital  of  his  empire.  He  returned  from  this 
expedition  in  great  glory ;  and  hence  Gallienus, 
emperor  of  Rome,  was  induced  to  declare  him 
Augustus  and  co-partner  of  his  empire. 

This  elevation, — which  he  enjoyed  jointly  with  his 
celebrated  consort,  Zenobia, — appeared  to  reflect  anew 
splendour  on  their  country,  and  Palmyra  for  a  while 
stood  upon  an  equality  with  Rome.  The  competition, 

*  He  was  of  mean  parentage,  according  to  Orosius.  Zonaras 
tails  him  "a  man  of  Palmyra  ;"  and  Agathias  speaks  of  him  as  a 
person  entirely  unknown,  till  he  made  his  name  illustrious  by  his 
actions.  Sex  tusRufus,  however,  calls  him  by  an  epithet  implying 
that  he  was  a  senator. 



however,  was  fatal ;  and  ages  of  prosperity  were 
sacrificed  to  a  moment  of  glory. 

The  last  public  action  of  Odenatus  was  his  re- 
lieving Asia  from  the  Goths,  who  had  over-run 
several  of  its  provinces,  committing  great  ravages ; 
but  retired  upon  his  approach :  in  pursuing  them,  how- 
ever, Odenatus  was  assassinated  by  an  officer  of  his  own 
guard,  named  Meeonius,  who  was  also  his  kinsman ; 
and  who,  having  taken  the  son  off  also,  became  for  a 
short  time  sovereign.  He,  too,  shared  the  fate  of 
those  he  had  betrayed,  and  Zenobia  became  sovereign 
queen  in  his  stead. 

All  that  is  known  of  Zenobia's  extraction  is,  that 
she  claimed  a  descent  from  the  Ptolemies  of  Egypt  *  ; 
and  that  she  boasted  of  having  Cleopatra  for  an  ances- 
tress. She  was  a  woman  of  very  great  beauty  t ;  and 
of  very  extraordinary  enterprise.  We  cannot  enter 
into  her  history  so  fully  as  we  could  wish.  She 
conquered  Syria  and  Mesopotamia;  she  subdued 
Egypt ;  and  added  the  greater  part  of  Asia  Minor  to 
her  dominions.  Thus  a  small  territory  in  the  desert, 
under  the  government  of  a  woman,  made  the  great 
kingdoms  of  the  Ptolemies  and  the  Seleucidas  part  of 
the  dominions  of  a  single  city,  whose  name,  we  look 
in  vain  for  in  their  history ;  and  Zenobia,  lately  con- 
fined to  the  barren  plain  of  Palmyra,  ruled  from  the 

*  Though  history  nowhere  gives  the  first  name  of  Zenobia,  we 
learn  from  coins,  that  it  was  Septiinia. 

t  She  is  thus  described  : — Her  complexion  was  a  dark  brown  ; 
she  had  black  sparkling  eye*,  of  uncommon  fire  ;  her  countenance 
was  divinely  sprightly  ;  and  her  person  graceful  and  genteel  beyond 
imagination  ;  her  teeth  were  white  as  pearls,  and  her  voice  clear  and 
strong.  If  we  add  to  this  an  uncommon  strength,  and  consider  her 
excessive  military  fatigpes  ;  for  she  used  no  carnage,  generally  rode, 
and  often  marched  on  foot  three  or  four  miles  with  her  army  ;  and 
if  we,  at  the  same  time,  suppose  her  haranguing  her  troops,  which 
she  used  to  do  in  her  helmet,  and  often  with  her  arms  bare,  it  will 
give  us  an  idea  of  that  severe  character  of  masculine  beauty,  which 
puts  one  more  in  mind  of  Minerva  than  of  Venus. 


south  of  Egypt  to  the  Bosphorus  and  the  Black 

At  length  Aurelian,  the  Roman  emperor,  entered 
the  field  against  her ;  and  the  loss  of  two  great  battles, 
the  former  near  Antioch,  the-lattcr  at  Emesa,  reduced 
her  to  the  necessity  of  taking  shelter  within  the  walls 
of  her  own  capital.  Aurelian  besieged  her  there ; 
but  the  enterprise  was  exceedingly  difficult.  "  The 
Roman  people,"  said  Aurelian,  "  speak  with  con- 
tempt of  the  war,  which  I  am  waging  against  a 
woman.  They  are  ignorant  both  of  the  character 
and  power  of  Zenobia.  It  is  impossible  to  enumerate 
her  warlike  preparations,  of  stones,  of  arrows,  and  of 
every  species  of  missile  weapons.  Every  part  of  the 
walls  is  provided  with  two  or  three  balistae  *,  and 
artificial  fires  are  thrown  from  her  military  engines. 
The  fear  of  punishment  has  armed  her  with  a  desperate 
courage.  Yet  I  still  trust  to  the  protecting  deities 
of  Rome,  who  have  hitherto  been  favourable  to  all 
my  undertakings." 

In  another  letter  he  writes  to  the  senate  in  the 
following  terms  : — "  I  hear,  Conscript  Fathers,  that  it 
hath  been  urged  against  me,  that  I  have  not  accom- 
plished a  manly  task,  in  not  triumphing  over  Zenobia. 
But  my  very  blamers  themselves  would  not  know  how 
to  praise  me  enough,  if  they  knew  that  woman ;  her 
firmness  of  purpose ;  the  dignity  she  preserves  to- 
wards her  army ;  her  munificence  when  circumstances 
require  it ;  her  severity,  when  to  be  severe  is  to  be 
just.  I  may  say,  that  the  victory  of  Odenatus  over 
the  Persians,  and  his  putting  Sapor  to  flight,  and  his 
reaching  Ctesiphon,  were  due  to  her.  I  can  assert 
that  such  was  the  dread  entertained  of  this  woman 
among  the  nations  of  the  East  and  of  Egypt,  that  she 

*  There  are  several  meanings  to  this  word  : — Balista  implying 
a  cross-bow,  a  sling,  or  an  engine  to  shoot  darts  or  stones. 


kept  in  check  the  Arabians,  the  Saracens,  and  the 
Armenians  ;  nor  would  I  have  preserved  her  life,  if 
I  had  not  thought  she  would  much  benefit  the  Roman 
state."  This  was  written  after  her  defeat. 

Tired  of  making  unsuccessful  attempts,  Aurelian 
determined  to  try  the  effects  of  negociation,  and 
accordingly  wrote  to  Zenobia.  The  style  he  adopted, 
however,  rather  commanded  terms  than  proposed 
them  : — 

"  Aurelian,  emperor  of  the  Roman  world,  to 
Zenobia,  and  the  others  united  together  in  hostile 

"  You  ought  to  do  that  of  your  own  accord,  which 
is  commanded  by  my  letters.  I  charge  you  to  sur- 
render, on  your  lives  being  spared  ;  and  you,  Zenobia, 
may  pass  your  life  in  some  spot  where  I  shall  place 
you,  in  pursuance  of  the  distinguished  sentence  of 
the  senate ;  your  gems,  silver,  gold,  silk,  horses,  and 
camels,  being  given  up  to  the  Roman  treasury.  The 
laws  and  institutions  of  the  Palmyrenes  shall  be 

To  this  letter  Zenobia  returned  the  following 
answer : — 

"  Zenobia,  Queen  of  the  East,  to  the  Roman  Em- 
peror, Aurelian. 

"  Never  was  such  an  unreasonable  demand  pro- 
posed, or  such  rigorous  terms  offered,  by  any  but 
yourself!  Remember,  Aurelian,  that  in  war,  what- 
ever is  done  should  be  done  by  valour.  You  impe- 
riously command  me  to  surrender:  but  can  you 
forget,  that  Cleopatra  chose  rather  to  die  with  the 
title  of  queen,  than  to  live  in  any  inferior  dignity  ? 
We  expect  succours  from  Persia  ;  the  Saracens  are 
arming  in  our  cause  ;  even  the  Syrian  banditti  have 
already  defeated  your  army.  Judge  what  you  are  to 
expect  from  the  junction  of  these  forces.  You  shall 
be  compelled  to  abate  that  pride  with  which,  as  if 


you  were  absolute  lord  of  the  universe,  you  command 
me  to  become  your  captive." 

When  Aurelian  read  this  letter,  says  Vopiscus,  he 
blushed ;  not  so  much  with  shame,  as  with  indig- 

Her  answer  inflamed  the  emperor  to  the  highest 
pitch.  He  pressed  the  siege,  therefore,  with  re- 
doubled vigour ;  and  the  city  was  reduced  to  such 
extremities,  that  her  council  advised  her  to  send  for 
succour  to  the  Persians.  Thus  counselled,  she  deter- 
mined on  going  to  the  king  of  Persia  in  person.  She 
set  out,  therefore,  on  the  fleetest  of  her  dromedaries, 
and  had  already  reached  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates 
(about  sixty  miles  from  Palmyra),  when  she  was 
overtaken  by  Aurelian's  light  horse,  and  brought 
back,  captive,  to  the  feet  of  Aurelian.  "We  are  told, 
that  the  sight  of  the  queen  gave  the  Roman  emperor 
infinite  pleasure ;  but  that  his  ambition  suffered  some 
humiliation,  when  he  considered  that  posterity  would 
always  look  upon  this  only  as  the  conquest  of  a 
woman*.  The  city  surrendered  soon  after,  and  was 
treated  with  great  lenity. 

Aurelian  now  went  to  Emesa ;  on  arriving  at 
which  place,  he  questioned  the  queen  as  to  her  mo- 
tives, and  the  persons  who  had  advised  her  to  make 
so  obstinate  a  defence.  He  sternly  asked  her,  how 
she  had  presumed  to  rise  in  arms  against  the  empe- 
rors of  Rome  ?  "  Because,"  answered  Zenobia,  "  I 
disdained  to  consider  as  Roman  emperors  an  Aureolus 
or  a  Gallienus.  You  alone  I  acknowledge  as  my 
conqueror  and  my  sovereign  ;  and  this  I  do,  because 
you  know  how  to  conquer." 

*  "  Her  manly  understanding,"  says  Gibbon,  "  was  strengthened 
and  adorned  by  study.  She  was  not  ignorant  of  the  Latin  tonguei 
but  possessed,  in  equal  perfection,  the  Greek,  the  Syriac,  and  the 
Egyptian  languages.  She  had  drawn  up,  for  her  own  use,  an 
epitome  of  oriental  history,  and  familiarly  compared  the  beauties 
of  Homer  and  Plato,  under  the  tuition  of  the  sublime  Longinus." 


When,  however,  the  soldiers  demanded  her  imme- 
diate execution,  her  fortitude  forsook  her.  She  con- 
fessed by  whose  counsel  she  had  been  guided.  She 
purchased  a  dishonourable  life  at  the  expense  of 
her  friends.  They  were  immediately  led  to  execu- 
tion; herself  was  reserved  to  grace  the  conqueror's 
triumph.  , 

Among  those  of  her  friends,  whose  names  she  had 
betrayed,  was  the  illustrious  Longinus,  author  of 
that  noble  Treatise  on  the  Sublime,  which  is  so  well 
known  and  appreciated  by  every  scholar.  He  it  was, 
she  confessed,  who  had  drawn  up  the  letter.  "  Her 
councillors,"  she  said,  "  were  to  be  blamed,  and  not 
herself.  What  could  a  weak,  short-sighted,  woman 
do  ?  especially  when  beset  by  artful  and  ambitious 
men,  who  made  her  subservient  to  all  their  schemes  ? 
She  never  had  aimed  at  empire,  had  they  not  placed 
it  before  her  eyes  in  all  its  allurements.  The  letter 
which  affronted  Aurelian  was  not  her  own — Lon- 
ginus wrote  it ;  the  insolence  was  his." 

When  Aurelian  heard  this,  he  directed  all  his  fury 
against  the  unfortunate  Longinus.  That  illustrious 
person  was  immediately  led  to  execution.  Far  from 
lamenting  his  fate,  however,  he  condoled  with  his 
friends,  pitied  Zenobia,  and  expressed  his  joy ;  look- 
ing upon  death  as  a  blessing,  since  it  would  rescue 
his  body  from  slavery,  and  give  his  soul  to  that  free- 
dom he  the  most  desired.  "  This  world,"  said  he, 
with  his  expiring  breath,  "  is  nothing  but  a  prison ; 
happy,  therefore,  is  he  who  gets  soonest  out  of  it,  and 
gains  his  liberty." 

A  modern  poet  has  very  finely  alluded  to  this  in 
his  poem  on  Palmyra. 

On  the  hushed  plain,  where  sullen  horror  broods, 
And  darkest  frown  the  Syrian  solitudes ; 
Where  morn's  soft  steps  no  balmy  fragrance  leave, 
And  parched  and  dewless  is  the  couch  of  eve  ; 


Thy  form,  pale  city  of  the  waste,  appears 

Like  some  faint  vision  of  departed  years  ; 

In  massy  clusters  still  a  giant  train, 

Tliy  sculptured  fabrics  whiten  on  the  plain. 

Still  stretch  thy  columned  vistas  far  away, 

The  shadowed  dimness  of  their  long  array. 

But  where  the  stirring  crowd,  the  voice  of  strife, 

The  glow  of  action  and  the  thiill  of  life? 

Hear  the  loud  crash  of  yon  huge  fragments  fall, 

The  pealing  answer  of  each  desert  hall ; 

The  night-bird  shrieking  frow  her  secret  cell, 

The  hollow  winds,  the  tale  of  ruin  tell. 

See,  fondly  lingering,  Mithra's  parting  rays 

Gild  the  proud  towers,  once  vocal  with  his  praise ; 

But  the  cold  altars  clasping  weeds  entwine, 

And  Moslems  worship  at  the  godless  shrine. 

Yet  here  slow  pausing  memory  loves  to  pour 

Her  magic  influence  o'er  this  pensive  hour  : 

And  yet,  as  yon  recesses  deep  prolong 

The  echoed  sweetness  of  the  Arab  song, 

Recalls  that  scene,  when  wisdom's  sceptred  child, 

First  broke  the  stillness  of  the  lonely  wild. 

From  air,  from  ocean,  from  earth's  utmost  clime, 

The  summoned  genii  heard  the  muttered  rhyme  ; 

The  tasking  spell  their  airy  hands  obeyed, 

And  Tadmor  glittered  in  the  palmy  shade. 

So  to  her  feet  the  tide  of  ages  brings 

The  wealth  of  nations  and  the  pomp  of  kings, 

And  for  her  warrior  queen,  from  Parthia's  plain 

To  the  dark  Ethiop,  spreads  her  ample  reign  : 

Vain  boast,  ev'n  she  who  winds  the  field  along, 

Waked  fiercer  frenzy  in  the  patriot  throng  ; 

And  sternly  beauteous  in  the  meteor's  light, 

Shot  through  the  tempest  of  Emesas  fight. 

While  trembling  captives  round  the  victor  wait, 

Hang  on  his  eye,  and  catch  the  word  of  fate, 

Zenobia's  self  must  quail  beneath  his  nod, 

A  kneeling  suppliant  to  the  mimic  god. 

But  one  there  stood  amid  that  abject  throng, 

In  truth  triumphant,  and  in  virtue  strong  ; 

Beamed  on  his  brow  the  soul  which,  undismayed. 

Smiled  at  the  rod,  and  scorned  the  uplifted  blade. 

O'er  thee,  Palmyra,  darkness  seems  to  lower 

The  boding  terrors  of  that  fearful  hour  ; 

Far  from  thy  glade  indignant  freedom  fled, 

And  hope  too  withered  as  Longinus  bled  *. 

*  Anon. 


Palmyra,  having  become  subject  to  a  foreign  yoke, 
bore  the  burthen  with  impatience.  The  inhabitants 
cut  off  the  Roman  garrison.  On  which  Aurelian 
instantly  returned,  took  the  town,  destroyed  it,  and 
put  to  death  most  of  its  population,  without  distinc- 
tion of  age  or  sex.  The  slaughter  was  so  extensive, 
that  none  were  left  to  plough  the  adjacent  lands. 

Aurelian  soon  repented  of  his  severity.  He  wrote 
to  Bassus  : — "  You  must  now  sheathe  the  sword ; 
the  Palmyrenes  have  been  sufficiently  slaughtered. 
We  have  not  spared  women ;  we  have  slain  children ; 
we  have  strangled  old  men;  we  have  destroyed  the 
husbandmen.  To  whom,  then,  shall  we  leave  the 
land  ?  To  whom  shall  we  leave  the  city  ?  We 
must  spare  those  who  remain ;  for  we  think,  that  the 
few  there  are  now  existing,  will  take  warning  from 
the  punishment  of  the  many  who  have  been  de- 

The  emperor  then  goes  on  to  desire  his 'lieutenant 
to  rebuild  the  Temple  of  the  Sun  as  magnificently  as 
it  had  been  in  times  past ;  to  expend  300  pounds 
weight  of  gold,  which  he  had  found  in  the  coffers  of 
Zeuobia,  beside  1800  pounds  weight  of  silver,  which 
was  raised  from  the  sale  of  the  people's  goods ; 
together  with  the  crown  jewels,  all  which  he  ordered 
to  be  sold,  to  make  money  to  beautify  the  temple  ; 
while  he  himself  promises  to  write  to  the  Senate,  to 
send  a  priest  from  Home  to  dedicate  it.  But,  in 
the  language  of  Gibbon,  it  is  easier  to  destroy  than 
it  is  to  restore. 

Zenobia  was  now  to  be  led  to  the  conqueror's 
triumph.  This  triumph  was  celebrated  with  extra- 
ordinary magnificence.  It  was  opened  by  twenty 
elephants,  four  royal  tigers,  and  above  two  hundred 
of  the  most  curious  animals  from  every  climate  of  the 
known  world.  Ambassadors  from  ^Ethiopia,  Arabia, 
Persia,  Bactriana,  India,  and  China,  attended  the 


triumph ;  and  a  long  train  of  captives, — Goths, 
Vandals,  Sarmatians,  Alemanni,  Franks,  Gauls, 
Syrians,  and  Egyptians.  Amongst  these,  Zenobia. 
She  was  confined  in  fetters  of  gold;  a  slave  supported 
the  gold  chain  which '  encircled  her  neck,  and  she 
almost  fainted  under  the  weight  of  her  jewels.  She 
did  not  ride,  but  walk  !  preceded  by  the  chariot  in 
which  she  had  once  indulged  the  vain  hope  of  en- 
tering Rome  as  empress*. 

The  Palmyrenes  t,  says  Zosimus,  had  several 
declarations  from  the  gods,  which  portended  the  over- 
throw of  their  empire ;  and,  among  others,  having 
consulted  the  temple  of  Apollo,  at  Seleucia  in  Cilicia, 
to  know  if  they  should  ever  obtain  the  empire  of  the 
East,  they  got  the  following  unceremonious  answer  : 

Avoid  my  temple,  cursed,  treacherous  nation  ! 
You  even  put  th.e  gods  themselves  in  passion. 

The  religion  of  the  Palmyrenes,  it  is  e-wident,  was 
pagan  ;  their  government,  for  the  most  part,  repub- 
lican ;  but  their  laws  are  entirely  lost ;  nor  can  any- 
thing be  known  in  respect  to  their  polity,  but  what 
may  be  gathered  from  the  inscriptions.  Their  chief 
deity  was  the  Sun. 

In  regard  to  their  knowledge  of  art,  they  have 
left  the  finest  specimens  in  the  ruins  that  now  re- 
main ;  and,  doubtless,  Longinus'  work  on  the  Su- 
blime was  written  within  its  walls.  "  From  these 

*  "  The  emperor  afterwards  presented  Zenobia  with  an  elegant 
villa  at  Tibur,  or  Tivoli,  about  twenty  miles  from  the  capital  ; 
where,  in  happy  tranquillity,  she  fed  the  greatness  of  her  soul  with 
the  noble  images  of  Homer,  and  the  exalted  precepts  of  Plato  ;  sup- 
ported the  adversity  of  her  fortunes  with  fortitude  and  resignation  ; 
and  learned  that  the  anxieties,  attendant  on  ambition,  are  happily 
exchanged  for  the  enjoyments  of  ease,  and  the  comforts  of  philo- 
sophy. The  Syrian  queen  sank  into  a  Roman  matron  ;  her 
daughters  married  into  noble  families  ;  and  her  race  was  not  yet 
extinct  in  the  fifth  century." — GIBBON. 
•j-  Addison. 


hints  we  may  see,"  says  Mr.  Wood,  "  that  this 
people  copied  after  great  models  in  their  man- 
ners, their  vices,  and  their  virtues.  Their  funeral 
customs  were  from  Egypt,  their  luxury  was  Persian, 
and  their  letters  and  arts  were  from  the  Greeks. 
Their  situation  in  the  midst  of  these  three  great 
nations  makes  it  reasonable  to  suppose,  that  they 
adopted  most  of  their  customs  and  manners.  But 
to  say  more  on  that  head  from  such  scanty  materials, 
would  be  to  indulge  too  much  in  mere  conjecture, 
which  seems  lather  the  privilege  of  the  reader  than 
of  the  writer." 

Some  years  after  this,  we  find  Diocletian  erecting 
several  buildings  here ;  but  what  they  were  is  not 
stated.  Justinian,  also,  repaired  Palmyra,  which, 
according  to  Procopius,  had  been  almost  entirely 
deserted.  These  repairs,  however,  are  supposed  to  have 
reference  rather  to  strength  than  to  ornament ;  and 
this  is  the  -last  mention  of  Palmyra  in  Roman  history. 

The  various  fortunes  of  Palmyra,  to  and  from 
the  time  of  Mahomet's  appearance,  are  scarcely 
known,  except  that  it  was  considered  as  a  place  of 
great  strength ;  and  that  in  the  twelfth  century, 
A.  D.I  171,  there  were,  according  to  Benjamin  of 
Tudela,  who  visited  the  spot  in  that  year,  two  thou- 
sand Jews  in  it. 

Palmyra,  according  to  the  Arabs,  once  occupied  an 
area  nearly  ten  miles  in  circumference,  and  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  reduced  to  its  present  confined 
and  ruined  state  by  the  quantities  of  sand*  driven  on 
it  by  whirlwinds. 

The  walls  of  the  city  were  flanked  by  square  towers. 
They  were  three  miles  in  circumference,  and  it  is 

*  Yet  Bruce  says  : — "  Palmyra  is  nowhere  covered  with  sand 
or  rubbish  as  in  other  ruins.  The  desert  that  surrounds  it  is 
rather  gravel  than  sand,  and  is,  therefore,  not  easily  moved.  Her 
mountains  are  perfectly  bare,  and  produce  nothing." 


imagined  that  they  included  the  great  temple.  What 
remains  there  are  of  the  wall,  do  not  look,  according 
to  Mr.  Wood,  unlike  the  work  of  Justinian ;  and 
may  be  part  of  the  repairs  mentioned  by  Procopius ; 
and  the  highest  antiquity  anything  else  can  claim  is 
the  time  of  the  Mamelukes. 


(From  Sellerus). 

ANNO  PERS.  Palmyra,  built  by  Solomon  after  he  had  finished 

Jul.  3720.  the  temple  of  Jerusalem. 

Mund.  3010- 

P.  J.  4125.  Destroyed    by  Nebuchadnezzar,    before   lie  kid 

M.  3415.  siege  to  Jerusalem. 

P.  J.  4673.          Pillaged  by  Mark  Antony. 
M.  3963. 
V.  C.  Varr. 
713,  ante 
Christ  41. 

Anno  Christi        Hadrian,  Imp.  6,  went  into  the  East,  and  is  snp- 

122.  posed  to  have  rebuilt  Palmyra  ;  in  consequence 

of  which  it  assumed  the  name  of  Hadrianople. 

At  this  period  Malenthon  was  a  second  time 

secretary  of  the  city. 

264.  Odenathus,  having  roused  the  Persians,  is  de- 
clared Augustus  by  Gallienus. 

267.  Odenathus,  with  his  son  Herodianus,  slain  by 
Mseonius,  who  assumes  the  sovereignty  of 
Palmyra  ;  but  is  himself  slain  a  few  days 
after.  Then  Zenobia  assumes  the  empire  iu 
her  own  name,  and  those  of  her  sons. 

Circa  216.          Palmyra  made  a  Roman  colony  by  Caracalla,  in 
his  expedition  into  Parthia. 

227.  The  republic  assisted  Alexander  Severus  against 
Artaxerxes,  king  of  Persia ;  Zenobia  being 
their  general. 

24§.  The  republic  assisted  Gordian  against  the  Per- 

260.  Valerian  taken  prisoner  by  Sapor,  king  of 


A.  D.  2GJ.         Zenobia  routed  Gallienus's  general,  Hcrodwnns. 

Vabellathns  assumes  the  empire. 
2G3.          Claudius  chosen  emperor  of  Rome. 
270.          Zenobia  conquers  Egypt  by  her  general  Zabdas. 

272.  Palmyra  taken  by  Aurelian. 

273.  Zenobia  follows  in  the  triumph    of  Aurelian  at 


293.          Hierocles,  governor  of  Palmyra,  under  Dioclesian. 
52^.         Justinian  repairs  and  fortifies  Palmyra. 
63£.          Palmyra  subjected  by  the  Mahometan*;  Jabals, 

the  son  of  Al  Hum,  being  then  lord  of  Tadmor, 

and  king  of  Gassan. 
659.          The  battle   of  Tadmor,    between   Dalracus   and 

746.         Solyman,  the  pseudo-caliph.,  beaten  by  Merwari, 

fled  to  Tadmor. 
1172.         Palmyra  visited  by  Benjamin  of  Tudela. 

1678-  Palmyra  visited  by  some  English  merchants, 
attended  by  forty  servants  and  touleteers,  who 
first  informed  Europe,  that  such  splendid  ruins 
as  those  of  Tadmor  were  in  existence.  At  this 
time  Melham  was  Emir. 
1G91.  The  English  merchants  visit  Palmyra  a  second 

time  ;  the  Emir  being  Hassine. 
1693.         DAr,  Emir  of  Palmyra*. 

We  shall  now  give  place  to  accounts  in  respect  to 
the  first  impressions,  made  by  these  ruins  on  the 
minds  of  different  travellers. 

Mr.  Halifax  sayst,  "  the  city  itself  appears  to-have 
been  of  a  large  extent  by  the  space  now  taken  up  by 
the  ruins;"  but  that  there  are  no  footsteps  of  any  Avails 
remaining,  nor  is  it  possible  to  judge  of  the  ancient 
figure  of  the  place.  The  present  inhabitants,  as  they  are 
poor,  miserable,  dirty  people,  so  they  have  shut  them- 
selves up,  to  the  number  of  about  thirty  or  forty  fami- 

*  This  Emir  lived  upon  rapine  ;  being  followed  by  a  considerable 
number  of  men,  who  not  only  hated  labour,  but  disliked  equally  to 
live  under  any  settled  government. 

t  Philosophical  Transactions. 


lies,  in  little  huts  made  of  dirt,  within  the  walls 
of  a  spacious  court,  which  inclosed  a  most  mag- 
nificent heathen  temple :  thereinto  also  Mr.  Hali- 
fax's party  entered,  the  whole  village  being  ga- 
thered together  at  the  door ;  whether  to  stand  upon 
their  defence  in  case  the  strangers  proved  enemies 
(for  some  of  them  had  guns  in  their  hands),  or  out 
of  mere  curiosity  to  gaze,  he  knew  not.  However  the 
guide,  who  was  an  Arab  whom  Assyne  their  king 
had  sent  to  conduct  them  through  the  village,  being 
a  man  known  among  them,  they  had  an  easy  ad- 
mittance ;  and,  with  a  great  many  welcomes  in  their 
language,  were  led  to  the  sheik's  house,  with  whom 
they  took  up  their  abode.  "  And  to  mention  here 
what  the  place  at  first  view  represented,  certainly 
the  world  itself  coiild  not  afford  the  like  mixture  of 
remains  of  greatest  state  and  magnificence,  together 
with  the  extremity  of  poverty  and  wretchedness." 
The  nearest  parallel  Mr.  Halifax  could  think  of,  was 
that  of  the  temple  of  Baal,  destroyed  by  Jehu,  and 
converted  into  a  draught -house. 

"  "We  had  scarce  passed  the  sepulchres,"  says  Mr. 
"Wood,  "  when  the  hills  opening  discovered  to  us  all 
at  once  the  greatest  quantity  of  ruins  we  had  ever  seen, 
all  of  white  marble ;  and  beyond  them,  towards  the 
Euphrates,  a  flat  waste  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach, 
without  any  object  that  showed  either  life  or  motion." 

When  Mr.  Wood's  party  arrived,  they  were  con- 
ducted to  one  of  the  huts,  of  which  there  were  about 
thirty,  in  the  court  of  the  great  temple.  The  inha- 
bitants of  both  sexes  were  well-shaped,  and  the 
women,  though  very  swarthy,  had  good  features. 
They  were  veiled  ;  but  did  not  so  scrupulously  con- 
ceal their  faces  as  the  Eastern  women  generally  do. 
They  paint  the  ends  of  their  fingers  red,  their  lips 
blue,  and  their  eyebrows  and  eyelashes  black  *. 

*  This  was  the  custom  also  inthedavsofEzekiel.  Seech.xxiii.  40. 


They  had  large  rings  of  gold  or  brass  in  their  ears 
and  nostrils,  and  appeared  to  be  healthy  and  robust. 
The  ruins  were  next  visited  by  Mr.  Bruce: — "  When 
we  arrived  at  the  top  of  the  hill,"  says  he,  "  there 
opened  before  us,  the  most  astonishing,  stupendous, 
sight,  that  perhaps  ever  appeared  to  mortal  sight. 
The  whole  plain  below,  which  was  very  extensive, 
was  covered  so  thick  with  magnificent  rnins,  as  the 
one  seemed  to  touch  the  other,  all  of  fine  proportions, 
all  of  agreeable  forms,  all  composed  of  white  stone, 
which,  at  that  distance,  appeared  like  marble.  At 
the  end  of  it  stood  the  Palace  of  the  Sun,  a  building 

'  O 

worthy  so  magnificent  a  scene. 

The  effect  on  the  imagination  of  Mr.  Addison  ap- 
pears to  have  been  equally  lively : — "  At  the  end  of 
the  sandy  plain,"  says  he,  "  the  eye  rests  upon  the 
lofty  columns  of  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  encompassed 
by  a  dark  elevated  mass  of  ruined  buildings ;  and 
beyond,  all  around,  and  right  and  left  towards  the 
Euphrates,  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach,  extends 
the  vast  level  naked  flat  of  the  great  desert,  over 
which  the  eye  runs  in  every  direction,  piercing  the 
boundless  horizon,  without  discovering  a  human 
being  or  a  trace  of  man.  Naked,  solitary,  unlimited 
space  extends  around,  where  man  never  breathes 
under  the  shade,  or  rests  his  limbs  under  the  cover  of 
a  dwelling.  A  deep  blue  tint  spreads  along  its  sur- 
face, here  and  there  shaded  with  a  cast  of  brown ;  the 
distant  outline  of  the  horizon  is  clear  and  sharply 
defined ;  not  an  eminence  rises  to  break  the  mono- 
tonous flat,  and  along  the  edge  extends  a  large 
district  covered  with  salt,  distinguished  from  the  rest 
by  its  peculiar  colour. 

"There  is  something  grand  and  awe-inspiring  in  its 
boundless  immensity.  Like  the  first  view  of  the  ocean, 
it  inspires  emotions,  never  before  experienced,  un- 
earthly in  appearance,  and  out  of  character  with  the 


general  fair  face  of  nature.  The  eye  shrinks  from  con- 
templating the  empty,  cheerless  solitude,  and  we 
turn  away  in  quest  of  some  object  to  remove  the 
scenes  of  utter  loneliness,  that  its  gloomy  aspect  is 
calculated  to  inspire." 

From  these  pages  we  turn  with  satisfaction  to 
those  of  an  American : — "  I  have  stood  before  the 
Parthenon,  and  have  almost  worshipped  that  divine 
achievement  of  the  immortal  Phidias.  I  have  been 
at  Milan,  at  Ephesus,  at  Alexandria,  at  Antioch ; 
but  in  none  of  these  renowned  cities  I  have  beheld 
any  thing,  that  I  can  allow  to  approach  in  united 
extent,  grandeur,  and  most  consummate  beauty,  this 
almost  more  than  work  of  man.  On  each  side  of 
this,  the  central  point,  there  rose  upward  slender 
pyramids — pointed  obelisks — domes  of  the  most  grace- 
ful proportions,  columns,  arches,  and  lofty  towers, 
for  number  and  for  form,  beyond  my  power  to  des- 
cribe. These  buildings,  as  well  as  the  walls  of  the 
city,  being  all  either  of  white  marble,  or  of  some 
stone  as  white,  and  being  everywhere  in  their  whole 
extent  interspersed,  as  I  have  already  said,  with 
multitudes  of  overshadowing  palm  trees,  perfectly 
filled  and  satisfied  my  sense  of  beauty,  and  made  me 
feel,  for  the  moment,  as  if  in  such  a  scene  I  should 
love  to  dwell,  and  there  end  my  days." 

Burckhardt  speaks  thus  of  Palmyra  and  Balbec  : 
— "  Having  seen  the  ruins  of  Tadmor,  a  comparison 
between  these  two  renowned  remains  of  antiquity 
naturally  offered  itself  to  my  mind.  The  temple 
of  the  Sun  at  Tadmor,  is  upon  a  grander  scale 
than  that  of  Balbec,  but  it  is  choked  with  Arab 
houses,  which  admit  only  a  view  of  the  building  in 
detail.  The  architecture  of  Balbec  is  richer  than 
that  of  Tadmor." 

In  respect  to  the  rains,  we  must  content  ourselves 
with  giving  a  very  general  account,  as  it  would  be 

VOL.    II.  O 


impossible  to  render  a  minute  description  intelligible 
without  the  aid  of  plates.*  Our  account  will  be  a 
compilation  from  those  given  by  Mr.  Halifax,  Mr. 
Wood,  Mr.  Bruce,  Mr.  Addison,  and  other  writers, 
who  have  been  there. 

The  entire  number  of  distinct  buildings,  which 
may  still  be  traced,  are  from  forty  to  fifty.  To  the 
northward  of  the  valley  of  the  tombs,  on  the  highest 
eminence  in  the  immediate  vicinity,  towers  the  ruined 
Turkish  or  Saracenic  castle.  It  is  seated  on  the 
very  summit  of  the  mountain,  and  surrounded  by  a 
deep  ditch,  cut  out  of  the  solid  rock.  It  is  said  by 
the  Arabs  to  have  been  built  by  Man  Ogle,  a  prince 
of  the  Druses ;  its  deserted  chambers  and  passages 
partake  of  the  universal  solitude  and  silence;  there 
is  not  a  living  thing  about  it;  it  seeins  to  be  deserted 
even  by  the  bats. 

From  this  castle  is  seen  an  extensive  view  round 
about :  you  see  Tadmor  under  you,  inclosed  on  three 
sides  with  long  ridges  of  mountains,  which  open 
towards  the  east  gradually,  to  the  distance  of  about 
an  hour's  riding ;  but  to  the  east  stretches  a  vast  plain 
beyond  the  reach  of  the  eye.  In  this  plain  you  see 
a  large  valley  of  salt,  lying  about  an  hour's  distance 
from  the  cityt. 

*  In  Mr.  Wood's  well-known,  though  exceedingly  scarce  work? 
the  ruins  are  represented  in  fifty-seven  copper-plates,  sixteen  inches 
by  twelve  inches,  printed  on  imperial  paper ;  they  are  finely  ex- 
ecuted, the  drawing  is  correct  and  masterly,  and  the  engraving  highly 
finished.  The  Palmyrene  and  Greek  inscriptions  on  the  funeral 
monuments,  and  other  buildings,  are  copied;  and  besides  picturesque 
views  of  the  ruins,  from  several  points  of  sight,  the  plans  are 
generally  laid  down,  and  the  several  parts  of  the  columns,  doors, 
windows,  pediments,  ceilings  and  bas-reliefs,  are  delineated,  with 
a  scale  by  which  they  may  be  measured  and  compared. 

t  "  In  this  plain,"  says  Mr.  Halifax,  "  you  see  a  large  valley  of 
salt,  affording  great  quantities  thereof,  and  lying  about  an  hour's 
distance  from  the  city :  and  this,  more  probably,  is  the  valley  of 
salt,  mentioned  in  2  Sam.  8—13,  where  David  smote  the  Syrians, 


It  is  imagined  by  the  Persians  that  this  castle,  as 
well  as  the  edifices  at  Balbec,  were  built  by  genii, 
for  the  purposes  of  hiding  in  their  subterranean 
caverns  immense  treasures,  which  still  remain  there*. 
"  All  these  things,"  said  one  of  the  Arabs  to  Mr. 
Wood,  "  were  done  by  Solyman  ebn  Doud,  (Solo- 
mon, the  son  of  David,)  by  the  assistance  of  spirits." 

But  of  all  the  monuments  of  art  and  magnificence, 
the  most  considerable  is  the  Temple  of  the  Sun. 

This  temple,  says  Bruce,  is  very  much  ruined ;  of  its 
peristyle  there  only  remains  *  a  few  columns  entire, 
Corinthian,  fluted  and  very  elegant,  though  appa- 
rently of  slenderer  proportions  than  ten  diameters. 
Their  capitals  are  quite  destroyed.  The  ornament  of 
the  outer  gate  are,  some  of  them,  of  great  beauty,  both 
as  to  execution  and  design. 

Within  the  court  are  the  remains  of  two  rows  of 
very  noble  marble  pillars,  thirty-seven  feet  high. 
The  temple  was  encompassed  with  another  row  of 
pillars,  fifty  feet  high  ;  but  the  temple  itself  was  only 
thirty-three  yards  in  length,  and  thirteen  or  fourteen 
in  breadth.  This  is  now  converted  into  a  mosque, 
and  ornamented  after  the  Turkish  manner. 

North  of  this  place  is  an  OBELISK,  consisting  of 
seven  large  stones,  besides  its  capital,  and  the  wreathed 
work  above  it,  about  fifty  feet  high,  and  just  above  the 
pedestal  twelve  in  circumference.  Upon  this  was 
probably  a  statue,  which  the  Turks  have  des- 

On  the  west  side  is  a  most  magnificent  arch,  on 

and  slew  one  hundred  and  eighty  thousand  men ;  than  another,  which 
lies  but  four  hours  from  Aleppo,  and  has  sometimes  passed  for  it." 
*  "  Istakar,"  says  Abulfeda,  quoted  by  Sir  William  Ouseley, 
"is  one  of  the  most  ancient  cities  in  Persia,  and  was  formerly  the 
royal  residence  :  it  contains  vestiges  of  buildings  so  stupendous, 
that,  like  Tadmor,  and  Balbec,  they  are  said  to  be  the  work  of 
supernatural  beings." 



the  remains  of  which  are  some  vines  and  clusters  of 
grapes,  carved  in  the  boldest  imitation  of  nature  that 
can  be  conceived. 

Just  over  the  door  are  discerned  a  pair  of  wings, 
which  extend  its  whole  breadth  ;  the  body  to  which 
they  belong  is  totally  destroyed,  and  it  cannot  now 
certainly  be  known,  whether  it  was  that  of  an  eagle 
or  of  a  cherub,  several  representations  of  both  being 
visible  on  other  fragments  of  the  building. 

The  north  end 'of  the  building  is  adorned  with  a 
curious  fret -work  and  bas-relief;  and  in  the  middle 
there  is  a  dome  or  cupola,  about  ten  feet  in  diameter, 
which  appears  to  have  been  either  hewn  out  of  the 
rock,  or  moulded  of  some  composition,  which,  by 
time,  is  grown  equally  hard. 

At  about  the  distance  of  a  mile  from  the  OBELISK 
are  two  others,  besides  the  fragment  of  a  third ;  hence 
it  has  been  reasonably  suggested,  that  they  were 
a  continued  row. 

Every  spot  of  ground  intervening  between  the 
walls  and  columns,  is  laid  out  in  plantations  of  corn 
and  olives,  inclosed  by  mud  walls. 

In  the  direction  of  the  mountains  lie  fragments  of 
stone,  here  and  there  columns  stand  erect,  and  clumps 
of  broken  pillars  are  met  with  at  intervals.  All  this 
space  seems  to  have  been  covered  with  small  temples 
and  ornamental  buildings,  approached  by  colonnades. 

Next  to  the  temple,  the  most  remarkable  structure 
is  the  long  portico,  which  commences  about  two 
thousand  two  hundred  feet  to  the  north-west  of  the 
temple,  and  extends  for  nearly  four  thousand  feet 
further  in  the  same  direction.  "  It  is  a  remark 
worthy  the  observation  of  historians,"  says  Volncy, 
"  that  the  front  of  the  portico  has  twelve  pillars  like 
that  at  Balbec ;  but  what  artists  will  esteem  still 
more  curious  is.  that  these  two  fronts  resemble  the 
gallery  of  the  house  built  by  Perrault,  long  before  the 


existence  of  the  drawing  which  made  us  acquainted 
with  them.  The  only  difference  is,  that  the  columns 
of  the  Louvre  are  double,  whereas  those  of  Palmyra 
are  detached." 

About  one  hundred  paces  from  the  middle  obelisk, 
straight  forward,  is  a  magnificent  entry  to  a  piazza, 
which  is  forty  feet  broad  and  more  than  half  a  mile 
in  length,  inclosed  Avith  two  rows  of  marble  pillars, 
twenty-six  feet  high,  and  eight  or  nine  feet  in  com- 
pass. Of  these  there  still  remain  one  hundred  and 
twenty-nine  ;  and,  by  a  moderate  computation, 
there  could  not,  originally,  have  been  less  than  five 
hundred  and  sixty.  The  upper  end  of  the  piazza 
was  shut  in  by  a  row  of  pillars,  standing  somewhat 
closer  than  those  on  each  side. 

A  little  to  the  left  are  the  ruins  of  a  stately  build- 
ing, which  appears  to  have  been  a  banqueting-house. 
It  is  built  of  better  marble,  and  is  finished  with 
greater  elegance,  than  the  piazza.  The  pillars  which 
supported  it  were  one  entire  stone,  which  is  so  strong 
that  one  of  them,  which  has  fallen  down,  has  received 
no  injury.  It  measures  twenty-two  feet  in  length, 
and  in  compass  eight  feet  nine  inches. 

In  the  west  side  of  the  piazza  are  several  apertures 
for  gates,  into  the  court  of  the  palace.  Each  of  these 
is  adorned  with  four  porphyry  pillars  ;  not  stand- 
ing in  a  line  with  those  of  the  wall,  but  placed  by 
couples  in  the  front  of  the  gate  facing  the  palace,  on 
each  side.  Two  of  these  only  remain,  and  but  one 
standing  in  its  place.  These  are  thirty  feet  long,  and 
nine  in  circumference. 

"  We  sometimes  find  a  palace,"  says  Volney,  "  of 
which  nothing  remains  but  the  courts  and  walls ; 
sometimes  a  temple,  whose  peristyle  is  half  thrown 
down ;  and  now  a  portico,  a  gallery,  or  a  triumphant 
arch.  Here  stand  groups  of  columns,  whose  sym- 
metry is  destroyed  by  the  fall  of  many  of  them ; 


these  we  see  ranged  in  rows  of  such  length,  that, 
similar  to  rows  of  trees,  they  deceive  the  sight,  and 
assume  the  appearance  of  continued  walls.  On  which 
side  soever  we  look,  the  earth  is  strewed  with  vast 
stones,  half  buried,  with  broken  entablatures,  da- 
maged capitals,  mutilated  friezes,  disfigured  reliefs, 
effaced  sculptures,  violated  tombs,  and  altars  defiled 
with  mud." 

"  In  their  ruined  courts,"  says  another  traveller, 
"  and  amid  the  crumbling  walls  of  their  cottages, 
may  be  seen,  here  and  there,  portions  of  tlie  ancient 
pavement  of  the  area  ;  while  all  around  the  inclosure 
extend  groups  of  columns,  with  pedestals  for  statues, 
and  walls  ornamented  with  handsome  architectural 
decorations,  the  ruins  of  the  majestic  portico  and 
double  colonnade,  which  once  inclosed  the  whole  of 
the  vast  area.  Portions  of  a  frieze,  or  the  fragments 
of  a  cornice,  upon  whose  decoration  was  expended 
the  labour  of  years,  are  now  used  by  the  poor  vil~ 
lagers  to  bake  their  bread  upon,  or  are  hollowed  out 
as  hand-mills,  in  which  to  grind  their  corn." 

Among  the  walls  and  rubbish  are  a  vast  number 
of  lizards  and  serpents ;  and  that  circumstance  led  to 
the  celebrated  poetic  picture  painted  by  Darwin. 

Lo !  where  PALMYRA,  'mid  her  wasted  plains, 

Her  shattered  aqueducts,  and  prostrate  fanes, 

As  the  bright  orb  of  breezy  midnight  pours 

Long  threads  of  silver  through  her  gaping  towers, 

O'er  mouldering  tombs,  and  tottering  columns  gleams, 

And  frosts  her  deserts  with  diffusive  beams, 

Sad  o'er  the  mighty  wreck  in  silence  bends, 

Lifts  her  wet  eyes,  her  tremulous  hands  extends. 

If  from  lone  cliffs  a  bursting  rill  expands 

Its  transient  course,  and  sinks  into  the  sands  ; 

O'er  the  moist  rock  the  fell  hyena  prowls, 

The  serpent  hisses,  and  the  panther  growls  ; 

On  quivering  wings  the  famished  vulture  screams, 

Dips  his  dry  beak,  and  sweeps  the  gushing  streams. 

With  foaming  jaws  beneath,  and  sanguine  tongue, 

Laps  the  lean  wolf,  and  pants,  and  runs  along  ; 

RutNS   Of   ANCIEXT   CITIES.  87 

Stem  stalks  the  lion,  on  the  rustling  brinks 
Hears  the  dread  snake,  and  trembles  as  he  drinks. 
Quick  darts  the  scaly  monster  o'er  the  plain, 
Fold  after  fold  his  undulating  train  ; 
And,  bending  o'er  the  lake  his  crested  brow, 
Starts  at  the  crocodile  that  gapes  below. — DAUWIK. 

On  the  eastern  side  of  the  area  of  the  Temple  of  the 
Sun,  there  is  a  curious  doorway  of  one  solid  block  of 
stone,  which  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  desert. 
"  As  we  looked  out  of  this  narrow  gateway,"  says 
Mr.  Addison,  "  we  fancied,  that  Zenobia  herself 
might  have  often  stood  at  the  same  spot,  anxiously 
surveying  the  operations  of  Aurelian  and  his  block- 
ading army.  Froni  hence  the  eye  wanders  over  the 
level  waste,  across  which  the  unfortunate  queen  fled 
on  her  swift  dromedary  to  the  Euphrates ;  and  here, 
the  morning  after  her  departure,  doubtless  congre- 
gated her  anxious  friends,  to  see  if  she  was  pursued 
in  her  flight  ;  and  from  hence  she  was  probably  first 
descried,  being  brought  back  a  captive  and  a  pri- 
soner in  the  hands  of  the  Roman  horsemen." 

On  the  east  side  of  the  Piazza,  stands  a  great  num- 
ber of  marble  pillars  :  some  perfect,  but  the  greater 
part  mutilated.  In  one  place  eleven  are  ranged  toge- 
ther in  a  square ;  the  space,  which  they  inclose,  is 
paved  with  broad  flat  stones ;  but  there  are  no  re- 
mains of  a  rdof. 

At  a  little  distance  are  the  remains  of  a  small  tem- 
ple, which  is  also  without  a  roof ;  and  the  walls  are 
much  defaced;  but  from  the  door  is  enjoyed  the 
magnificent  coup-d'osil  of  all  the  ruins,  and  of  the 
vast  desert  beyond.  Before  the  entry,  which  looks 
to  the  south,  is  a  piazza,  supported  by  six  pillars, 
two  on  each  side  of  the  door,  and  one  at  each  end. 
The  pedestals  of  those  in  front  have  been  filled  with 
inscriptions  in  the  Greek  and  Palmyrene  languages, 
which  are  become  totally  illegible. 

Among  these  ruins  there  are  many  SEPULCHRES. 


They  are  ranged  on  each  side  of  a  hollow  way, 
towards  the  north  part  of  the  city,  and  extend  more 
than  a  mile.  They  are  all  square  towers,  four  or 
five  stories  high.  But  though  they  are  alike  in  form, 
they  differ  greatly  in  magnificence.  The  outside 
is  of  common  stone  ;  but  the  floors  and  partitions  of 
each  story  are  marble.  There  is  a  walk  across  the 
whole  building,  just  in  the  middle  ;  and  the  space  on 
each  hand  is  subdivided  into  six  partitions  by  thick 
walls.  The  space  between  the  partitions  is  wide 
enough  to  receive  the  largest  corpse  j  and  in  these 
niches  there  are  six  or  seven  piled  one  upon  another. 

"  As  great  a  curiosity  as  any,"  says  Mr.  Halifax, 
"  were  these  sepulchres,  being  square  towers  four  or 
five  stories  high,  and  standing  on  both  sides  of  a  hollow 
way,  towards  the  north  part  of  the  city.  They 
stretched  out  in  length  the  space  of  a  mile,  and  perhaps 
formerly  might  extend  a  great  way  further.  At  our 
first  view  of  them,  some  thought  them  the  steeples  of 
ruined  churches,  and  were  in  hopes  we  should  have 
found  some  steps  of  churches  here ;  others  took  them 
to  have  been  bastions,  and  part  of  the  old  fortifications, 
though  there  is  not  so  much  as  any  foundation  of  a 
wall  to  be  seen.  But  when  we  came,  a  day  or  two 
after,  more  curiously  to  inquire  into  them,  we  quickly 
found  their  use.  They  were  all  of  the  same  form, 
but  of  different  splendour  and  greatness,  according  to 
the  circumstances  of  their  founders.  The  first  we 
viewed  was  entirely  marble,  but  is  now  wholly  in 
ruins ;  and  we  found  nothing  but  a  heap  of  stones, 
amongst  which  we  found  two  statues ;  one  of  a  man  ; 
another  of  a  woman,  cut  in  sitting,  or  rather  leaning, 
posture,  and  the  heads  and  part  of  the  arms  being 
broken  off;  but  their  bodies  remaining  pretty  entire  ; 
so  that  we  had  the  advantage  of  seeing  their  habits, 
which  appeared  very  noble ;  but  more  approaching 
the  European  fashion,  than  what  is  now  in  use  in  the 


East,  which  inclined  me  to  think  they  might  be 
Roman.  Upon  broken  pieces  of  stone,  tumbled 
here  and  there,  we  found  some  broken  inscriptions, 
but,  not  affording  any  perfect  sense,  they  are  not 
worth  the  transcribing." 

These  are  the  most  interesting  of  all  the  ruins.  As 
you  wind  up  a  narrow  valley  between  the  mountain 
range,  you  have  them  on  yo:ir  right  and  left,  topping 
the  hills,  or  descending  to  the  border  of  the  valley  : 
some  presenting  heaps  of  rubbish,  and  some  half  fallen, 
expose  their  shattered  chambers,  and  one  or  two  still 
exist  in  almost  an  entire  state  of  preservation.  They 
are  seen  from  a  great  distance,  and  have  a  striking 
effect  in  this  desert  solitude. 

The  ruins  of  Palmyra  and  Balbec  are  very  differ- 
ent. "  No  comparison  can  be  instituted  between 
them,"  says  Mr.  Addison.  "  The  ruins  of  Balbec 
consist  merely  of  two  magnificent  temples,  inclosed 
in  a  sort  of  citadel ;  while  here,  over  an  immense  area, 
we  wander  through  the  ruins  of  long  porticoes  leading 
up  to  ruined  temples  and  unknown  buildings.  Now 
we  see  a  circular  colonnade  sweeping  round  with  its 
ruined  gateway,  at  either  end  ;  now  we  come  to  the 
prostrate  walls,  or  ruined  chambers  of  a  temple  or 
palace  ;  anon  we  explore  the  recesses  of  a  bath,  or  the 
ruins  of  an  aqueduct ;  then  we  mount  the  solitary 
staircase,  and  wander  through  the  silent  chambers  of 
the  tombs,  ornamented  with  busts,  inscriptions,  and 
niches  for  the  coffins,  stored  with  mouldering  bones  ; 
and  from  the  summits  of  funereal  towers,  five  stories 
in  height,  we  look  down  upon  this  mysterious  assem- 
blage of  past  magnificence  ;  and  beyond  them,  upon 
the  vast  level  surface  of  the  desert,  silent  and  solitary; 
stretching  away  like  the  vast  ocean,  till  it  is  lost  in 
the  distance,  far  as  the  eye  can  reach.  The  dwelling 
of  man  is  not  visible.  The  vastness  and  immensity  of 
space  strikes  us  with  a  we,  and  the  mouldering  monu- 


ments  of  human  pride,  that  extend  around,  teach  us 
a  sad  lesson  of  the  instability  of  all  human  great- 

Though  antiquity  has  left  nothing  either  in  Greece 
or  Italy,  in  any  way  to  be  compared  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  ruins  of  Palmyra,  Mr.  "Wood 
observes,  that  there  is  a  greater  sameness  in  the 
architecture  of  Palmyra  than  at  Rome,  Athens,  and 
other  great  cities,  whose  ruins  evidently  point  out 
different  ages  of  decay.  But,  except  four  half-columns 
in  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  and  two  in  one  of  the 
mausoleums,  the  whole  architecture  is  Corinthian, 
richly  ornamented  with  some  very  striking  beauties 
and  some  as  visible  faults. 

Through  the  valley  of  the  tombs  may  be  traced 
remnants  of  a  ruined  aqueduct,  which  formerly  con- 
ducted water  to  the  town  from,  at  present,  an 
unknown  source ;  it  consists  of  a  vaulted  passage 
running  underground,  covered  with  a  fine  hard  stucco. 
In  regard  to  the  present  supply,  there  are  two  rivers, 
the  waters  of  which,  when  judiciously  distributed, 
must  have  conduced  greatly  to  the  subsistence  and 
comfort  of  the  ancient  inhabitants ;  but  these  are 
now  allowed  to  lose  themselves  in  the  sand. 

Mr.  Wood  says  that  all  the  inscriptions  he  saw 
were  in  Greek  or  Palmyrene,  except  one,  which  was 
in  Latin.  Many  attempts  have  been  made  to  explain 
the  Palmyrene  inscriptions.  They  were  generally 
supposed  to  be  Syriac.  Gruter,  having  seen  an 
inscription  at  Rome,  gave  it  as  his  opinion  that  the 
characters  were  Arabic.  Scaliger,  speaking  of  the 
same  inscription,  gave  the  subject  up  in  despair. 
Some  have  thought  they  were  Greek,  translated  from 
the  Palmyrene.  Upon  this  hint  M.  Barthelemy 
examined  the  inscriptions  copied  into  Mr.  Wood's 
work,  and  came  to  the  conclusion,  that  Syriac  was 
the  living  language  of  the  inhabitants  of  Palmyra,  at 


the  time  those  monuments  were  erected  ;  and  that  the 
greatest  part,  if  not  all  the  characters,  are  the  same 
as  those  made  use  of  in  writing  Hebrew  at  this  day, 
although  they  have  a  different  appearance. 

We  shall  now  give  a  few  specimens:  —  "This 
splendid  and  durable  monument,  Jamblichus,  the  son 
of  Mocimus,  the  son  of  Acaleises,  the  son  of  Malichus, 
erected  for  himself,  his  children,  and  his  posterity,  in 
the  month  of  April,  year  314." 

There  is  another  to  the  same  purport,  erected  in 
the  same  month,  one  hundred  years  after : — "  This 
monument,  Elabcelus  Manceus  Cocchceus  Malachus, 
the  son  of  Waballathus,  the  son  of  MancEUS,  the  son 
of  Elabtelus,  built  for  himself  and  family  in  the  month 
of  April,  year  414." 

Another  inscription  implies  that  "  Septimius  Ode- 
nathus,  the  most  excellent  senator,  had  erected  this 
monument  for  himself  and  his  posterity,  to  preserve 
their  name  for  ever." 

Another  contains  an  epitaph  erected  by  Sorsechus, 
to  his  wife  Martha,  in  the  reign  of  Marcus  Antoninus, 
A.  D.  178. 

A  third  is  of  the  same  nature ;  appropriated  by 
Malchus,  to  himself  and  his  children,  though  built 
by  his  ancestors. 

Besides  sepulchral  monuments  there  are  others, 
erected  by  order  of  the  senate  and  people  of  the  com- 
monwealth of  Tadmor,  to  the  honour  of  those  citizens 
who  had  deserved  well  of  the  republic.  Among  these 
is  one  in  honour  of  Alilamenes;  another  in  honour 
of  Julius  Aurelius  Zenobius;  another  in  honour 
of  Jarisbolus;  and  others  in  honour  of  Septimius 
Orodes.  The  last  of  these  was  a  great  benefactor  to 
the  public  and  private  institutions  of  Palmyra.  He 
had  been  an  officer  in  his  younger  days,  and  had 
greatly  distinguished  himself  under  his  prince,  Ode- 
nathus,  against  the  Parthians ;  during  the  year 


in  which  this  monument  was  erected,  he  exercised 
the  office  of  symposiarch,  in  the  festival  dedicated  to 
their  Patron  God,  Jupiter  Belus.  That  in  honour 
of  Alilamenes  runs  thus: — "  The  senate  and  the  peo- 
ple have  placed  this  in  honour  of  Alilamenes,  the 
son  of  Panas,  the  son  of  Mociinus,  the  son  of  Cranes, 
devoted  lovers  of  their  country,  and  in  every  respect 
deserving  well  of  their  country,  and  of  the  immor- 
tal Gods,  in  the  year  450,  and  the  30th  day  of  the 
month  of  April." 

There  are,"  also,  monuments  erected  by  private 
persons  to  the  memory  of  their  friends.  The  finest 
of  these  contains  the  grateful  remembrance  which 
the  Palmyrene  merchants,  trading  to  Vologesias*, 
retained  of  the  great  services  which  Julius  Zobeidas 
did  them  in  that  expedition. 

Another  inscription  commemorates  the  virtues  of 
a  person  named  Malenthon,  secretary  to  the  republic 
of  Palmyra,  when  "  the  God  Hadrian"  arrived  in 
the  city  (A.D.  122).  He  is  remembered  for  having 
contributed  to  the  adornment  of  the  temple  of  Belus, 
and  for  having  given  a  largess  to  the  public  baths,  of 
oil  for  the  use,  not  only  of  the  citizens,  but  of 

The  monument  erected  to  Jamblichus  seems  to 
be  the  oldest,  and  the  work  of  Domitian  the  latest ; 
taking  in  about  three  hundred  years  between  them. 
The  other  rich  and  extensive  buildings  were,  Mr. 
Wood  supposes,  erected  before  the  last  of  these  dates, 
and  probably  after  the  first;  perhaps  about  the  time 
ELAB^ELUS  built  his  monument. 

It  is  rather  remarkable,  that  there  is  no  monu- 
ment in  memory  of,  nor  any  inscription  in  honour  of 
Zenobia;  for  which  Dr.  Halley  accounts  on  the 
supposition,  that  the  Romans  were  so  much  irritated 

*  A  city  in  Persia. 


and  ashamed,  that  they  destroyed  and  defaced  every- 
thing that  might  be  erected  in  honour  of  her. 

The  decay  of  Palmyra  has  been  accounted  for  from 
its  peculiar  situation.  A  country  without  land,  if 
the  expression  may  be  allowed,  could  only  exist  by 
commerce:  their  industry  had  no  other  channel  to 
operate  in;  and  when  loss  of  their  liberty  was  fol- 
lowed by  that  of  trade,  they  were  reduced  to  live 
idly  on  as  much  of  their  capital  as  had  been  spared 
by  Aurelian.  When  that  was  spent,  necessity 
compelled  them  to  desert  the  town. 

Time  has  partially  preserved  the  peristyles,  the 
intercolumniations,  and  entablatures  ;  the  elegance  of 
the  designs  of  which  equal  throughout  the  richness 
of  the  materials.  These  being,  in  many  respects, 
the  greatest  and  most  entire,  is  attributed  to  there 
having  been,  for  so  long  a  time,  few  inhabitants  to 
deface  them,  to  a  dry  climate,  and  their  distance 
from  any  city  which  might  apply  the  materials  to 
other  uses.  These  ruins  present  a  sad  contrast  with 
the  hovels  of  the  wild  Arabs,  now  the  only  inha- 
bitants of  a  city  which,  in  former  times,  emulated 
Rome.  "  Of  all  the  contrasts  of  past  magnificence 
with  present  meanness,"  says  Mr.  Addison,  "  of  the 
wealth  and  genius  of  by  -gone  times  with  the  poverty 
and  ignorance  of  the  present  day,  no  more  striking 
instance,  perhaps,  can  be  found  than  is  presented  in 
the  present  poor  Arab  village  of  Tadmor.  You  there 
see  a  few  poverty-stricken  inhabitants  living  in 
square  hovels  of  mud  mixed  with  chopped  straw, 
roofed  with  earth,  leaves,  and  dry  sticks,  congre- 
gated round  the  magnificent  Temple  of  the  Sun  of 
yore ;  despoiled  of  its  ornaments  by  one  of  the  haugh- 
tiest and  most  powerful  of  the  Roman  emperors, 
who  came  with  his  victorious  troops  from  the  distant 
provinces  of  Gaul  and  of  Britain,  to  rend  asunder 
the  dominion  of  which  this  spot,  in  the  midst  of 


desert  solitudes,  had  rendered  itself  the  head."  Mr. 
Addison  then  goes  on  to  state  that  the  "  village 
of  Tadmor  consists,  altogether,  of  about  a  dozen  or 
fifteen  families,  and  there  can  be  hardly  more  than 
twenty  able-bodied  males  in  the  whole  place.  This 
little  community  possesses  a  few  herds  of  goats  and 
dromedaries,  which,  together  with  the  poultry,  form 
the  chief  wealth  of  the  villagers.  These  poor  peo- 
ple are  not,  however,  sufficiently  advanced  in  the 
desert  to  be  without  the  reach  of  the  Syrian  govern- 
ment; they  all  pay  a  capitation  tax  to  Ibrahim 
Pasha.  The  portion  of  cultivated  land  on  this  spot 
is  very  small;  there  are  merely  a  few  scanty  gardens, 
which  produce  roots,  vegetables,  and  a  miserable 
supply  of  corn.  There  are  one  or  two  palm-trees 
along  the  banks  of  the  stream,  and  a  few  shrubs  of 
the  thorny  acacia." 

These  ruins  were,  some  years  ago,  visited  by  a  lady 
who  has  made  a  great  noise  in  Syria — Lady  Hester 
Stanhope.  During  her  residence  there  she  gave  a  kind 
of  fete  to  the  Bedouins.  "  The  great  sheikh,"  says  Mr. 
Carne,  in  his  letters  from  the  East,  "  and  some  of  his 
officers  constantly  reside  at  the  ruins.  Their  habitations 
are  fixed  near  the  great  temple ;  they  are  all  well-dis- 
posed and  civil  in  their  manners,  and  their  young 
women  are  remarkable  above  all  the  other  tribes  for 
their  beauty.  It  was  a  lovely  day,  and  the  youth  of 
both  sexes,  dressed  in  their  gayest  habiliments,  were 
seated  in  rows  on  the  fragments  of  the  pillars,  friezes, 
and  other  ruins  with  which  the  ground  was  covered. 
Her  ladyship,  in  her  Eastern  dress,  walked  among 
them,  addressed  them  with  the  utmost  affability,  and 
ordered  a  dollar  to  be  given  to  each.  As  she  stood 
with  all  that  Arab  array  amidst  the  columns  of  the 
great  Temple  of  the  Sun,  the  sight  was  picturesque 
and  imposing,  and  the  Bedouins  hailed  her  with  the 
utmost  enthusiasm  '  queen  of  Palmyra,'  *  queen  of 


the  desert ;'  and,  in  their  enthusiasm,  would  have  pro- 
ceeded to  confer  more  decided  marks  of  sovereignty  ; 
but  they  were  declined." 

This  fete  was  afterwards  described  to  Mr.  Buck- 
ingham by  an  Arab,  who  had  been  present,  in  the 
following  hyperbolical  style : — "  As  soon  as  it  was 
known  in  the  desert  that  the  princess  intended  to 
journey  to  Tadmor,  all  the  tribes  were  in  motion;  war 
was  changed  to  universal  peace,  and  every  sheik,  or 
chief,  was  eager  to  have  the  honour  of  leading  the 
escort.  Councils  and  assemblies  were  held  at  Horis 
and  at  Hamak,  at  Sham,  and  at  Thaleb,  Damascus, 
and  Aleppo ;  messengers  were  sent  in  every  direction, 
and  nothing  was  neglected  that  might  serve  to  make 
the  way  full  of  pleasure.  When  money  was  talked 
of,  every  one  rejected  it  with  indignation,  and  ex- 
claimed, 'Shall  we  not  serve  the  princess  for  ho- 
nour?' Every  thing  being  settled,  the  party  set  out, 
preceded  by  horsemen  in  front,  dromedaries  of  ob- 
servation on  the  right  and  the  left,  and  camels  laden 
with  provisions  in  the  rear.  As  they  passed  along, 
the  parched  sands  of  the  desert  became  verdant 
plains ;  the  burning  wells  became  crystal  streams ; 
rich  carpets  of  grass  welcomed  them  at  every  place 
where  they  stopped  for  repose,  and  the  trees  under 
which  they  pitched  their  tents,  expanded  to  twice  their 
size  to  cover  them  with  shade.  When  they  reached 
the  broken  city  (the  ruins),  the  princess  was  taken 
to  the  greatest  of  all  the  palaces  (the  Temple  of  the 
Sun),  and  there  gold  and  jewels  were  bound  round 
her  temples,  and  all  the  people  did  homage  to  her  as 
a  queen,  by  bowing  their  heads  to  the  dust.  On 
that  day  Tadmor  was  richer  than  Damascus,  and 
more  peopled  than  Constantinople;  and  if  the  princess 
had  only  remained,  it  would  soon  have  become  the 
greatest  of  all  the  cities  of  the  earth :  for  men  were 
pouring  into  it  from  all  quarters;  horsemen  and 


chiefs,  merchants  and  munugemein  (astrologers  and 
learned  men  who  consult  the  stars)  ;  the  fame  of  her 
beauty  and  benevolence  having  reached  to  Bagdad 
and  Isfahan,  to  Bokhara  and  Samarcand  ;  the  greatest 
men  of  the  East  being  desirous  of  beholding  it  for 
themselves.  The  Arab,  who  firmly  believed  all  this, 
narrated  the  return  from  Palmyra  in  the  same 
romantic  strains ;  and  ended  by  repeating  his  regret 
at  the  misfortune  of  not  having  been  one  of  the  happy 
multitude,  assembled  on  that  occasion;  he  having 
been  then  on  some  business  with  another  tribe  to 
the  south  of  the  Dead  Sea  * ." 

Lady  Hester  is  now  dead.  The  following  account 
is  taken  from  a  paper  published  originally  at  Smyrna  : 
"  "We  announced  in  our  last  number  the  death  of  Lady 
Hester  Stanhope.  Our  readers  will  no  doubt  be  glad 
to  have  a  brief  sketch  of  the  principal  circumstances  of 
that  extraordinary  woman's  life.  It  was  at  Djonni, 
in  Syria,  that  Lady  Hester  died,  after  a  long  illness, 
at  the  age  of  sixty-four.  That  reader  must  be  indif- 
ferent, who  reverts  not  with  interest  to  his  recollec- 
tions of  a  woman,  who  has  expired  on  the  borders  of 
the  desert,  amidst  the  Druses  and  Turkomans,  over 
whom  that  noble  daughter  of  the  Infidels  once  exer- 
cised so  strange  and  so  marvellous  a  sway.  The 
destiny  of  Lady  Stanhope  presents  one  of  those  fea- 
tures of  which  not  another  instance  could,  perhaps, 
be  found  in  the  annals  of  the  East.  Only  imagine 
forty  thousand  Arabs  suddenly  assembled  upon  the 
ruins  of  Palmyra,  and  these  wandering,  savage,  and 
indomitable  tribes  surrounding,  in  silent  astonish- 
ment and  admiration,  a  foreign  woman,  and  pro- 
claiming her  Sovereign  of  the  Desert  and  Queen  of 
Palmyra !  Convey  yourself  in  thought  to  the  scene 
of  this  incredible  triumph,  and  you  will  then  conceive 
what  woman  that  must  have  been,  who  imposed 
*  Buckingham,. 


silence  on  Mussulman  fanaticism,  and  created  for 
herself,  as  it  were,  by  magic,  a  sovereignty  in  the 
domains  of  Mohammed.  '  Lady  Hester  Stanhope,' 
says  M.  de  Lamartine,  in  his  admirable  work, 
'  was  a  niece  of  Mr.  Pitt.  On  the  death  of  her  uncle, 
she  left  England,  and  visited  various  parts  of  Europe. 
Young,  handsome,  and  rich,  she  was  everywhere 
received  with  the  attention  and  interest  due  to  her 
rank,  fortune,  mind,  and  beauty ;  but  she  constantly 
refused  to  unite  her  fate  to  that  of  her  worthiest 
admirers  ;.  and,  after  spending  some  years  in  the 
principal  capitals  of  Europe,  embarked  with  a  nume- 
rous suite  for  Constantinople.  The  real  cause  of  this 
expatriation  has  never  been  known.  Some  have 
ascribed  it  to  the  death  of  a  young  English  officer, 
who  was  killed  at  that  period  in  Spain,  and  whom 
an  eternal  regret  rendered  for  ever  present  in  Lady 
Hester's  heart :  others  have  imputed  her  voluntary 
banishment  to  a  mere  love  of  adventure  in  a  young 
person  of  an  enterprising  and  courageous  character. 
However  this  might  be,  she  departed,  spent  some 
years  at  Constantinople,  and  then  sailed  for  Syria  in 
an  English  vessel,  which  carried  also  the  larger  part 
of  her  fortune,  as  well  as  jewellery,  trinkets,  and 
presents  of  all  sorts,  of  very  considerable  value.'  The 
vessel  encountered  a  storm  in  the  gulf  of  Macri,  on 
the  road  to  Caramania ;  the  ship  was  wrecked,  Lady 
Hester  Stanhope's  property  was  all  lost,  and  it  was 
as  much  as  she  could  do  to  save  her  own  life. 
Nothing,  however,  could  shake  her  resolution.  She 
returned  to  England,  gathered  the  remainder  of  her 
fortune,  sailed  again  for  Syria,  and  landed  at  Latakia, 
the  ancient  Laodicea.  She  had  at  first  thought  of 
fixing  her  abode  at  Broussa,  at  the  foot  of  the  Olym- 
pus ;  but  Broussa  is  a  commercial  city,  situate  on  the 
avenues  to  the  Ottoman  capital,  and  reckoning  not 
less  than  sixty  thousand  inhabitants ;  and  Lady 

VOL.  II.  H 


Hester  sought  the  independence  and  solitude  of 
the  desert.  She  therefore  selected  the  wilderness 
of  Mount  Lebanon,  whose  extreme  ramifications 
lose  themselves  in  the  sands.  Ruined  Palmyra — 
Zenobia's  ancient  capital — suited  her  fancy.  The 
noble  exile  took  up  her  residence  at  Djouni,  prepared 
for  every  vicissitude.  '  Europe,'  said  she, '  is  a  mono- 
tonous residence ;  its  nations  are  unworthy  of  free- 
dom, and  endless  revolution  are  their  only  prospects.' 
She  applied  herself  to  the  study  of  the  Arabic  lan- 
guawe,  and  strove  to  obtain  a  thorough  acquaintance 
with  the  character  and  manners  of  the  Syrian  people. 
One  day,  dressed  in  the  costume  of  the  Osmanlis,  she 
set  out  for  Jerusalem,  Damascus,  Aleppo,  and  the 
desert ;  she  advanced  amidst  a  caravan  loaded  with 
wealth,  tents,  and  presents  for  the  Scheiks,  and  was 
soon  surrounded  by  all  the  tribes,  who  knelt  to  her, 
and  submitted  to  her  supremacy.  It  was  not  solely 
by  her  magnificence,  that  Lady  Hester  had  excited 
the  admiration  of  the  Arabs  :  her  courage  had  been 
proved  on  more  than  one  occasion ;  and  she  had 
always  faced  peril  with  a  boldness  and  energy  which 
the  tribes  well  remembered.  Lady  Hester  Stanhope 
knew  also  how  to  flatter  the  Mahomedan  prejudices. 
She  held  no  intercourse  with  Christians  and  Jews  ; 
she  spent  whole  days  in  the  grotto  of  a  santon,  who 
explained  the  Koran  to  her ;  and  never  appeared  in 
public  without  that  mien  of  majestic  and  grave  inspi- 
ration, which  was  always  unto  oriental  nations  the 
characteristic  of  prophets.  With  her,  however,  this 
conduct  was  not  so  much  the  result  of  design,  as  of 
a  decided  proneness  to  every  species  of  excitement 
and  originality.  Lady  Hester  Stanhope's  first  abode 
was  but  a  monastery.  It  was  soon  transformed  into 
an  oriental  palace,  with  pavilions,  orange- gardens  and 
myrtles,  over  which  spread  the  foliage  of  the  cedar, 
such -as  it  grows  in  the  mountains  of  Lebanon.  The 


traveller,  to  whom  Lady  Hester  opened  this  sanctu- 
ary, would  behold  her  clad  in  oriental  garments.  Her 
head  was  covered  with  a  turban  made  of  red  and 
white  cashmere.  She  wore  a  long  tunic,  with  open 
loose  sleeves ;  large  Turkish  trousers,  the  folds  of 
which  hung  over  yellow  morocco  boots,  embroidered 
with  silk.  Her  shoulders  were  covered  with  a  sort 
of  burnous,  and  a  yataghan  hung  to  her  waist.  Lady 
Hester  Stanhope  had  a  serious  and  imposing  counte- 
nance ;  her  noble  and  mild  features  had  a  majestic 
expression,  which  her  high  stature  and  the  dignity  of 
her  movements  enhanced.  The  day  came  when  all 
this  prestige,  so  expensively  kept  up,  suddenly  va- 
nished. Lady  Hester's  fortune  rapidly  declined ;  her 
income  yearly  decreased  ;  in  short,  the  substantial 
resources,  which  had,  at  one  time,  sustained  the 
magic  of  her  extraordinary  domination,  were  daily 
forsaking  her.  The  Queen  of  Palmyra  then  fell  back 
into  the  rank  of  mere  mortals,  and  she  who  had  signed 
absolute  firmans,  enabling  the  traveller  to  visit  in 
security  the  regions  of  Palmyra — she,  whose  authority 
the  Sublime  Porte  had  tacitly  acknowledged — soon 
saw  her  people  disown  her  omnipotency.  'She  was 
left  the  title  of  queen,  but  is  was  but  an  empty  name, 
a  mere  recollection  ;  and  again  the  monastery's  silence 
ruled  over  the  solitude  of  Djouni.  A  queen,  stripped 
of  her  glory  of  a  day,  Lady  Hester  Stanhope  has  ex- 
pired, the  sport  of  fate,  at  the  moment  the  East  is 
convulsed.  She  has  expired  in  obscurity  and  loneli- 
ness, without  even  mingling  her  name  with  the  great 
events  of  which  it  is  now  the  theatre.  " 

All  this,  if  no  exaggeration  had  been  employed, 
might  have  served  to  the  excitation  of  a  smile  :  but  the 
matter  did  not  rest  there.  Lady  Hester,  or  the  Prin- 
cess, as  she  was  styled,  having  given  to  the  Sheik  an 
absurd  paper  of  authority,  no  one  is  permitted  to  visit 
Palmyra  without  paying  a  thousand  piastres  !  "  The 

100  nUINS    OF    ANCIENT    CITIE8. 

consequence  of  which  is,"  says  Mr.  Game,  "  several 
travellers  have  left  Syria  without  seeing  the  finest 
ruins  in  the  world*." 

NO.  xi. — PATR^E. 

"  NIGHT  overtook  us,"  says  Mr.  Williams,  "  before 
we  reached  Patras,  anciently  called  Patra>.  But  such 
a  night !  the  moon  was  in  full  splendour;  and  while  we 
travelled  among  the  mysterious  scenes,  we  were  often 
tempted  to  pause  and  ask  what  could  be  those  shadowy 
towers,  that  were  perpetually  arresting  our  attention? 
Nothing  could  bemorc  pleasingor  more  romantic,  than 
the  winding  of  our  cavalry  among  the  projecting  rocks 
and  dismal  hollows,  when  first  a  gleam  of  light  pre- 
vailed, and  then  a  solemn  darkness  veiled  and  soft- 
ened all  in  sweet  composure.  The  glow-worms,  peep- 
ing from  the  bushes,  seemed  like  fairies'  eyes;  fire- 
.  flies  glanced  in  thousands,  like  the  sun's  bright  rays 
stealing  on  rippling  waters  in  ebon  shade;  and  how- 
divine  the  evening  star  appeared,  tipping  the  dark 
chain  of  Mount  Olonos!  The  blackbird,  too,  with 
its  train  of  dear  associations,  awakened  our  peculiar 
interest.  All  seemed,  by  their  look  of  delight  to  say, 
'  Sing  on,  sweet  bird !  and  tell  us  of  our  absent 
friends  and  beloved  country!'" 

Patrae  was  a  town  of  Peloponnesus,  anciently 
called  AROE. 

Diana  had  a  temple  there,  and  a  statue  formed  of 
ivory  and  gold,  which  was  considered  a  masterpiece. 
Apollo  also  had  a  temple,  in  which  was  a  statue  of 
the  god,  raised  by  Icadius. 

In  the  time  of  Pausanias,  Patrae  was  also  adorned 
with  porticoes,  a  theatre,  and  an  odeum  ;  the  last  of 

*  Diodorus  ;  Strabo  ;  Josephus  ;  Appian  ;  Zosimus  5  Procopius  ; 
Benjamin  of  Tudela  ;  Halifax  ;  Halley  ;  Wood  ;  Pridcaux ; 
RolHn  ;  Gibbon  ;  Bruce  ;  Volney  ;  Brcwster  ;  Burekliardt ; 


which  was  superior  to  any  in  Greece,  with  one 
exception,  viz.  that  of  Herodes  Atticus  at  Athens. 
In  the  lower  part  of  the  city  was  a  temple  of  Bac- 
chus, in  which  was  an  image  preserved  in  a  chest. 
There  was  also  one  of  Ceres,  with  a  pleasant  grove 
and  a  prophetic  fountain,  which  determined  the  events 
of  illness.  After  supplicating  the  goddess  with 
incense,  the  sick  person  is  said  to  have  appeared, 
living  or  dead,  in  a  mirror  suspended  so  as  to  touch 
the  surface  of  the  water*. 

Patras  was  selected  by  Augustus  as  a  place  in 
which  to  settle  some  of  those,  who  had  fought  with 
him  at  Actium.  Some  of  the  cities  of  Achaia  were 
made  tributary  to  the  Patrenses,  and  they  continued 
long  to  flourish  after  the  decay  of  the  neighbouring 

They  were  rich  in  the  monuments  of  art.  Pau- 
sanias  enumerates  nineteen  or  twenty  temples, 
besides  statues,  altars,  and  marble  sepulchres,  exist- 
ing in  his  time  in  the  city,  the  port,  and  the  sacred 

Patras,  though  it  has  now  recovered  the  destruc- 
tion, was  wholly  destroyed  by  the  Turks  in  1770. 
We  must,  however,  first  state,  that  in  1447  it  made 
the  best  defence  against  the  Turks  of  any  place  in 
the  Peloponnesus.  In  1532  it  was  taken  and  ran- 
sacked by  Doria.  But  of  all  its  distresses  the  last 
was  the  most  terrible;  this  was  in  1770.  It  had 
lately  been  freed  by  the  temporary  success  of  Greek 
insurgents  from  the  yok<%  of  the  Turks;  but  the 
appearance  of  the  Athenians,  who  rushed  through 
the  passes  of  the  isthmus  to  the  assistance  of  the 
Mahometans,  soon  decided  the  fate  of  the  place. 
An  army  of  ten  thousand,  both  horse  and  foot, 
entered  the  town  through  every  avenue.  It  was  not 
a  contest,  but  a  carnage:  not  a  Greek  capable  of 


bearing  arms  was  spared,  and  the  houses  were  all 
burned  to  the  ground*. 

In  forty  years,  Patras  recovered  this  calamity, 
and  is  now  said  to  be  a  flourishing  place ;  but  Mr. 
Dodwell  describes  it  as  being  composed,  like  all  other 
Turkish  cities,  of  dirty  and  narrow  streets;  with 
houses  built  of  earth,  baked  in  the  sun ;  with  eaves 
overhanging  the  streets. 

The  few  remains,  which  are  in  Patras,  are  of 
Roman  construction ;  and  those  neither  grand,  in- 
teresting, nor  well  preserved.  In  the  castle,  how- 
ever, there  are  said  ta  be  several  beautiful  forms  of 
female  statues:  and  here  we  have  to  state  an  instance 
of  barbarism,  strikingly  illustrative  of  the  character 
of  the  more  ignorant  portion  of  the  Turks.  Some 
marble  columns  and  mutilated  statues  having  been 
found,  a  few  years  ago,  in  the  garden  of  a  Turk,  he 
immediately  broke  them  to  pieces ! 

There  are  several  large  fissures  in  the  walls  of  the 
castle,  occasioned  by  an  earthquake,  about  forty 
years  ago  ;  in  which  forty  persons  were  killed  in  the 
town,  and  thirteen  crushed  by  the  falling  of  one  of 
the  turrets. 

"  Nothing  can  be,"  says  Mr.  Hobhouse,  "  more 
pleasant  than  the  immediate  vicinity  of  this  town ; 
which  is  one  blooming  garden  of  orange  and  lemon 
plantations,  of  olive  groves,  and  currant  grounds. 
The  temple  and  the  statues,  the  theatre,  the  columns 
and  the  marble  porch,  have  disappeared :  but  the 
valleys  and  the  mountains,  and  some,  not  frequent, 
fragments,  of  more  value  than  all  the  costly  monu- 
ments of  barbaric  labour, — these  still  remain,  and 
remind  the  traveller,  that  he  treads  the  ground 
once  trod  by  the  heroes  and  sages  of  antiquity. 
To  traverse  the  native  country  of  those,  whose 
deeds  and  whose  wisdom  have  been  proposed  to  all 
*  iiobhousc. 


the  polished  nations  of  every  succeeding  age,  as  the 
models  which  they  should  endeavour  to  imitate,  but 
must  never  hope  to  equal,  with  no  other  emotions 
than  would  arise  in  passing  through  regions  never 
civilised,  is  unnatural;  is  impossible  !  No  one  would 
roam  with  the  same  indifference  through  the  sad 
solitudes  of  Greece,  and  the  savage  wilds  of  Ame- 
rica; nor  is  the  expression  of  feelings,  which  it  is 
the  object  and  end  of  all  liberal  education  to  instil 
and  encourage,  to  be  derided  as  the  unprofitable 
effusion  of  folly  and  affectation."  * 

NO.  XII. —  PELLA. 

IT  was  a  long  time  before  the  Greeks  had  any 
regard  to  Macedonia.  The  kings,  living  retired  in 
woods  and  mountains,  it  seemed  not  to  be  considered 
as  a  part  of  Greece. 

Pella  was  the  capital  of  the  kings  of  Macedon. 
There  Philip  lived  and  reigned,  and  here  Alexander 
was  born.  After  his  death  the  kingdom  of  Macedon 
frequently  changed  masters.  Philip  Aridaeus  was 
succeeded  by  Cassander,  who  left  three  sons.  Philip, 
the  eldest,  died  presently  after  his  father.  The 
other  two  contended  for  the  crown,  without  enjoying 
it ;  both  dying  soon  after  without  issue. 

Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  Pyrrhus,  and  Lysimachus, 
made  themselves  masters  of  all,  or  the  greatest  part 
of  Macedonia,  sometimes  in  conjunction,  and  at  other 
times  separately. 

After  the  death  of  Lysimachus,  Seleucus  possessed 
himself  of  Macedonia,  but  did  not  long  enjoy  it. 

Ptolemy  Ceraunus  having  slain  the  preceding 
prince,  seized  the  kingdom,  and  possessed  it  alone 
but  a  very  short  time;  having  lost  his  life  in  a  battle 

*  Pausanias  ;  Chandler  ;  Rees ;  Hobhouse  ;  Dodwell  ;  Wil- 


with  the  Gauls,  who  had  made  an  irruption  into 
that  country. 

Sosthenes,  who  defeated  the  Gauls,  reigned  also 
hut  a  short  time. 

Antigonus  Gonatus,  the  son  of  Demetrius  Polior- 
cetes,  obtained  peaceable  possession  of  the  kingdom 
of  Macedonia,  and  transmitted  these  dominions  to 
his  descendants,  after  he  had  reigned  thirty-four 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Demetrius,  who 
reigned  ten  years,  and  then  died ;  leaving  a  son,  named 
Philip,  who  was  but  two  years  old. 

Antigonus  Doson,  reigned  twelve  years,  in  the 
quality  of  guardian  to  the  young  prince. 

Philip,  after  the  death  of  Antigonus,  ascended 
the  throne,  at  the  age  of  fourteen  years.  After 
him,  Perseus ;  who  was  defeated  and  taken  prisoner 
by  Paulus  .'Emilius ;  and  Macedonia,  in  consequence 
of  that  victory,  was  added  to  the  provinces  of  the 
Roman  empire,  B.  c.  160. 

For  this  success  Paulus ./Emilius  was  honoured  with 
a  triumph  ;  and  as  a  description  of  that  ceremony  will 
serve  to.  diversify  our  pages  in  a  very  agreeable 
manner,  we  adopt  the  account  afforded  us  by  Plutarch. 
"  The  people  erected  scaffolds  in  the  Forum  and 
Circus,  and  all  other  parts  ef  the  city  where  they 
could  best  behold  the  pomp.  The  spectators  were 
clad  in  white  garments  ;  all  the  temples  were  open 
and  full  of  garlands  and  perfumes ;  the  ways  cleared 
and  cleansed  by  a  great  many  officers  and  tipstaffs, 
that  drove  away  such  as  thronged  the  passage,  or 
straggled  up  and  down.  This  triumph  lasted  three 
days.  On  the  first,  which  was  scarce  long  enough 
for  the  sight,  were  to  be  seen  the  statues,  pictures, 
and  images,  of  an  extraordinary  bigness,  which  were 
taken  from  the  enemy,  drawn  upon  seven  hundred 
and  fifty  chariots.  On  the  second,  was  carried,  in  a 

RUINS    OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  .       10j 

great  many  wains,  the  fairest  and  the  richest  armour 
of  the  Macedonians,  both  of  brass  and  steel,  all 
newly  furbished  and  glittering ;  which,  although 
piled  up  with  the  greatest  art  and  order,  yet  seemed 
to  be  tumbled  on  heaps  carelessly  and  by  chance ; 
helmets  were  thrown  on  shields,  coats  of  mail  upon 
greaves,  Cretan  targets,  and  Thracian  bucklers  and 
quivers  of  arrows  lay  huddled  among  the  horses' 
bits ;  and  through  these  appeared  the  points  of 
naked  swords,  intermixed  with  long  spears.  All 
these  arms  were  tied  together  in  a  way,  that  they 
knocked  against  one  another  as  they  were  drawn 
along,  and  made  a  harsh  and  terrible  noise  ;  so  that 
the  very  spoils  of  the  conquered  could  not  be  beheld 
without  dread.  After  these  waggons  loaden  with 
armour,  there  followed  three  thousand  men,  who 
carried  the  silver  that  was  coined,  in  seven  hundred 
and  fifty  vessels,  each  of  which  weighed  three 
talents,  and  was  carried  by  four  men.  Others  brought 
silver  bowls,  and  goblets,  and  cups,  all  disposed  in 
such  order  as  to  make  the  best  show,  and  all  valu- 
able, as  well  for  their  bigness,  as  the  thickness  of 
their  engraved  work.  On  the  third  day,  early  in 
the  morning,  first  came  the  trumpeters,  who  did  not 
sound  as  they  were  wont  in  a  procession  or  solemn 
entry  ;  but  such  a  charge  as  the  Romans  use  when 
they  encourage  their  soldiers  to  fight.  Next  followed 
young  men,  girt  about  with  girdles  curiously  wrought, 
which  led  to  the  sacrifice  one  hundred  and  twenty 
stalled  oxen,  with  their  horns  gilded,  and  their  heads 
adorned  with  ribands  and  garlands  ;  and  with  these 
were  boys  that  carried  platters  of  silver  and  gold. 
After  this  was  brought  the  gold  coin,  which  was  di- 
vided into  vessels  that  weighed  three  talents,  like  to 
those  that  contained  the  silver  ;  they  were  in  number 
fourscore  wanting  three.  These  were  followed  by 
those  that  brought  the  consecrated  bowl,  which 


TEmilius  caused  to  be  made,  that  weighed  ten 
talents,  and  was  all  beset  with  precicras  stones.  Then 
were  exposed  to  view  the  cups  of  Antigonus  and 
Seleucus,  and  such  as  were  made  after  the  fashion 
invented  by  Thericles,  and  all  the  gold  plate  that  was 
used  at  Perseus's  table.  Next  to  these  came  Per- 
seus's  chariot,  in  which  his  armour  was  placed,  and 
on  that  his  diadem.  And  after  a  little  intermission, 
the  king's  children  were  led  captives,  and  with  them 
a  train  of  nurses,  masters,  and  governors,  who  all 
wept,  and  stretched  forth  their  hands  to  the  specta- 
tors, and  taught  the  little  infants  to  beg  and  entreat 
their  compassion.  There  were  two  sons  and  a 
daughter,  who,  by  reason  of  their  tender  age,  were 
altogether  insensible  of  the  greatness  of  their  misery ; 
which  insensibility  of  their  condition  rendered  it 
much  more  deplorable  ;  insomuch,  that  Perseus  him- 
self was  scarce  regarded  as  he  went  along,  whilst 
pity  had  fixed  the  eyes  of  the  Romans  upon  the 
infants,  and  many  of  them  could  not  forbear  tears  ; 
all  beheld  the  sight  with  a  mixture  of  sorrow  and 
joy,  until  the  children  were  past.  After  his  children 
and  their  attendants,  came  Perseus  himself,  clad 
all  in  black,  and  wearing  slippers,  after  the  fashion 
of  his  country.  He  looked  like  one  altogether 
astonished  and  deprived  of  reason,  through  the  great- 
ness of  his  misfortunes.  Next  followed  a  great  com- 
pany of  his  friends  and  familiars,  whose  countenances 
were  disfigured  with  grief,  and  who  testified  to  all 
that  beheld  them  by  their  tears,  and  their  continual 
looking  upon  Perseus,  that  it  was  his  hard  fortune 
they  so  much  lamented,  that  they  were  regardless  of 
their  own.  After  these  were  carried  four  hundred 
crowns  all  made  of  gold,  and  sent  from  the  cities  by 
their  respective  ambassadors  to  ^milius,  as  a  reward 
due  to  his  valour.  Then  he  himself  came  seated  on 
a  chariot  magnificently  adorned  (a  man  worthy  to  bo 


beheld,  even  without  these  ensigns  of  power)  :  he 
was  clad  in  a  garment  of  purple  interwoven  with 
gold,  and  held  out  a  laurel  branch  in  his  right  hand. 
All  the  army,  in  like  manner,  with  boughs  of  laurel 
in  their  hands,  and  divided  into  bands  and  companies, 
followed  the  chariot  of  their  commander ;  some  sing- 
ing odes  (according  to  the  usual  custom)  mingled 
with  raillery ;  others,  songs  of  triumph,  and  the 
praises  of  ^Emilius's  deeds,  who  was  admired  and 
accounted  happy  by  all  men  ;  yet  unenvied  by  every 
one  that  was  good." 

"  The  ancient  capital  of  the  kings  of  Macedon,"  says 
Monsieur  de  Pouqueville,  "  does  not  announce  itself  in 
its  desolation  to  the  eye  of  the  stranger,  as  at  Athens 
and  Corinth,  by  the  display  of  the  remains  of  its 
ancient  splendour.  Its  vestiges  are  found  on  an  emi- 
nence sloping  to  the  south-west,  and  surrounded  by 
marshes.  In  vain,  however,  does  the  traveller  look  for 
the  walls  of  the  city,  for  the  citadel,  for  the  dykes  con- 
structed to  defend  from  inundation  the  temples,  build- 
ings, and  the  monuments  of  its  grandeur.  The  barba- 
rians from  the  North,  the  Romans,  and  the  succession 
of  ages,  have  destroyed  even  the  ruins.  The  once 
powerful  city  of  Pella  is  now  sunk  down  into  frag- 
ments of  tombs,  masses  of  brick  and  tile,  and  about 
threescore  huts,  inhabited  by  Bulgarians,  with  a 
tower  garrisoned  by  about  a  dozen  Albanians.  Such 
are  the  present  edifices,  population,  and  military 
establishment  of  Pella,  once  the  powerful  capital  of 
Alexander  and  Perseus  !  A  low  Mahommedan  now 
commands,  whip  in  hand,  in  the  city  where  Alexander 
first  saw  the  light ;  and  the  paternal  seat  of  that 
monarch,  whose  dominions  extended  from  the  Adri- 
atic to  the  Indus,  was,  some  years  ago,  the  property 
of  Achmet,  son  of  Ismael,  Bey  of  Serres*/' 
*  Plutarch  ;  Kees  ;  Pouqueville. 



Tins  was  a  city  of  Great  Mysia,  in  Asia  Minor, 
the  capital  of  the  kingdom  of  Pergamus,  which  was 
founded  by  a  eunuch,  named  Philatera,  who  had 
been  a  servant  to  Docima,  a  commander  of  the  troops 
of  Antigonus. 

Pergamus  was  assaulted  by  Philip,  king  of  Macedon, 
in  his  war  against  Attalus  the  First,  who  had  taken 
part  with  the  Romans.  All  his  efforts,  however, 
being  unavailing,  he  turned  his  rage  and  fury  against 
the  gods;  and,  not  satisfied  with  burning  their 
temples,  he  demolished  statues,  broke  to  pieces  their 
altars,  and  even  pulled  up  the  stones  from  their 
foundations,  that  not  the  least  footsteps  of  them  might 

At  the  death  of  Attalus,  his  son  Eumenes  the 
Second  succeeded ;  and  it  was  during  his  reign  and 
under  his  inspiration, — if  such  an  expression  may  be 
allowed — that  the  celebrated  library  was  collected*, 
which  makes  such  a  figure  in  literary  history. 

The  kingdom  ceased  to  exist  at  the  death  of 
Attalus  the  Third ;  since  that  prince  left  it  to  the 
Roman  people. 

As  this  event  was  very  important  to  the  city  as 
well  as  kingdom  of  Pergamus,  we  may,  with  pro- 
priety, enter  a  little  into  the  character  of  the  prince, 
who  made  so  extraordinary  a  bequeathment.  His- 
torians relate,  that  he  was  scarcely  on  the  throne 
before  he  stained  it  with  the  blood  of  his  nearest 
relatives.  He  caused  almost  all  those,  who  had  served 
his  father  and  his  uncle  with  extreme  fidelity,  to  have 
their  throats  cut ;  under  pretence  that  some  of  them 
had  killed  his  mother,  who  died  of  a  disease  in  a  very 
advanced  age,  and  others  his  wife,  who  died  of  an 
incurable  distemper.  He  caused  the  destruction  also 
ofjvvives,  children,  and  whole  families.  Having  com- 
*  This  library  consisted  of  two  hundred  thousand  volumes. 


mitted  all  these  enormities,  he  appeared  no  more  in 
the  city,  and  ate  no  longer  in  public.  He  put  on 
old  clothes,  let  his  beard  grow,  and  did  every  thing 
which  persons,  accused  of  capital  crimes,  used  to  do 
in  those  days ;  as  if  he  intended  thereby  to  acknow- 
ledge the  extent  of  his  own  atrocity.  From  hence 
he  proceeded  to  other  species  of  folly  and  iniquity. 
He  renounced  the  cares  of  state,  and  retired  into  his 
garden,  and  applied  to  digging  the  ground  himself, 
and  sowing  all  sorts  of  poisonous  as  well  as  wholesome 
herbs  ;  then  poisoning  the  good  with  the  juice  of  the 
bad,  he  sent  them  in  that  manner  as  presents  to  his 
friends.  At  length  he  took  it  into  his  head  to  prac- 
tise the  trade  of  a  brass- founder ;  and  formed  the 
raodel  of  a  monument  of  brass  to  be  erected  to  his 
mother.  As  he  was  casting  the  metal  for  this  pur- 
pose, one  hot  summer's  day,  he  was  seized  with  a 
fever,  which  in  a  few  days  carried  him  off.  The 
principal  clause  in  his  will  was  expressed  in  these 
terms : — "  Let  the  people  of  Rome  inherit  all  my 
fortunes."  This  will  having  been  carried  to  Rome, 
the  city  and  kingdom  of  Pergamus,  as  we  have 
already  stated,  passed  into  a  Roman  province. 

Pergamus  gave  birth  to  Apollodorus,  the  precep- 
tor of  Augustus ;  and  Galen,  next  to  Hippocrates  the 
greatest  physician  that  ever  adorned  the  annals  of 
medical  science.  It  is  also  remarkable  for  having  been 
alluded  to  by  Tiberius,  in  one  of  his  hypocritical 
speeches  to  the  Roman  senate,  as  reported  in  Tacitus. 
"  I  know  very  well,"  said  he,  "  that  many  men  will 
condemn  me  for  suffering  Asia  to  build  me  a  temple, 
as  Spain  at  present  would  do  :  but  I  will  give  you  a 
reason  for  what  I  have  done,  and  declare  my  resolu- 
tion for  the  future.  The  divine  Augustus,  whose 
actions  and  words  are  so  many  inviolable  laws  to  me, 
having  consented  that  the  people  of  Pergamus  should 
dedicate  a  temple  to  him  and  the  city  of  Rome,  I 


thought  I  might  follow  so  great  an  example  ;  so  much 
the  rather,  since  the  honour,  intended  me,  was  joined 
with  the  veneration  paid  to  the  senate.  But  as  on 
the  one  hand  it  might  have  been  too  great  a  piece  of 
severity  to  have  denied  it  for  once  ;  so  on  the  other, 
doubtless,  it  would  be  too  great  a  vanity  and  folly, 
to  suffer  one's  self  to  be  adored  as  a  God,  through  all 
the  provinces  of  the  empire.  Besides,  it  cannot  but 
be  a  great  diminution  to  the  glory  of  Augustus,  to 
communicate  it  indifferently  to  all  the  world.  For 
my  own  part,  I  am  mortal,  and  subject  to  human  in- 
firmities ;  I  am  contented  with  being  a  prince  here, 
without  being  raised  to  the  throne  of  a  God.  I  pro- 
test to  you,  I  desire  this  testimony  may  be  given  of 
me  to  posterity.  It  will  be  glory  enough  for  me  to 
be  thought  worthy  of  my  ancestors  ;  a  vigilant  prince, 
one  who  is  insensible  of  fear,  when  the  common- 
wealth is  in  danger.  These  are  the  temples  and 
monuments  which  I  desire  to  erect  in  your  breasts  : 
for  works  of  marble  and  brass,  raised  to  the  glory  of 
princes,  are  contemned  by  posterity  as  so  many  naked 
sepulchres,  when  their  memory  is  condemned.  I 
entreat  heaven  to  give  me  a  serenity  of  mind,  and  a 
spirit  to  discern  and  judge  uprightly  of  the  laws  of 
God  and  man ;  and  after  my  decease,  I  confide,  my 
fellow-citizens  and  allies  will  preserve  my  memory 
with  their  blessings  and  praises." 

Mr.  Turner  found  several  ancient  inscriptions  at 
Pergamus.      He   ascended    the   ancient   Acropolis, 
which  is  built  on  a  mount  of  about  two  hundred  feet 
height,  overhanging  the  town  :  on  the  top  are  ex- 
tensive remains  of  the  walls  both  of  the  Roman  and 
Venetian  city.    Part  of  the  walls  are  built  with  large   j 
fluted  columns,  laid  length- ways.    Among  the  Roman 
ruins  are  several  immense  arched  caves  under  ground,  I 
about  sixty  feet  deep.     At  the  top  of  the  hill  lay  a 
large  Corinthian  capital,  and  half  way  down  the  hill 


a  small  marble  column,  on  which  is  a  Greek  inscrip- 
tion, now  illegible. 

In  a  valley  west  of  the  Acropolis  are  considerable 
remains  of  a  large  Roman  amphitheatre  ;  near  which 
is  a  gate  with  part  of  a  wall.  The  arch  of  the  gate 
is  curiously  inclined,  being  unequal ;  the  only  instance 
of  such  an  irregularity  Mr.  Turner  ever  saw  in  an 
ancient  building.  There  are  also  ruins  of  several 
Roman  baths ;  in  one  of  which  was  found  a  vase, 
which  has  excited  a  great  deal  of  admiration.  Mr. 
Turner  thus  describes  it : — "  It  is  of  fine  marble,  and 
in  good  preservation,  being  only  a  little  broken  round 
the  rim.  The  shape  of  it  is  a  flattened  globe  ;  on  the 
outside  round  the  circumference  of  the  centre  are 
fifteen  equestrian  figures  in  high  -relief ;  nine  of  these 
have  their  heads  much  broken,  nine  have  their  arms 
extended ;  the  horses  are  all  at  full  speed,  and  a  race  is 
probably  the  subject  represented,  as  none  of  the 
figures  bear  arms.  Five  of  the  figures  are  clinging  to 
their  horses,  and  one  appears  to  be  falling.  Nothing," 
continues  Mr.  Turner,  "  can  exceed  the  spirit  of  the 
execution ;  the  very  horses  seem  to  breathe ;  above 
and  below  the  figures  a  band,  on  which  is  engraved 
the  pattern  of  a  laurel  leaf,  surrounds  the  vase :  a 
very  correct  engraving  of  which  is  given  in  the  work 
of  Choiseul-Goufner.  There  are  said  to  have  been 
seven  of  these  vases  at  Pergamus  ;  six  of  which  were 
taken  to  Constantinople." 

There  are  also  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bergamo, 
the  present  ruins  of  this  city,  six  tumuli ;  three  large 
and  three  small*. 

*  Tacitus ;  Plutarch  ;  Choiseul-Gouffier  ;  Rees  ;  Turner. 



'< I  know 

The  wealth,"  she  cries,  "  of  every  urn, 
In  which  unnumbered  rubies  burn, 
Beneath  the  pillars  of  CHILMINAR." 

MOORE; — Lalla  Rookh. 

THIS  city  is  supposed  to  have  been  founded  by 
the  famous  Jemsheed,  from  whom  it  is  to  this  day 
called  Tuklit-e- Jemsheed  ; — the  throne  of  Jemsheed ; 
a  prince,  to  whom  Persian  authors  attribute  the 
invention  of  many  useful  arts*  ;  and. to  whom  they 
refer  the  first  great  reform  in  the  manners  and  usages 
of  their  countrymen.  He,  also,  introduced  the  solar 
year ;  and  ordered  the  first  day  of  it,  when  the  sun 
entered  Aries,  to  be  celebrated  as  a  festivalt. 

An  old  Persian  author  has  left  the  following  descrip- 
tion of  Persepolis  : — "Jemsheed  built  a  fortified  palace 

*  Sir  John  Malcolm  has  preserved  an  account  of  Jemsheed,  from 
Moullab  Ackber's  MSS.,  which  may  serve  to  diversify  our  page. 
"Jemsheed  was  the  first  who  discovered  wine.  He  was  immoderately 
fond  of  grapes,  and  desired  to  preserve  some;  which  were  placed 
in  a  large  vessel,  and  lodged  in  a  vault  for  future  use.  When  the 
vessel  was  opened,  the  grapes  had  fermented.  Their  juice,  in  this 
state;  was  so  acid,  that  the  king  believed  it  must  be  poisonous.  He 
had  some  vessels  filled  with  it,  and  poison  written  upon  each: 
these  were  placed  in  his  bed-room.  It  happened  that  one  of  his 
favourite  ladies  was  affected  with  nervous  head-aches.  The  pain 
distracted  her  so  much,  that  she  desired,  death  ;  and  observing  a 
vessel  with  the  word  poison  written  upon  it,  she  took  it  and 
swallowed  its  contents.  The  wine,  for  such  it  had  become,  over- 
powered the  lady,  who  fell  into  a  sound  sleep,  and  awoke  much 
refreshed.  Delighted  with  the  remedy,  she  repeated  the  dose  so 
often,  that  the  monarch's  poison  was  all  drunk.  He  soon  dis- 
covered this,  and  forced  the  lady  to  confess  what  she  had  done. 
A  quantity  of  wine  was  made  ;  and  Jemsheed,  and  all  his  court, 
drank  of  the  new  beverage,  which,  from  the  circumstance  that 
led  to  its  discovery,  is  to  this  day  known  in  Persia  by  the  name 
of  zeher-e-khoosh,  or  the  delightful  poison." 

f  It  is  called  Nouroze.  Some  of  the  sculptures  of  the  dilapi- 
dated palace  are  supposed  to  represent  the  processions  at  this 


at  the  foot  of  a  hill,  which  bounds  the  fine  plain  of 
Murdasht  to  the  north-west.  The  platform,  on 
which  it  was  built,  has  three  faces  to  the  plain,  and 
one  to  the  mountain.  It  is  formed  of  hard,  black 
granite.  The  elevation  from  the  plain  is  ninety 
feet ;  and  every  stone,  used  in  this  building,  is  from 
nine  to  twelve  feet  long,  and  broad  in  proportion. 
There  are  two  great  flights  of  stairs  to  this  palace,  so 
easy  of  ascent,  that  a  man  can  ride  up  on  horseback  • 
and  on  the  platform  a  palace  has  been  erected,  part 
of  which  still  remains  in  its  original  state,  and  part 
is  in  ruins.  The  palace  of  Jemsheed  is  that,  now 
called  the  Chesel-Setoon,  or  Forty  Pillars.  Each 
pillar  is  formed  of  a  carved  stone,  is  sixty  feet  high, 
and  is  ornamented  in  a  manner  so  delicate,  that  it 
would  seem  to  rival  upon  hard  granite  the  sculpture 
of  a  carving  upon  the  softest  wood.  There  is  no 
granite  like  that,  of  which  these  pillars  are  made,  to 
be  now  found  in  Persia :  and  it  is  unknown  from 
whence  it  is  brought.  Some  most  beautiful  and 
extraordinary  figures  ornament  this  palace ;  and  all 
the  pillars,  which  once  supported  the  roof  (for  that 
has  fallen)  are  composed  of  three  pieces  of  stone, 
joined  in  so  exquisite  a  manner,  as  to  make  the  be- 
holder believe,  that  the  whole  shaft  is  one  piece. 
There  are  several  figures  of  Jemsheed  in  the  sculp- 
ture ;  in  one  he  has  an  urn  in  his  hand,  in  which  he 
burns  benjamin,  while  he  stands  adoring  the  sun;  in 
another,  he  is  represented  as  seizing  the  mane  of  a 
lion  with  one  hand,  while  he  stabs  him  with  another." 
The  remains  of  this  city  stands  in  one  of  the  finest 
plains  of  Persia ;  being  eighteen  or  nineteen  leagues 
in  length,  and  in  some  places  two,  in  some  four,  and 
in  others  six  leagues  in  breadth.  It  is  watered  by 
the  great  river  Araxes,  and  by  a  multitude  of  rivers 
beside.  Within  the  compass  of  this  plain  there  are 
between  one  thousand  and  one  thousand  five  hundred 

VOL.  II.  I 


villages,  without  reckoning  those  in  the  mountains, 
all  adorned  with  pleasant  gardens,  and  planted  with 
trees.  The  entrance  of  this  plain,  on  the  west  side, 
has  received  as  much  grandeur  from  nature,  as  the 
city  it  covered  could  do  from  industry  or  art. 

Some  authors  say,  that  to  attempt  any  guess  of 
the  period  when  the  city  first  rose  from  the  plain, 
would  be  useless,  and  that  the  only  means,  now  re- 
maining, of  forming  any  satisfactory  conjectures,  in 
regard  to  its  origin,  can  only  reach  to  the  probable 
era  of  the  different  remaining  ruins.  When  in  Persia, 
however,  Mr.  Francklin  met  with  a  short  account 
of  the  building  this  palace,  in  MS.,  being  part  of  a 
work,  called  Rouzut  al  Sefa,  or  the  Garden  of  Purity ; 
of  which  he  gives  this  as  a  translation : — "  It  is 
related  by  historians,  that  King  Jemsheed  removed 
the  seat  of  government,  which  was  formerly  in  the 
province  of  Sejestaun,  to  Fars;  and  that  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Shirauz,  having  taken  in  a  spot  of 
ground,  of  twelve  furlongs  in  length  (forty-eight 
English  miles),  he  there  erected  such  a  palace,  that 
in  the  seven  kingdoms  of  the  world  there  was"  nothing 
that  could  equal  it.  The  remains  of  that  palace,  and 
many  of  the  pillars  of  it,  are  visible  to  this  day;  and 
he  caused  the  palace  to  be  called  Chehul  Minar,  or 
Forty  Pillars.  Moreover,  when  the  sun,  quitting  the 
sign  Pisces  in  the  heavens,  had  entered  Aries,  Jem- 
sheed, having  assembled  all  the  princes,  nobles,  and 
great  men  of  his  empire,  at  the  foot  of  his  imperial 
throne,  did  on  that  day  institute  a  grand  and  solemn 
festival ;  and  this  day  was  henceforth  called-  Noo 
lioze,  or  first  day  of  the  new  year  (when  the  founda- 
tion of  Persepolis  was  laid),  at  which  period  he 
commanded,  from  all  parts  of  the  empire,  the  attend- 
ance of  the  peasants,  husbandmen,  soldiers,  and 
others,  in  order  to  prosecute  the  design ;  requesting 
that  all,  with  joyful  hearts  and  willing  hands,  should 


lend  their  assistance  in  completing  the  work.  This 
numerous  assembly  obeyed  the  command  of  their 
monarch,  and  the  building  was  finished  with  all  signs 
of  mirth  and  festivity." 

To  this  account  the  Persians  add,  that  Queen 
Homaie,  who  flourished  about  eight  hundred  years 
after  Jemsheed,  added  a  thousand  columns. 

Diodorus  gives  some  account  of  the  workmen,  that 
were  employed  in  building  this  palace.  "  Cambyses, 
the  son  of  Cyrus,"  says  he,  "  conquered  Egypt  in  the 
third  year  of  the  seventy-third  olympiad,  when  he  pil- 
laged the  country  and  burnt  the  temples,  the  treasures 
of  which  the  Persians  carried  off  into  Asia ;  and  they, 
also,  led  away  with  them  the  workmen  and  architects 
of  Egypt,  whom  they  caused  to  build  the  famous  palace 
of  Persepolis,  and  of  several  other  cities."  This  account 
appears  the  more  probable,  since,  as  M.  le  Comte  dc 
Caylus  is  justly  of  opinion,  they  cannot  be  attri- 
buted to  the  Persians  before  Cyrus ;  since  Herodotus 
describes  the  Persians  of  that  age  as  a  people  of  great 
simplicity;  having  neither  temples  nor  altars,  but 
worshipping  Jupiter  on  the  summits  of  mountains. 
The  account,  here  given,  is  sufficient  to  account  for  the 
Egyptian  appearance  of  Persepolis.  There  are  ap- 
pearances of  five  different  buildings  united  in  one; 
and  each,  apparently,  of  a  different  age,  after  the 
manner  of  the  Egyptians. 

Though  there  are  doubts  as  to  the  origin  of  Perse- 
polis, there  are  none  as  to  the  circumstance  of  its 
being  destroyed  by  Alexander. 

As  the  conqueror  drew  near  the  city  *,  he  per- 
ceived a  large  body  of  men,  who  presented  a  most 
lamentable  picture.  These  were  about  four  thousand 
Greeks,  greatly  advanced  in  years,  who,  having  been 
taken  prisoners  of  war,  had  suffered  all  the  torments 
which  Persian  tyranny  could  invent.  The  hands  of 

*  Rollin. 



some  had  been  cut  off,  the  feet  of  others ;  and  others 
again  had  lost  their  noses  and  ears ;  after  which, 
having  impressed  by  fire  barbarous  characters  on  their 
-faces,  the  Persians  had  the  inhumanity  to  keep  them 
as  so  many  laughing-stocks,  with  which  they  sported 
perpetually.  They  appeared  like  so  many  shadows 
rather  than  men.  Alexander  could  not  refrain  from 
tears  at  this  sight  j  and  as  they  unanimously  besought 
him  to  commiserate  their  condition,  he  bade  them, 
with  the  utmost  tenderness,  not  to  despond,  and 
assured  them  that  they  should  again  see  their  coun- 
try. This,  however,  the  Greeks  did  not  desire ;  being 
unwilling  to  be  seen  by  their  former  companions  in 
the  dreadful  state  in  which  they  were.  They  prayed 
the  king,  therefore,  to  let  them  remain  where  they 
were,  but  to  relieve  their  awful  condition.  This 
Alexander  did ;  but  he  was  so  enraged  at  what  he 
had  seen,  that  he  set  the  city  on  fire  soon  after. 
The  other  account  is,  that  the  conqueror  called  his 
generals  together,  and  represented  to  them  that  no 
city  in  the  world  had  been  more  fatal  to  the  Greeks 
than  Persepolis,  the  ancient  residence  of  the  Persian 
monarchs,  and  capital  of  their  empire.  For  that  it 
was  from  thence  all  those  mighty  armies  poured, 
which  had  overflowed  Greece ;  and  whence  Darius, 
and  afterwards  Xerxes,  had  carried  the  fire-brand  of 
the  most  accursed  war  which  had  laid  waste  the  best 
part  of  Europe ;  and  therefore  it  was  incumbent  on 
them  to  revenge  the  manes  of  their  ancestors. 

Animated  by  this,  the  soldiers  force  their  way  into 
the  city,  put  all  the  men  to  the  sword,  and  rifle  and 
carry  away  every  man's  goods  and  estate ;  amongst 
which  was  abundance  of  rich  and  costly  furniture 
and  ornaments  of  all  sorts.  There  were  hurried  away, 
here  and  there,  vast  quantities  of  silver,  and  no  less 
of  gold,  great  numbers  of  rich  garments,  some  of 
purple,  and  others  embroidered  with  gold;  all  of 


which,  says  Diodorus,  became  a  plentiful  prey  to  the 
ravenous  soldiers.  For  though  every  place  was 
full  of  rich  spoil,  yet  the  covetousness  of  the  Mace- 
donians was  insatiable.  They  were  even  so  eager  in 
plundering,  that  they  fought  one  another  with  drawn 
swords ;  and  many,  who  were  conceived  to  have  got 
a  larger  share  than  the  rest,  were  killed  in  the  quarrel. 
Some  things,  which  were  of  extraordinary  value,  they 
divided  with  their  swords,  and  each  took  a  share. 
Others,  in  a  rage,  cut  off  the  hands  of  such  as  laid 
hold  of  a  thing  that  was  in  dispute.  They  first 
ravished  the  women  as  they  were  in  their  jewels  and 
rich  attire,  and  then  sold  them  for  slaves.  The 
riches  -are  said  to  have  amounted  to  no  less  than 
eighteen  millions  sterling ! 

Such  is  the  account  left  us  by  Diodorus.  He  then 
goes  on  to  describe  the  destruction  of  the  temple  or 
palace,  burned  down  by  Alexander.  "Alexander,"  says 
he,  "  made  a  great  feast  for  the  entertainment  of  his 
friends  in  commemoration  of  his  victory,  and  offered 
magnificent  sacrifices  to  the  gods.  At  this  feast 
were  entertained  .women,  who  prostituted  their  bodies 
for  hire ;  when  the  cups  went  so  high  to  drunken- 
ness and  debauchery,  that  many  were  drunk  and 
mad.  Among  the  rest  there  was .  a  courtesan, 
named  Thais,  an  Athenian,  then  mistress  to  Ptolemy, 
afterwards  king  of  Egypt,  who  said  in  a  gay  tone 
of  voice,  '  That  it  would  be  a  matter  of  inex- 
pressible joy  to  her,  were  she  permitted,  masked 
as  she  then  was,  and  in  order  to  end  the  festival 
nobly,  to  burn  the  magnificent  palace  of  Xerxes, 
who  had  burned  Athens ;  and  so  set  it  on  fire  with 
her  own  hand,  in  order  that  it  might  be  said  in 
all  parts  of  the  world,  that  the  women,  who  had  fol- 
lowed Alexander  in  his  expedition  to  Asia,  had  taken 
much  better  revenge  on  the  Persians,  for  the  many 
calamities  they  had  brought  upon  the  Grecians, 


than  all  the  generals  who  had  fought  for  them  both 
by  sea  and  land.' 

"  This  spreading  abroad,  and  coming  to  the  ears  of 
the  young  men,  presently  one  cries  out,  '  Come  on ; 
bring  firebrands !'  and  so  incites  the  rest  to  fire  the 
citadel,  to  revenge  that  impiety  the  Persians  had 
committed  in  destroying  the  temples  of  the  Grecians. 
At  this,  others  with  joy  set  up  a  shout  ;  but  said  that 
so  brave  an  exploit  belonged  only  to  Alexander  him- 
self to  perform.  The  king,  stirred  up  at  these  words, 
embraced  the  proposition;  upon  which,  as  many  as 
were  present  left  their  cups  and  leaped  upon  the 
table,  and  said  that  they  would  now  celebrate  a- 
victorious  festival  to  Bacchus.  Thereupon,  mul- 
titudes of  firebrands  were  presently  got  together; 
and  all  the  women  that  played  on  musical  instru- 
ments, which  were  at  the  feast,  were  called  for; 
and  then  the  king,  with  songs,  pipes,  and  flutes, 
led  the  way  to  this  expedition,  contrived  and  ma- 
naged by  this  courtesan,  Thais,  who,  next  after  the 
king,  threw  the  first  firebrand  into  the  palace.  This 
precedent  was  presently  followed  by  the  rest.  The 
fire  once  raised,  there  was  no  stopping  it;  but 
Alexander  soon  repented  what  was  doing,  and  gave 
orders  for  extinguishing  it;  but  this  being  too  late, 
the  palace  was  burned,  and  remains  now  nearly  in  the 
same  state  it  was  left  at  the  conclusion  of  the  fire." 

According  to  Arrian,  Alexander  burned  the  palace 
of  the  Persian  king  much  against  the  will  of  Parme- 
nio,  who  exhorted  him  to  leave  it  untouched.  To 
which  Alexander  answered,  that  he  was  resolved  to 
revenge  the  ancient  injuries,  Greece  had  received 
from  the  Persians ;  who,  when  they  marched  into 
Greece,  burned  its  temples,  and  committed  many  other 
barbarous  devastations. 

This,  we  think,  is  one  reason  why  the  building 
burned  must  have  been  a  temple,  and  not  a  palace. 


The  Persians  had  burned  the  temples  of  Greece,  there- 
fore Alexander  burned  the  temple  of  the  Persians. 
Besides,  as  the  feast  was  held  in  the  palace,  it  is  not 
very  likely  that  the  master  of  the  feast  should  have 
burned  the  place,  in  which  he  was  not  only  then  feast- 
ing, but  in  which  he  was  to  sleep  on  the  very  night 
of  the  conflagration;  and  that  it  was  not  destroyed 
is  evident  from  the  circumstance,  recorded  by  Strabo 
and  Arrian — that  Alexander  inhabited  the  royal 
palace  at  Persepolis  after  his  return  from  India. 
Added  to  which,  it  is  certain  that  there  is,  at  this 
time,  no  appearance  or  marks  of  tire  on  any  part  of 
the  ruins. 

In  respect  to  these  ruins,  it  has  been  well  observed, 
that  magnificent  columns,  portals,  and  other  archi- 
tectural decorations,  mark  this  spot  as  the  site  of  a 
splendid  "  palace ;"  while  the  style  of  the  sculptures 
and  the  inscriptions,  many  of  them  in  the  single- 
headed  character,  found  only  at  this  place,  Nineveh, 
Babylon,  Susa,  and  Van,  proves  them  to  be  of  a  very 
high  antiquity.  Mr.  Kinneir,  however,  says  they 
are  generally  admitted  to  be  the  remains  of  the 
"  palace,"  destroyed  by  Alexander;  and  the  striking 
resemblance  of  the  building,  as  it  exists,  to  the  ac- 
count given  of  Persepolis  by  Diodorus,  is,  in  his 
opinion,  sufficient  to  remove  any  doubt,  that  may 
exist  upon  the  subject.  We  confess  that  such  is  not 
our  impression. 

Those  who  regard  the  ruins  as  being  the  remains 
of  a  Persian  temple,  insist  that  the  sculptured  sub- 
jects, as  well  as  the  style  of  architecture,  resemble, 
in  many  particulars,  those  of  Egypt:  among  which 
may  be  mentioned  the  figures,  divided  by  trees,  the 
sphinxes,  the  vases  and  chains,  the  domes  and  archi- 
traves, the  subterranean  passages  in  the  tombs,  the 
sarcophagi  and  urns,  and  the  well,  twenty-five  feet 
deep  and  fifteen  square.  The  sculpture  at  Persepolis 


was  also  painted  mostly  in  blue,  a  favourite  colour  in 
Egypt ;  but  sometimes  in  black  and  in  yellow.  For 
these  remarks  we  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Buckingham. 

According  to  Arrian,  it  was  tbe  castle  of  Perse- 
polis  which  Alexander  burned.  In  Mr.  Buckingham's 
opinion,  however,  the  ruins  now  seen  correspond 
neither  with  those  of  a  palace,  nor  of  a  castle;  they 
were,  therefore,  according  to  him,  not  those  of  the 
edifice  burned  by  Alexander  at  all;  for  on  all  these 
remains,  as  we  have  before  stated,  no  mark  of  fire  is 
to  be  traced,  which  could  not  be  the  case  if  this  had 
been  the  principal  agent  used  in  its  destruction. 

The  opinion,  that  these  ruins  are  the  remains  of 
the  palace,  is  not  on  the  authority  of  all  history, 
but  on  the  assertion  merely  of  Quintus  Curtius  and 
Diodorus.  The  whole  story  as  to  the  burning,  is  said 
to  have  been  copied  from  a  Greek  writer,  named 

Though  there  are  no  remains  of  a  city  now  at  Per- 
sepolis,  nor  in  any  part  of  the  plain  in  which  it  is 
situated ;  certain  it  is,  that  the  city  was  not  destroyed 
by  Alexander  ;  for  it  was  a  very  important  place  for 
many  centuries  after. 

Curtius,  therefore,  is  guilty  of  an  error  in  saying 
that  the  city  was  so  far  from  being  rebuilt,  that 
unless  the  river  Araxes  ran  near  it,  there  are  no 
signs  to  guess  where  it  stood ;  for  neither  Arrian 
nor  Strabo,  nor  even  Diodorus,  whom  Curtius  com- 
monly copies,  acquaint  us  with  any  thing  but  the 
burning  of  the  palace. 

The  first  book  of  Maccabees  says,  that  there  was 
a  rich  temple  at  Persepolis ;  and,  the  second,  that 
Antiochus  Epiphanes  determined  to  pillage  it.  Alex- 

*  Ksempfer,  Hyde,  Niebuhr,  and  St.  Croix,  regard  the  ruins  as 
those  of  a  palace  :— Delia  Valle,  Chardia,  D'Hancarville,  and 
others,  as  those  of  a  temple.  This  is  a  question,  however,  which 
many  writers  regard  as  being  impossible  of  solution,  till  an  alpha- 
bet shall  have  been  discovered  of  the  arrow-headed  inscriptions. 


ander,  therefore,  could  not  have  destroyed  it ;  for  it 
is  highly  improbable,  from  the  history  of  those  times, 
that  so  laboured  and  magnificent  a  work  should  have 
been  rebuilt  and  restored  in  the  short  period  between 
Alexander  and  the  Syrian  king;  viz. — 160  years. 
That  prince  formed  the  design  of  pillaging  both 
"  a  temple,"  and  the  city. 

Though  Persepolis  long  survived  the  palace  of 
Jemsheed,  its  inhabitants  are  said  to  have  regarded 
with  unextinguishable  hatred  the  people  by  whom 
they  were  conquered ;  and,  as  if  inspired  by  those 
fragments  of  former  glory,  with  which  they  were 
surrounded,  they  maintained  a  character  for  pride 
and  courage,  that  was  not  entirely  subdued,  till 
several  centuries  after  the  Arabians  first  overran 

Its  subsequent  history  has  been  summed  up  by 
Mr.  Fraser.  "  It  was  among  the  earliest  conquests  of 
Ardeshir  Babegan  ;  Shepoor  II.  made  it  his  residence  ; 
Yesdigird  I.  held  his  court  there ;  and  Hoormuz  II., 
who  reigned  at  the  close  of  the  sixth  century,  passed 
two  months  every  year  in  it.  In  the  succeeding  age, 
however,  it  ceased  to  be  a  royal  residence ;  for 
Khoosroo  Purveez  bestowed  the  government  on  one 
of  his  favourites  ;  and  it  was  here  that  the  last  of  the 
Sassanian  kings  lay  concealed,  when  called  to  the 
throne,  A.  D.  632.  Twelve  years  afterwards,  it  capi- 
tulated to  the  Mohammedans  ;  but  the  people,  hav- 
ing slain  their  foreign  governor,  were  all  put  to  the 
sword.  The  city  was  ultimately  destroyed  by 
Sumcaneah-u-Dowlan,  and  the  fanatical  Arabs,  A.  D. 
982.  Such,"  concludes  Mr.  Fraser,  "  is  the  sketch  of 
the  latter  days  of  Istakhar*,  (the  only  name  by 

*  At  the  distance  of  about  five  miles  is  a  conspicuous  hill,  on 
the  top  of  which,  and  visible  to  the  eye  from  Persepolis,  are  the 
remains  of  a  fortress.  This  hill  is  now  called  Istakhar,  and  is 
quite  distinct  from  Perscpolis.  Of  this  hill  Le  Brun  has  given  a 


which  the  city  is  recognised  by  the  native  Persian 
historians)  ;  but  the  question,  who  was  its  founder  ? 
and  who  raised  the  mighty  fabrics,  of  which  the 
ruins  still  astonish  the  traveller?  yet  remain  un- 

The  authors  who  have  described  these  ruins  are, 
Garcias  de  Silva  Figueroa,  Pietra  de  la  Valle,  Sir 
John  Chardin,  Le  Brun,  Francklin,  Niebuhr, 
Morier,  Buckingham,  Porter,  Ouseley,  and  Fraser. 

It  has  been  truly  said,  that  we  cannot  proceed  a 
step  in  Persia,  without  encountering  some  monument 
of  the  cruelty  of  conquerors  and  of  human  vicissi- 
tudes. These  ruins  have  been  variously  described ;  in- 
somuch that,  had  travellers  not  agreed  in  respect  to 
the  latitude  and  longitude,  one  would  be  tempted  to 
suspect,  that  they  had  visited  different  ruins.  Our 
account  will  therefore  be  desultory  :  for  to  give  a  full 
and  regular  one  would,  without  drawings,  be  of  little 
available  use. 

"  It  is  very  difficult  to  give  any  detailed  account  of 
the  ruins  of  this  celebrated  place,"  says  Mr.  Bucking- 
ham. "  There  is  no  temple,  as  at  Thebes,  at  Palmyra, 
or  at  Balbec,  sufficiently  pi'edominant  over  all  other 
surrounding  objects  to  attract  the  chief  attention, 
and  furuish  of  itself  sufficient  matter  for  description 
and  observation.  Here,  all  is  broken  and  detached 
fragments,  extremely  numerous,  and  each  worthy  of 
attention ;  but  so  scattered  and  disjointed,  as  to  give 
no  perfect  idea  of  the  whole.  Its  principal  feature  is, 
that  it  presents  an  assemblage  of  tall,  slender,  and 
isolated  pillars,  and  separate  door- ways  and  sanctu- 
aries, spread  over  a  large  platform,  elevated,  like  a 
fortification,  from  the  level  of  the  surrounding  plain." 

"  The  works  of  different  travellers,  describing  these 

drawing;  and  the  original  must  strike  every  traveller  the  moment 
he  enters  the  palace  of  Merdusht ;  as  it  has  all  the  appearance  of 
having  been  much  fashioned  by  the  hand  of  man. — MORIER. 


ruins,"  says  Sir  William  Ouseley,  "  furnish  many  in- 
stances of  extraordinary  variation.  But  this  discor- 
dance is  not  peculiar  to  those,  who  have  written 
accounts  of  Persepolis.  We  find  that,  concerning  the 
same  visible  and  tangible  objects,  two,  three,  and  even 
four,  travellers  in  other  countries  have  disagreed  ; — all 
men  of  considerable  ingenuity,  and  none  intending  to 
deceive."  Sir  William  then  refers  to  a  passage  in 
Sir  Thomas  Herbert's  Travels.  "  Forasmuch  as  the 
remaining  figures,  or  images,  are  many  and  different, 
and  so  many,  as  in  two  days  I  was  there  it  was  im- 
possible I  could  take  the  full  of  what  I  am  assured 
an  expert  limner  may  very  well  spend  twice  two 
months  in,  ere  he  can  make  a  fancy  draught ;  for,  to 
say  the  truth,  this  is  a  work  much  fitter  for  the 
pencil  than  the  pen ;  the  rather  for  that  I  observe 
how  that  travellers,  taking  a  view  of  some  rare  piece 
together,  from  the  variety  of  their  fancy,  they  usu- 
ally differ  in  those  observations  :  so  that  when  they 
think  their  notes  are  exact,  they  shall  pretermit 
something  that  a  third  will  light  upon."  These 
observations  were  made  by  Sir  Thomas  among  the 
ruins  of  the  city,  of  which  we  now  are  treating. 

"  Nothing,"  says  Mr.  Fraser,  "  can  be  more  strik- 
ing, than  the  appearance  of  those  ruins  on  approach- 
ing them  from  the  south-west.  Placed  at  the  base 
of  a  rugged  mountain,  on  a  terrace  of  mason-work 
that  might  vie  with  the  structures  of  Egypt,  it  over- 
looks an  immense  plain,  inclosed  on  all  sides  by  dis- 
tant but  dark  cliffs,  and  watered  by  the  Kour  Ab, 
which  once  supplied  a  thousand  aqueducts.  But  the 
water-courses  are  dried  up  ;  the  plain  is  a  morass  or 
a  wilderness  ;  for  the  great  city,  which  once  poured 
its  population  over  the  wide  expanse  of  Merdusht, 
has  disappeared,  and  the  grey  columns  rise  in  solitary 
grandeur,  to  remind  us,  that  mighty  deeds  were  done 
in  the  days  of  old." 


The  last  account  of  this  place  we  have  by  an  Eastern 
writer,  is  that  given  by  Mirza  Jan,  in  the  account  he 
gives  of  a  journey  he  made  from  Shirauz  to  Isfahan. 
"  Beyond  the  village  of  Kenarch,  about  half  a  para- 
sang,  is  a  mountain,  and  at  the  foot  of  it  an  extraordi- 
nary place,  wherein  are  columns  and  marbles,  sculp- 
tured with  strange  devices  and  inscriptions,  so  that 
most  persons  imagine  this  edifice  to  have  been 
constructed  before  the  creation  of  man/'  This  is  very 
curious ;  since  the  sculptures  themselves  give  positive 
evidence  of  his  existence. 

The  following  account  of  these  ruins  is  taken 
from  Mr.  Francklin.  "  They  arc  about  two  days' 
jonrney  from  Shiraz,  on  a  rising  grouud,  in  a  plain, 
surrounded  by  an  amphitheatre  of  mountains.  They 
occupy  a  circumference  of  one  thousand  four  hun- 
dred square  yards.  The  front  is  six  hundred  paces 
from  north  to  south,  and  three  hundred  and  ninety 
from  east  to  west,  and  the  height  of  the  foundation 
from  forty  to  fifty  feet. 

The  columns  are  ascended  by  a  grand  staircase 
of  blue  stone,  about  fifty  feet  high,  the  sides  embel- 
lished with  two  immense  sphinxes,  dressed  out  with 
bead-work.  At  a  small  distance  from  these  portals' 
you  ascend  another  flight  of  steps  leading  to  the 
grand  hall  of  columns.  The  sides  of  these  stairs  are 
charged  with  reliefs  of  figures  holding  vessels  in  their 
hands,  camels,  triumphal  cars,  horses,  oxen,  and  rams. 
At  the  head  of  the  stair  is  a  relief  of  a  lion  seizing 
a  bull.  This  stair  leads  to  the  great  hall  of  forty 
or  fifty  pillars,  in  nine  rows,  of  six  each ;  of  which 
fifteen  remain  entire,  from  seventy  to  eighty  feet 
high;  the  diameter  at  the  base  twelve  feet,  and 
distance  between  the  columns  twenty-two.  Their 
pedestals  are  curiously  wrought,  and  little  injured,  the 
shafts  fluted  to  the  top,  and  the  capitals  adorned 
with  a  profusion  of  fret- work.  East  of  this,  are 


remains  of  a  square  building,  entered  by  a  door  of 
granite ;  most  of  the  doors  and  windows  standing  of 
black  marble,  highly  polished.  On  the  sides  of  the 
doors,  at  entering,  are  bas-reliefs  of  two  figures,  re- 
presenting a  man  stabbing  a  goat;  a  common  device 
all  over  the  palace.  Over  another  door  of  the  same 
apartment  are  two  men,  and  a  domestic  behind  them, 
with  an  umbrella.  At  the  south-west  entrance  of 
this  apartment  are  two  large  stone  pillars,  carved 
with  four  figures  in  long  garments,  holding  spears 
ten  feet  long.  Exclusive  of  the  ancient  inscriptions, 
in  unknown  characters,  interspersed  over  these  ruins, 
there  are  others,  accurately  described  by  Niebuhr. 
Behind  the  hall  of  the  pillars,  and  close  under  the 
mountains,  are  remains  of  a  very  large  building, 
with  two  principal  entrances  from  north-east,  and 
south-west ;  the  wall  divided  into  several  partitions, 
ornamented  with  sculpture,  and  over  its  twelve  doors 
the  relief  of  the  lion  and  bull,  as  before  :  and  besides 
the  usual  figures,  one  of  a  man  in  long  garments, 
with  a  cap  turret-formed,  seated  on  a  pillar,  holding 
in  his  hand  a  small  vessel,  and  wearing  a  girdle 
round  his  waist,  projecting  beyond  his  clothes,  and 
under  him  several  lions.  Behind  this  ruin,  a  con- 
siderable way  to  the  north,  up  the  mountain  llehumut, 
are  remains  of  two  buildings,  of  three  sides,  cut  out 
of  the  rock,  forty  feet  high,  ascended  to  by  steps, 
now  destroyed.  Two  of  the  sides  are  loaded  with 
carvings,  as  of  some  religious  ceremony,  including 
the  figure  last  mentioned.  Former  travellers  have 
supposed  these  tombs  to  be  of  the  kings  of  Persia; 
the  natives  call  it  Mujilis  Gemsheed,  or  the  Assembly 
of  king  Gemsheed,  who  resorted  hither  with  his 
nobles.  Under  these  reliefs  several  openings  lead  to 
a  dark  subterranean  passage,  of  six  feet  by  four,  into 
the  rock.  At  the  foot  of  this  mountain,  to  the  south, 
are  the  remains  of  windows,  like  those  in  other  parts 


of  the  palace  ;  and,  a  little  westward  from  it,  a  stone 
staircase,  leading  to  a  magnificent  square  court, 
with  pediments,  and  corners  of  pillars,  and  on  those 
ancient  inscriptions.  In  several  parts  of  the  palace 
are  stone  aqueducts.  These  venerable  ruins  have 
suffered  from  time,  weather,  and  earthquakes;  and 
are  half  huried  in  sand,  washed  down  from  the  moun- 
tains. Persian  writers  ascribe  it  to  King  Gemsheed  ; 
and  the  addition  of  one  thousand  columns  more,  to 
Queen  Homaiae,  eight  hundred  years  after;  but 
there  is  no  epoch  assigned." 

This  account  is  from  Mr.  Francklin;  we  now 
turn  to  Mr.  Morier.  "  Tavernier  and  Des  Ferrieres- 
Sauvebceuf,  are  the  only  persons  who  have  spoken 
slightingly  of  these  ruins ;  but  there  is  no  small 
reason  to  believe,  that  the  latter  never  saw  the  ruins 
he  speaks  of;  and  that  the  former  merely  wrote  from 
the  dubious  information  of  a  capuchin,  who  resided 
for  some  years  at  Isfahan." 

Besides  the  inscriptions,  above  alluded  to,  there  are 
others  in  Arabic,  Persian,  and  Greek.  Dr.  Hyde 
observes,  that  the  inscriptions  are  very  rude  and 
clumsy ;  and  that  some,  if  not  all,  are  in  praise  of 
Alexander ;  and  therefore,  they  must  be  later  than 
that  conqueror. 

The  Persepolitan  capitals  convey  the  idea  of  rich 
silks  and  feathers  having  been  tied  round  the  tipper 
part  of  tall  wooden  posts ;  and  rich  silks,  feathers, 
and  precious  stones,  have  always  been  the  materials 
with  which  Eastern  monarchs  form  their  most  gor- 
geous decorations. 

These  ruins  bear  incontrovertible  evidence  of 
antiquity ;  and  although  in  some  things  they  resemble 
Egyptian,  and  in  others  Indian  edifices,  they,  especially 
in  the  palace,  possess  leading  features,  sufficiently  dis- 
tinct to  entitle  them  to  be  considered  as  of  a  separate 
school.  Yet,  being,  amongst  numerous  palaces, 


the  only  vestiges  of  lofty  stone  columns  and  numerous 
sculptures,  and  being  traced  immediately  subsequent 
to  the  Egyptian  expedition  under  Cambyses,  they 
afford  strong  grounds  for  believing,  that  Thebaid 
influence,  by  example,  or  workmen,  or  both,  led  to 
these  works,  so  unlike  what  had  formerly  been  prac- 
tised in  Persia.  That  the  style  was  not  spread  over 
the  empire,  may  be  accounted  for  from  its  immediate 
subjugation  by  the  Greeks.  In  latter  times  the  use 
of  the  Gothic  arches,  and  Turkish  domes,  highly 
ornamented,  have  been,  throughout  all  Persia,  ex- 
tensively introduced  in  their  palaces,  mosques,  and 
tombs.  The  hand  of  the  Musselman  has  likewise 
reached  the  remotest  quarters  of  India  *. 

The  materials,  of  which  the  palace  is  composed,  are 
chiefly  hard  blue  stone ;  but  the  doors  and  windows 
are  of  black  marble,  and  so  beautifully  polished,  that 
they  reflect  objects  like  a  mirror.  This  high  polish 
is  agreeably  alluded  to  in  the  account,  given  by  Mr. 
Murray,  in  his  historical  account  of  travels  in  Asia, 
where  he  mentions  that  those  ruins  were  visited  by 
Garcias  de  Sylva  in  1621.  "The  ambassador  came 
to  the  spot  called  Cilminar,  celebrated  for  the  mighty 
ruins  which  cover  its  site — the  remains  of  the  ancient 
Persepolis.  They  were  diligently  surveyed  by  our 
author,  who  describes  them  with  an  enthusiasm, 
which  perhaps  betrays  him  into  some  degree  of  ex- 
aggeration. He  dwells  on  the  superb  range  of  columns, 
particularly  those  called  the  Forty  Minarets ;  the 
magnificent  stairs  by  which  they  are  ascended  ;  the 
vast  interior  square,  four  hundred  and  thirty  feet  by 
three  hundred  and  ten,  and  the  huge  pieces  of  marble, 
without  any  apparent  juncture.  The  sculptures  were 
innumerable,  and  are  conceived  by  him  to  represent 
the  actions  of  a  race  of  men  prior  to  any  now  known, 
even  to  the  ancient  Babylonians  and  Persians.  Yet, 

*  Civil  Architecture. 

]  '28  RUINS    OF    ANCIENT    CITIES. 

though  ascending  to  this  vast  antiquity,  they  are  so 
entire,  that,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  fragments 
broken  off,  they  might  seem  to  have  been  recently 
finished.  In  comparing  these  with  the  monuments 
of  other  nations,  lie  observes,  that  the  pyramids  are 
mere  artificial  mountains ;  while  the  temples  of  Greece 
are  in  ruins ;  here  only  art  and  grandeur  are  united 
in  pristine  perfection.  The  high  polish  of  the  marble 
was  amusingly  shown  by  a  mastiff,  who,  seeing  his 
own  figure  reflected  on  the  walls,  was  worked  up  to 
fury,  which  was  always  increased  by  the  view  of  the 
corresponding  gestures  in  the  reflected  image;  till 
the  scene  being  repeated  whenever  they  came,  they 
were  at  length  obliged  to  chain  and  send  him  off." 

"  In  some  places,"  says  Mr.  Fraser,  "  the  number 
of  sculptures  is  so  great,  that  they  bewilder  the  eye. 
Those  figures,  which  are  disposed  in  groups  to  suit 
the  compartments,  are  variously  habited  and  em- 
ployed. Some  resemble  royal  guards  and  attendants, 
clothed  in  long  robes,  with  brogue-like  buskins,  and 
fluted  flat-topped  caps,  bearing  bows  and  quivers, 
shields  and  spears.  Others  are  placed  in  long  rows, 
and  appear  to  represent  a  procession  of  many  nations, 
being  differently  dressed  and  appointed.  They  bear 
gifts  and  offerings,  and  lead  animals  of  various  sorts. 
Animals  stand  on  a  pedestal,  which  elevates  them 
five  feet.  Their  heads  are  so  mutilated,  that  it  is 
impossible  to  say  what  they  were  meant  to  represent ; 
their  necks  are  decorated  with  collars  of  roses  ;  short 
curled  hair  covers  the  chest,  back,  and  ribs  ;  and  the 
workmanship  is  singularly  correct  and  delicate. 

Almost  every  one  in  this  procession  holds  in  his 
hand  a  figure  like  the  lotos  ;  a  flower  full  of  meaning 
to  the  ancients.  That  the  Persians  offered  horses  to 
the  sun,  and  oxen  to  the  moon,  is  fully  shown  by  this 

"  Though,  at  first  sight,"  says  Sir  Robert  Porter,  > 


"  I  acknowledge  that  a  general  similitude  to  the 
Egyptian  contour  strikes  the  mind  ;  yet  the  impres- 
sion gradually  wears  away  when  the  details  are 
examined ;  the  finishing  of  the  parts,  and  the  grace 
and  truth  of  the  bas-reliefs,  everywhere  proclaiming 
the  refined  taste  and  master  chisels  of  Greece.  When 
comparing  the  colossal  proportions  of  the  structure, 
and  its  gigantic  sculptures,  with  the  delicacy,  beauty, 
and  perfection  of  the  execution  of  its  ornaments,  I 
might  say,  with  the  poet,  '  Here  the  Loves  play  on 
the  bosom  of  Hercules.' " 

Sir  Robert  Porter  supposes  that  these  works  of  art 
were  designed  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  the  grand 
religious  procession  of  Cyrus  the  Great,  described  by 
Xenophon ;  or,  probably,  that  of  Darius,  at  the  fes- 
tival of  the  No  Roz,  or  vernal  equinox,  receiving 
presents  from  the  numerous  nations  of  his  vast 

"  The  numerous  basso-relievos,"  says  a  celebrated 
French  geographer,  "  are  highly  valuable,  as  illus- 
trating the  ancient  costumes  and  manners  of  the 
Persians.  Those  carved  on  the  walls  of  the  staircase 
are  numerous,  exhibiting  trains  of  Persian  subjects 
from  the  different  parts  of  the  kingdom,  bringing 
presents  to  the  sovereign,  led  forward  in  small  par- 
ties by  officers  of  the  court,  acting  as  masters  of  the 
ceremonies.  In  other  parts  are  figures  of  the  king  on 
his  throne ;  and  over  him  a  symbolical  representation 
of  him  in  the  form  of  a  genius,  or  celestial  type  of 
the  earthly  potentate;  conformable  to  the  views  incul- 
cated by  the  ancient  Persian  religion.  Guards  of 
different  descriptions  are  also  delineated ;  and  ani- 
mals, partly  exaggerated  and  symbolical,  and  partly 
fair  representations  of  nature,  contribute  to  the 
effect  of  lively  and  extended  ornament.  Battles, 
single  combats,  and  other  incidents  in  the  Persian 
history,  are  here,  as  well  as  in  the  other  Persian  relics 

VOL.  II.  K 


of  antiquity,  represented  sometimes  by  symbols,  and 
sometimes  according  to  nature." 

Mr.  Morier  says,  that  though  Le  Brim  and  Chardin 
have  given  only  one  line  of  figures  on  the  right  of  the 
staircase,  he  thought  it  was  evident  that  there  must 
have  been  the  same  number  on  the  left  as  there  are 
on  the  right.  He,  therefore,  hired  some  labourers 
from  the  surrounding  villages  to  dig ;  when,  to  his 
great  delight,  a  second  row  of  figures  was  discovered, 
highly  preserved,  the  details  of  whose  faces,  hair, 
dresses,  arms,  and  general  character,  seemed  but  as 
the  work  of  yesterday.  There  is  this  distinction, 
however,  between  the  two  rows  : — the  faces  of  all  the 
figures  to  the  right  of  the  staircase  are  mutilated ; 
those  of  the  newly-discovered  ones  are  quite  perfect ; 
and  this  shows  that  they  must  have  been  covered 
before  the  invasion  of  the  Saracens  :  for  to  that  people 
is  attributed  the  mutilation  of  all  the  figures.  . 

Le  Brun  counted  one  thousand  three  hundred 
figures  of  men  and  animals,  the  half  of  which  were 
as  large  as  life,  without  including  those  on  the  tombs; 
and  he  counted  the  fragments  of  no  less  than  two 
hundred  and  five  columns.  Destruction,  however, 
is  going  on  very  rapidly.  In  one  part  of  the  remains 
there  were  twenty-five  pillars  standing,  where  now 
there  are  only  thirteen.  Thus, 

Delia  Valle,  in  1621,  saw  25  pillars  standing. 

Herbert,  in  1027       .     .    \  1Q 

Olearius,  in  1638      .     .    j 

Ksempfer,  in  1696  '*.     .    )  ,_     .„  •,. 

Niebuhr,  in  1765     '.     .    f  17  pfflare  standing. 

Franklin,  in  1796     .     .   ) 

Porter V  15 

Morier,  &c y 

Lieut.  Alexander,  in  1826       13* 

Mr.  Morier  says,  that  on  com  paring  LeBrun's,  Char- 
*  Fraser. 


din's,  and  Niebuhr's  drawings  with  the  sculptures,  he 
found  them  in  general  correct  in  outline,  but  imperfect 
in  details  of  dress,  arms,  &c. ;  and  that  although  the 
figures  are  in  themselves  ill-proportioned,  inelegant, 
and  deficient  in  anatomical  drawing,  they  are  ex- 
ceedingly interesting  in  general  character,  and  have 
not  been  done  justice  to  in  the  works  of  these  travel- 
lers. They,  moreover,  furnish  the  best  models  of 
what  were  the  nations,  that  invaded  Greece  with 
Xerxes,  and  that  were  subdued  by  Alexander. 

The  Hall  of  Pillars  appears  to  have  been  detached 
from  the  rest  of  the  palace,  and  to  have  had  a  com- 
munication with  the  other  parts  by  hollow  galleries 
of  stone.  It  is  situated  on  an  eminence,  commanding 
an  extensive  view  of  the  plain  of  Merdusht.  It  is 
strikingly  grand,  and  conveys  to  the  beholder  the 
idea  of  a  hall  of  audience  of  a  powerful  and  warlike 

The  Palace  of  Forty  Pillars  (called  Shehel  Setoon) 
was  the  favourite  residence  of  the  latter  Sophi  kings. 
The  front  is  entirely  open  to  the  garden,  and  it  is 
sustained  by  a  double  range  of  columns,  upwards  of 
forty  feet  high,  each  column  shooting  up  from  the 
united  backs  of  four  lions  of  white  marble.  The 
exhaustless  profusion  of  the  splendid  materials,  of 
which  this  palace  is  internally  formed,  which  reflect 
their  own  golden  or  crystal  lights  on  each  other, 
along  with  all  the  variegated  colours  of  the  garden, 
give  the  appearance  of  an  entire  surface,  formed  of 
polished  silver  and  mother-of-pearl  set  with  precious 
stones;  a  scene  well  fitted  for  an  Eastern  poet's 
dream,  or  some  magic  vision  in  the  tales  of  an  Ara- 
bian Night. 

This  hall,  travellers  suppose  to  be  the  precise  part, 

which  formed  the  banqueting -hall  where  Alexander 

displayed  his  triumph  ;  the  place  where  the  kings  of 

Persia  received  the  homage  of  their  subjects,  dis- 

K  2 

132  HUIN8    OP    ANCIENT    CITIES. 

played  their  magnificence,  and  issued  their  bene- 
ficent orders ;  also  the  private  palace  which  was 
appropriated  to  the  domestic  intercourse  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  royal  family. 

Sir  Robert  Porter  says  that  he  gazed  at  the  niins 
•with  wonder  and  delight.  "  Besides  the  admiration 
which  the  general  elegance  of  their  form,  and  the 
exquisite  workmanship  of  their  parts  excited,"  says 
he,  "  I  never  was  made  so  sensible  of  the  impression 
of  perfect  symmetry,  comprising  also  in  itself  that  of 
perfect  beauty." 

Mr.  Morier  says,  that  on  one  of  the  highest  columns 
is  the  remains  of  the  sphinx,  so  common  in  all  the 
ornaments  of  Persepolis ;  that  he  could  distinguish 
on  the  summit  of  every  one  a  something  quite  uncon- 
nected with  the  capitals;  so  that  the  high  columns 
have,  strictly  speaking,  no  capitals  whatever,  being 
each  a  long  shaft  to  the  very  summit  on  which  the 
sphinx  rests.  The  capitals,  he  continues,  of  the 
lower  columns  are  of  a  complicated  order,  composed 
of  many  pieces.  There  are  also  three  distinct  species 
of  base. 

Deslandes  imagined,  that  these  columns  never  sup- 
ported a  roof,  but  idols :  on  which  Porter  says,  "  I 
am  not  aware  of  a  precedent  in  any  idolatrous  coun- 
try, for  such  a  wilderness  of  gods  as  we  should  have 
found  assembled  here  in  effigy;  and,  least  of  all, 
could  we  expect  to  find  such  extravagant  proofs  of 
polytheism  in  a  palace,  that  appears  to  have  owed  its 
origin  to  the  immediate  ancestors  of  Cyrus,  the 
simple  worshippers  of  Mithra,  or  the  sun ;  and  the 
proTidest  decorations  of  which  may  be  dated  from 
Darius,  the  follower  of  the  philosophic  Zoroaster, 
whose  image,  the  god  of  his  idolatry,  is  nothing 
grosser  than  the  element  of  fire.  To  suppose  these 
pillars  to  have  been  the  supports  of  commemorating 
statues  to  the  honour  of  the  heroes  of  Persia,  seems 


equally  untenable ;  for  it  is  not  in  absolute  monar- 
chies, as  in  republics,  or  in  commonwealths,  where 
kings  form  only  one  great  member  of  the  body 
politic,  that  the  eminent  warriors  and  worthies  of 
the  land  have  such  monuments  erected  to  them.  In 
Persia  we  find  the  bas-reliefs  of  its  kings  and  their 
attendants  on  the  walls  of  its  palaces :  in  Rome  we 
find  the  statues  of  Brutus,  and  Cato,  and  Cicero, 
under  the  ruins  of  the  forum." 

In  regard  to  the  magnificent  colonnade,  which 
occupies  the  terrace,  "  the  imagination,"  says  Mr. 
Fraser,  "  cannot  picture  a  sight  more  imposing  than 
those  vast,  solitary,  mutilated  pillars,  which,  founded 
in  an  age  beyond  the  reach  of  tradition,  have 
witnessed  the  lapse  of  countless  generations,  and 
seen  dynasties  and  empires  rise,  flourish,  and  decay, 
while  they  still  rear  their  grey  heads  unchanged." 

"  On  ascending  the  platform,  on  wyhich  the  palace 
of  Chehelminar  once  stood,"  says  Porter,  "  nothing 
can  be  more  striking  than  the  view  of  its  ruins:  so 
vast  and  magnificent,  so  fallen,  mutilated  and  silent ; 
the  court  of  Cyrus,  and  the  scene  of  his  bounties; 
the  pavilion  of  Alexander's  triumph,  and,  alas!  the 
awful  memorial  of  the  wantonness  of  his  power. 
But  every  object,  when  I  saw  it,  was  beautiful  as 
desolate;  amidst  the  pleasing  memories  of  the  past, 
awakening  poignant  regret,  that  such  noble  works  of 
ingenuity  should  be  left  to  the  desert  alone  ;  that  the 
pile  of  indefatigable  labour  should  be  destined,  from 
the  vicissitudes  of  revolution,  and  the  caprice,  igno- 
rance, or  fanaticism  of  succeeding  times,  to  be  left  in 
total  neglect;  or,  when  noticed,  doomed  to  tho 
predatory  mallet,  and  every  other  attack  of  unre- 
flecting destruction." 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  features  of  these  ruins 
are  the  beds  of  aqueducts  which  are  cut  into  the 
solid  rock.  The  great  aqueduct  is  discovered  among 


a  confused  heap  of  stones,  almost  adjoining  to  the 
ruined  staircase.  In  some  places  it  is  so  narrow, 
that  a  man  is  obliged  to  crawl  through;  in  others  it 
enlarges,  so  that  he  can  stand  upright  in  it. 

Sir  William  Ouseley  says,  that  he  did  not  perceive 
among  these  monuments  of  antiquity,  which  the 
Takht  exhibits:  1,  any  object  appearing  to  be  a 
vestige  of  the  Arsacidan  kings;  '2,  nor  any  vestige 
of  the  Sassanian  dynasty,  except  two  inscriptions; 
3,  nor  any  representation  of  a  crooked  sword;  4,  nor 
any  human  figure  with  a  full  face ;  5,  nor  any  human 
figure  mounted  on  horseback;  6,  nor  any  figure  of 
a  woman;  7,  nor  any  sculpture  representing  ships, 
or  alluding  to  naval  or  marine  affairs;  8,  nor  any 
arches;  9,  nor  any  human  figure  sitting  cross- 
legged,  or  resting  on  the  knees  and  heels,  according 
to  modern  usage  in  Persia;  10,  nor  any  human  figure 
in  a  state  of  nudity;  1 1,  nor  any  vestiges  either  of 
wood  or  of  brick;  12,  nor  any  remains  of  gilding; 
13,  nor  any  insulated  statue,  or  sculptured  figure, 
separated  from  the  general  mass  of  marble,  and 
showing  in  full  relief  the  entire  form  of  any  object. 
Nor  did  he  see  any  figure,  that  has  ever  actually 
been  an  object  of  idolatrous  veneration.  "  The 
reader  will  easily  believe,"  says  Sir  William,  "  this 
catalogue  of  negative  remarks  might  have  been 
considerably  augmented,  when  he  considers  the  great 
extent  of  these  stupendous  ruins;  the  seeming  anoma- 
lies of  their  plan;  the  extraordinary  style  of  their 
architecture;  the  labyrinths  or  narrow  passages, 
which  have  been  excavated  with  much  art  in  the 
adjacent  mountains,  and  of  which  no  traveller  has 
yet  ascertained  either  the  termination  or  the  myste- 
rious design;  the  multiplicity  of  ornamental  devices 
in  the  ruins;  and,  above  all,  of  the  human  figures 
which  their  sculptures  exhibit. 

"  That  I  have  not  exaggerated  the  wonders   of 


Jemsheed's  throne,"  continues  this  accomplished 
traveller  and  scholar,  "  will  be  evident,  on  a  reference 
to  the  accounts,  given  by  most  respectable  persons 
of  various  countries,  who,  in  different  ages,  have 
visited  its  ruins.  Not  only  youthful  travellers, 
glowing  with  lively  imaginations ;  but  those  of  sober 
judgment,  matured  by  the  experience  of  many  years, 
seem,  as  they  approach  the  venerable  monuments,  to 
be  inspired  by  the  genius  of  Eastern  romance ;  and 
their  respective  languages  scarcely  furnish  epithets 
capable  of  expressing  with  adequate  energy  the 
astonishment  and  admiration,  excited  by  such  a 
stupendous  object."  The  learning,  which  Sir  William 
has  expended  upon  Persepolis  and  other  cities  of  the 
East,  is  astonishing. 

In  regard  to  a  portion  of  a  platform,  another 
traveller  says : — "  To  me  it  seemed  to  tell  its 
own  story ;  lying  like  the  buried  body  of  the  last 
Darius  under  the  ruins  of  his  capital,  and  speaking 
with  a  voice  from  the  grave ;  crying,  in  the  words 
of  Euripides  over  the  like  desolation ;  '  Oh  woe, 
woe,  woe  !  my  country  lost !  and  thou,  boast  of  my 
noble  ancestors,  how  art  thou  shrunk ; — how  art  thou 
vanished ! ' 

There  are  no  appearances  now  either  of  a  city, 
or  a  citadel,  in  any  direction,  about  Persepolis. 
Three  quarters  of  a  mile  from  Persepolis  is  the 
tomb  of  the  Persian  hero,  Rostum  ; — four  chambers 
hollowed  out  in  the  rock,  adorned  with  the  altar  of 
fire,  the  sun,  and  a  mystic  figure.  Under  the 
sculpture  of  the  second  chamber  is  a  gigantic  eques- 
trian figure,  very  .perfect,  with  others  kneeling  before 
him,  and  seeming  to  seize  his  hand.  On  one  side  of 
this  is  an  inscription  in  ancient  characters,  different 
from  those  at  Persepolis. 

A  little  to  the  north,  at  the  foot  of  the  rock,  are 
two  more  figures  of  horsemen  contending  for  a 


ring,  and  under  the  horses'  feet  two  human  heads* 
besides  other  attendants.  Both  these  horses  are 
called  llustum,  whose  tomb  is  shown  near  the  foot 
of  the  rock, — a  square  building,  of  blue  stone, 
twenty  feet  high,  with  windows  and  niches. 

In  part  of  the  rock  to  the  east  is  a  mutilated 
equestrian  figure,  with  a  horn  on  the  left  side  of  his 
forehead,  called  Iskunder  zu  el  Kemeen,  or  Alex- 
ander, Lord  of  horns*. 

In  regard  to  the  excavations,  Mr.  Kinneir  is  dis- 
posed to  believe,  that  they  could  have  been  applied 
to  no  other  use  than  as  receptacles  for  the  dead. 
The  city  continued  to  rank  among  the  first  cities  of 
the  empire,  until  the  Mahomedan  conquest,  and  was 
the  burial  place  of  many  of  the  Sassanian  kings. 

The  body  of  Yesdigird,  the  last  of  that  powerful 
race,  was  transported  from  the  distant  province  of 
Khorassan,  to  be  interred  at  Persepolis,  or  rather, 
perhaps,  in  the  cavities  of  Nuckshi  Rustum. 

"  Our  first,  and,  indeed,  lasting  impressions,"  says 
Mr.  Morier,  "  were  astonishment  at  the  immensity, 
and  admiration  at  the  beauties,  of  the  ruins.  Although 
there  was  nothing  in  the  architecture  of  the  build- 
ings, or  in  the  sculptures  and  reliefs  on  the  rocks, 
which  could  bear  a  critical  comparison  with  the 
delicate  proportions  and  perfect  statuary  of  the 
Greeks;  yet,  without  trying  Persepolis  by  a  stan- 
dard to  which  it  never  was  amenable,  we  yielded  at 
once  to  emotions  the  most  lively  and  the  most 

*  In  allusion  to  the  horns  of  Jupiter  Ammon. 
1  Diodorus ;  Plutarch  ;  Arrian  ;  Quintus  Curtius ;    Pietro  d« 
laValle;  Chardiu ;  Le  Brim  ;   Francklin ,  Encylop.   Metropol.  ; 
Rees;  Brewster;    Kinneir;   Morier;   Porter;    Malcolm;    Buck- 
ingham; Ousely;  Fraser. 


called  Petra,  in  a  hollow  somewhat  less  than  two 
miles  in  circumference,  surrounded  by  inaccessible 
mountains,  with  a  stream  running  through  it.  It  is 
distant  from  the  town  of  Gaza,  on  the  coast,  six 
hundred  miles,  and  from  the  Persian  Gulf,  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-two." 

Strabo  says,  "  the  capital  of  the  Nabataei  is  called 
Petra ;  it  lies  in  a  spot,  which  is  itself  level  and  plain, 
but  fortified  all  round  with  a  barrier  of  rocks  and 
precipices;  within,  furnished  with  a  spring  of  ex- 
cellent quality,  for  the  supply  of  water,  and  the 
irrigation  of  gardens;  without  the  circuit,  the  coun- 
try is  in  a  great  measure  desert,  especially  towards 

Such  are  the  ancient  accounts  of  a  city,  which, 
for  many  centuries,  has  been  to  Europe  as  if  it  did 
not  exist.  According  to  this  geographer  it  was  a 
great  and  flourishing  city,  standing  on  a  high  rock  in 
a  plain,  hemmed  in  and  fortified  all  round  with  a 
barrier  of  rocks  and  precipices  ;  and  from  this  posi- 
tion it  derived  its  name. 

Very  little  is  known  of  the  history  of  this  remark- 
able city,  and  of  this  little  we  have  only  space  for  a 
few  incidents. 

When  Antigonus  had  got  possession  of  Syria  and 
Judasa,  he  sent  one  of  his  generals  (Athenseus) 
against  the  people  of  Petra,  because  they  had  made 
several  inroads  into  the  country,  and  carried  away  a 
large  booty.  Athenosus  succeeded  so  far,  that  he 
got  possession  of  the  town  and  likewise  all  the  spoils 
deposited  in  it;  but  in  his  retreat  the  Arabs  defeated 
his  troops,  regained  all  the  spoils,  and  then  took  re- 
possession of  their  city.  When  they  had  done  this, 
they  wrote  a  letter  to  Antigonus,  complaining  of  the 
injustice  with  which  Athenaaus  had  treated  them.  At 
first  Antigonus  affected  to  disapprove  of  Athenaeus' 
proceedings ;  but  the  moment  he  could  assemble  a 


sufficient  number  of-  troops,  he  despatched  his  son, 
Demetrius,  into  Arabia,  with  orders  to  chastise  the 
Petrseans  with  the  utmost  severity.  This,  however, 
was  easier  to  be  said  than  done.  Demetrius  marched 
thither,  it  is  true ;  but  as  he  could  not  succeed  in 
taking  their  city,  he  found  himself  compelled  to 
make  the  best  treaty  he  could,  and  march  back 
again.  A  further  account  is  given,  by  another  writer : 
— "  When  Demetrius*,  by  order  of  his  father  Anti- 
gonus,  sate  down  before  Petra  with  an  army,  and 
began  an  attack  upon  it,  an  Arab  accosted  him  after 
the  following  manner  : — '  King  Demetrius  :  what  is  it 
you  would  have  ?  What  madness  can  have  induced 
you  to  invade  a  people,  inhabiting  a  wilderness,  where 
neither  corn,  nor  wine,  nor  any  other  thing,  you  can 
subsist  upon,  are  to  be  found  ?  We  inhabit  these  de- 
solate plains  for  the  sake  of  liberty ;  and  submit  to 
such  inconveniences  as  no  other  people  can  bear  in 
order  to  enjoy  it.  You  can  never  force  us  to  change 
our  sentiments,  nor  way  of  life  ;  therefore,  we  desire 
you  to  retire  out  of  our  country,  as  we  have  never 
injured  you  ;  to  accept  some  presents  from  us;  and 
to  prevail  with  your  father  to  rank  us  among  his 
friends.'  Upon  hearing  this,  Demetrius  accepted 
their  presents,  and  raised  the  siege. " 

The  city  was,  in  the  time  of  Augustus,  the  resi- 
dence of  a  monarch,  and  considered  the  capital  of 
Arabia  Petrasa.  The  country  was  conquered  by 
Trajan,  and  annexed  by  him  to  the  province  of  Pales- 
tine. In  more  recent  times,  Baldwin  I.  king  of  Jeru- 
salem, having  made  himself  also  master  of  Petra, 
gave  it  the  name  of  the  Royal  Mountain. 

The  probability  that  the  ruins  of  Wady  Mousa 

are  those  of  ancient  Petra,  is  thus  stated  by  Colonel 

Leake  : — "  The  country  of  the  Nabataei,  of  which 

Petra  was  the  chief  town,  is  well  characterised  by 

*  Harmonies  of  Nature. 


Diodorus  as  containing  some  fruitful  spots,  but  as 
being,  for  the  most  part,  desert  and  waterless.  With 
equal  accuracy,  the  combined  information  of  Eratos- 
thenes, Strabo,  and  Pliny,  describes  Petra  as  falling 
in  a  line  drawn  from  the  head  of  the  Arabian  gulf 
(Suez)  to  Babylon  ;  as  being  .at  the  distance  of  three 
or  four  days  from  Jericho,  and  of  four  or  five  from 
Phcenicon,  which  was  a  place  now  called  Moyeleh, 
on  the  Nabatrean  coast,  near  the  entrance  of  the 
yElanitic  Gulf ;  and  as  situated  in  a  valley  of  about 
two  miles  in  length,  surrounded  with  deserts,  inclosed 
within  precipices,  and  watered  by  a  river.  The  lati- 
tude of  30°  20',  ascribed  by  Ptolemy  to  Petra,  agrees 
moreover  very  accurately  with  that,  which  is  the 
result  of  the  geographical  information  of  Burckhardt. 
The  vestiges  of  opulence,  and  the  apparent  date  of  the 
architecture  at  Wady  Mousa,  are  equally  conforma- 
ble with  the  remains  of  the  history  of  Petra  found  in 
Strabo,  from  whom  it  appears  that,  previous  to  the 
reign  of  Augustus,  or  under  the  latter  Ptolemies,  a 
very  Large  portion  of  the  commerce  of  Arabia  and 
India  passed  through  Petra  to  the  Mediterranean, 
and  that  armies  of  camels  were  required  to  convey 
the  merchandise  from  Leuce  Come  ^Leuke  Kome]j, 
on  the  Red  Sea,  through  Petra,  to  Rhinocolura,  now 
El  Arish.  But  among  the  ancient  authorities  regard- 
ing Petra,  none  are  more  curious  than  those  of 
Josephus,  Eusebius,  and  Jerome,  all  persons  well 
acquainted  with  these  countries,  and  who  agree  in 
proving  that  the  sepulchre  of  Aaron  in  Mount  Hor 
was  near  Petra.  From  hence  it  seems  evident  that 
the  present  object  of  Mussulman  devotion,  under  the 
name  of  the  tomb  of  Haroun,  stands  upon  the  same 
spot  whicli  has  always  been  regarded  as  the  burying- 
place  of  Aaron  ;  and  there  remains  little  doubt,  there- 
fore, that  the  mountain  to  the  west  of  Petra  is  the 
Mount  Hor  of  the  Scriptures;  Mousa  being,  perhaps, 


an  Arabic    corruption  of   Movra,   where  Aaron  is 
said  to  have  died." 

Till  within  these  few  years,  these  ruins  have  been 
to  Europeans,  as  if  they  did  not  exist.  In  1807, 
M.  Seetzen,  travelling  under  the  name  of  Morse, 
made  an  excursion  into  Arabia  Petrsea,  as  far  as 
what  he  calls  the  frontiers  of  Idumea,  but  he  did  not 
approach  the  ruins  of  the  capital*.  The  first  tra- 
veller, who  gave  to  modern  Europe  any  knowledge  of 
this  city,  was  Burckhardt.  In  this  journey,  made 
in  the  summer  of  1812,  he  encountered  many  dangers 
and  difficulties ;  not  so  much  from  the  inaccesible 
nature  of  the  country,  as  from  the  rapacity  and  pre- 
judices of  the  Arabs,  who  conceive  that  their  ruined 
towns  are  all  filled  with  hidden  treasures ;  and  that 
European  visitors  come  for  the  sole  purpose  of  carry- 
ing these  away.  "  I  see  now  clearly,"  said  his  guide, 
"  that  you  are  an  infidel,  who  have  some  particular 
business  among  the  ruins  of  the  city  of  our  fore- 
fathers ;  but,  depend  upon  it,  we  shall  not  suffer  you 
to  take  out  a  single  para  of  all  the  treasures  hidden 
therein ;  for  they  are  in  our  territory,  and  belong  to 
us."  With  these  difficulties,  Burckhardt  had  little 
opportunity  of  doing  more  than  merely  ascertain- 
ing, that  such  ruins  as  those  of  Petra  did  actually 
exist.  "  I  was  particularly  anxious,"  says  he,  in 
his  journal,  under  date  of  August  22,  "  of  visiting 
Wady  Mousa,  of  the  antiquities  of  which  I  had  heard 
the  country  people  speak  in  terms  of  great  admira- 
tion ;  and  from  thence  I  had  hoped  to  cross  the  desert 
in  a  straight  line  to  Cairo ;  but  my  guide  was  afraid 
of  the  hazards  of  a  journey  through  the  desert.  I 
therefore  pretended  to  have  made  a  vow  to  slaughter 
a  goat  in  honour  of  Haroun  (Aaron),  whose  tomb  I 
knew  was  situated  at  the  extremity  of  the  valley ; 
and  by  this  stratagem  I  thought  that  I  should  have 
*  He  is  supposed  to  have  been  poisoned  at  Akaba,  where  he  died. 


the  means  of  seeing  the  valley  in  my  way  to  the 
tomb.  To  this  my  guide  had  nothing  to  oppose ;  the 
dread  of  drawing  upon  himself,  by  resistance,  the 
wrath  of  Haroun,  completely  silenced  him."  Farther 
on,  speaking  of  the  antiquities  of  Wady  Mousa,  the 
same  traveller  says,  "  Of  these  I  regret  that  I  am  not 
able  to  give  a  very  complete  account.  I  well  knew 
the  character  of  the  people  around  me.  I  was  with- 
out protection  in  the  midst  of  a  desert,  where  no  tra- 
veller had  ever  before  been  seen ;  and  a  close  exami- 
nation of  these  works  of  the  infidels,  as  they  are 
called,  would  have  excited  suspicions  that  I  was  a 
magician  in  search  of  treasures.  I  should  at  least 
have  been  detained,  and  prevented  from  prosecuting 
my  journey  to  Egypt,  and  in  all  probability  should 
have  been  stripped  of  the  little  money  which  I  pos- 
sessed, and,  what  was  infinitely  more  valuable  to  me, 
of  my  journal-book.  Future  travellers  may  visit  the 
spot  under  the  protection  of  an  armed  force ;  the 
inhabitants  will  become  more  accustomed  to  the 
researches  of  strangers,  and  the  antiquities  of  Wady 
Mousa  will  then  be  found  to  rank  amongst  the  most 
curious  remains  of  ancient  art." 

We  shall  now  give  some  account  of  the  travels  of 
Mr.  Banks,  and  the  party  by  whom  he  was  accom- 
panied.* tHaving  quitted  the  tents  of  the  Bedouins, 
with  whom  they  had  sojourned  for  a  few  days,  they 
passed  into  the  valley  of  Ellasar,  where  they  noticed 
some  relics  of  antiquity,  which  they  conjectured  were 
of  Roman  origin.  Here  they  rested  with  a  tribe  of 
Arabs.  The  next  day  they  pursued  their  journey, 
partly  over  a  road  paved  with  lava,  and  which,  by 
its  appearance,  was  evidently  a  Roman  work,  and 
stopped  that  evening  at  Shuback,  a  fortress  in  a 
commanding  situation  ;  but  incapable,  by  decay,  of 
any  effectual  defence  against  European  tactics. 
«  See  Month.  Mag.  No.  367^ 


In  the  neighbourhood  of  this  place  they  encoun- 
tered some  difficulties  from  the  Arabs,  but  which,  by 
their  spirit  and  firmness,  they  overcame,  and  pro- 
ceeded unmolested  till  they  reached  the  tents  of  a 
chieftain  called  Eben  Raschib,  who  took  them  under 
his  protection.  This  encampment  was  situated  on 
the  edge  of  a  precipice,  from  which  they  had  a  mag- 
nificent view  of  Monnt  Gebel-Nebe-Haroun,  the  hill 
of  the  prophet  Aaron  (Mount  Hor)  ;  and  a  distant 
prospect  of  Gebel-Tour  (Mount  Sinai),  was  also 
pointed  out  to  them.  In  the  fore-ground,  on  the 
plain  below,  they  saw  the  tents  of  the  hostile  Arabs, 
who  were  determined  to  oppose  their  passage  to 
Wady  Mousa,  the  ruins  of  which  were  also  in 

Perceiving  themselves  thus  as  it  were  waylaid, 
they  sent  a  messenger  to  the  chief,  requesting  per- 
mission to  pass ;  but  he  returned  for  answer,  that 
they  should  neither  cross  his  lands,  nor  taste  his 
water.  They  were  in  fact  in  the  land  of  Edom,  to 
the  king  of  which  Moses  sent  messengers  from  Kadish. 
"  Let  us  pass,"  said  he,  "  I  pray  thee,  through  thy 
country  :  we  will  not  pass  through  the  fields,  or 
through  the  vineyards ;  neither  will  we  drink  of  the 
waters  of  the  well :  we  will  go  by  the  king's  high- 
way ;  we  will  not  turn  to  the  right  hand  nor  to  the 
left,  until  we  have  passed  thy  borders."  But  Edom 
said  unto  him,  "  Thou  shalt  not  pass  by  me,  lest  I 
come  out  against  thee  with  the  sword." — Numbers 
xx.  17,  18. 

The  travellers,  after  some  captious  negotiation,  at 
last  obtained  permission  to  pass ;  but  not  to  drink 
the  waters.  They  did  not,  however,  very  faithfully 
observe  this  stipulation  ;  for  on  reaching  the  borders  of 
a  clear  bright  sparkling  rivulet,  their  horse  would  taste 
the  cooling  freshness  of  its  waters;  and  Eben  Raschib, 
their  protector,  insisted  also  that  the  horses  should  bo 


gratified.  On  crossing  this  stream  they  entered  on 
the  wonders  of  Wady  Mousa. 

The  first  object  that  attracted  their  attention 
was  a  mausoleum,  at  the  entrance  of  which  stood  two 
colossal  animals  ;  but  whether  lions  or  sphinxes  they 
could  not  ascertain,  as  they  were  much  defaced  and 
mutilated.  They  then,  advancing  towards  the  prin- 
cipal ruins,  entered  a  narrow  pass,  varying  from 
fifteen  to  twenty  feet  in  width,  overhung  by  preci- 
pices, which  rose  to  the  general  height  of  two  hun- 
dred, sometimes  reaching  five  hundred  feet,  and 
darkening  the  path  by  their  projecting  ledges.  In 
some  places  niches  were  sculptured  in  the  sides  of 
this  stupendous  gallery,  and  here  and  there  rude 
masses  stood  forward,  that  bore  a  remote  and  mys- 
terious resemblance  ^  the  figures  of  living  things, 
but  over  which,  time  and  oblivion  had  drawn  an 
inscrutable  and  everlasting  veil.  About  a  mile 
within  this  pass,  they  rode  under  an  arch,  which 
connected  the  two -sides  together;  and  they  noticed 
several  earthen  pipes,  which  had  formerly  distributed 

Having  continued  to  explore  the  gloomy  wind- 
ings of  this  awful  corridor  for  about  two  miles,  the 
front  of  a  superb  temple  burst  on  their  view.  A 
statue  of  Victory,  with  wings,  filled  the  centre  of  an 
aperture  in  the  upper  part,  and  groups  of  colossal 
figures,  representing  a  centaur,  and  a  young  man, 
stood  on  each  side  of  the  lofty  portico.  This  mag- 
nificent structure  is  entirely  excavated  from  the  solid 
rock,  and  preserved  from  the  ravages  of  the  weather 
by  the  projections  of  the  overhanging  precipices. 
About  three  hundred  yards  beyond  this  temple,  they 
met  with  other  astonishing  excavations ;  and,  on 
reaching  the  termination  of  the  rock  on  their  left, 
they  found  an  amphitheatre,  which  had  also  been 
•  excavated,  with  the  exception  of  the  proscenium  ;  and 

VOL.  II.  L 


this  had  fallen  into  ruins.  On  all  sides  the  rocks 
were  hollowed  into  innumerable  chambers  and  sepul- 
chres ;  and  a  silent  waste  of  desolated  palaces,  and 
the  remains  of  constructed  edifices,  filled  the  area  to 
which  the  pass  led. 

Since  this,  Captains  Irby  and  Mangles,  who 
accompanied  Mr.  Banks,  have  published  an  account 
of  their  journey  : — "  Our  defile  brought  us  directly 
down  into  the  valley  of  Wady  Mousa,  whose  name 
had  become  so  familiar  to  us.  It  is,  at  the  point 
where  we  entered  it,  a  stony  but  cultivated  valley,  of 
moderate  size,  without  much  character  or  beauty, 
running  in  a  direction  from  east  to  west.  A  lesser 
hollow,  sloping  down  to  it  from  the  southward,  meets 
it  at  an  angle.  At  the  upper  end  of  the  latter  valley 
is  the  village  seen  over  stages  ofianging  fruit-grounds, 
which  are  watered  by  a  spring.  *  *  Some  hundred 
yards  below  this  spring  begin  the  outskirts  of  the 
vast  necropolis  of  Petra.  *  *  As  we  advanced, 
the  natural  features  of  the  defile  grew  more  and  more 
imposing  at  every  step,  and  the  excavations  and 
sculpture  more  frequent  cm  both  sides,  till  it  pre- 
sented at  last  a  continued  street  of  tombs,  beyond 
which  the  rocks,  gradually  approaching  each  other, 
seemed  all  at  once  to  close  without  any  outlet.  There 
is,  however,  one  frightful  chasm  for  the  passage  of 
the  stream,  which  furnishes,  as  it  did  anciently,  the 
only  avenue  to  Petra  on  this  side  (the  eastern). 

"It  is  impossible,"  continues  Captain  Irby,  "to 
conceive  any  thing  more  awful  and  sublime  than  the 
eastern  approach  to  Petra.  The  width  is  not  more 
than  just  sufficient  for  the  passage  of  two  horsemen 
abreast ;  the  sides  are  in  all  parts  perpendicular, 
varying  from  four  hundred  to  seven  hundred  feet  in 
height ;  and  they  often  overhang  to  such  a  degree, 
that,  without  their  absolutely  meeting,  the  sky  is 
intercepted,  and  completely  shut  out  for  one  hundred 


yards  together,  and  there  is  little  more  light  than  in 
a  cavern."  This  half  subterranean  passage  is  more 
than  two  miles  in  length,  and  retains  throughout 
the  same  extraordinary  character. 

"  After  passing  the  Khasne,  the  defile  becomes 
contracted  again  for  three  hundred  yards,  when  sud- 
denly the  ruins  of  the  city  burst  on  the  view  in  their 
full  grandeur,  shut  in  on  the  opposite  side  by  barren 
craggy  precipices,  from  which  numerous  ravines  and 
valleys,  like  those  we  had  passed,  branch  out  in  all 
directions.  (All  of  these  ravines,  however,  that 
were  explored,  were  found  to  terminate  in  a  wall  of 
rock,  admitting  of  no  passage  outwards  or  inwards.) 
The  sides  of  the  mountains,  covered  with  an  endless 
variety  of  excavated  tombs  and  private  dwellings, 
presented  altogether  the  most  singular  scene  we  ever 
beheld.  We  must  despair  to  give  the  reader  an  idea 
of  the  peculiar  effect  of  the  rocks,  tinted  with  most 
extraordinary  hues,  whose  summits  present  us  with 
Nature  in  her  most  Bavage  and  romantic  form  ;  whilst 
their  bases  are  worked  out  in  all  the  symmetry  and 
regularity  of  art,  with  colonnades  and  pediments, 
and  ranges  of  corridors  adhering  to  the  perpen- 
dicular surface." 

The  next  party  that  visited  Petra  were  Messrs. 
Laborde  and  Linant.  After  traversing  Wada  Araba, 
they  entered  the  Wady  Mousa,  the  "  mysterious 
valley  of  Petra."  Laborde  confesses  that,  notwith- 
standing the  perfect  good  feeling  which  existed  be- 
tween the  travellers  and  their  conductors,  he  felt  an 
indefinable  kind  of  fear  that  the  grand  object  of  their 
journey — the  minute  investigation  of  Petra — might, 
after  all,  be  defeated.  The  "  Fellahs  of  Wady 
Mousa"  were  yet  to  be  reconciled  to  their  plan  of 

It  is  a  common  belief  amongst  the  Arabs,  that 
immense  treasures  are  buried  beneath  the  ruins  that 
L  2 


strew  the  rocky  desert  of  Idumea ;  and  it  is,  of 
course,  a  natural  inference,  that  the  object  of  Euro- 
peans in  visiting  the  country  is,  by  magic  or  superior 
craft,  to  obtain  access  to  those  treasures,  the  posses- 
sion of  which  belongs  to  the  lords  of  the  soil.  But 
in  drawing  near  to  the  city,  a  danger,  says  M. 
Laborde,  on  which  the  travellers  had  not  reckoned, 
proved  a  cause  of  their  security.  The  plague  had 
been  brought  from  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean 
into  the  secluded  "Wady  Mousa,  and  the  Fellahs  had 
fled  from  its  violence.  The  travellers,  during  their 
inspection  of  the  city,  were  comparatively  free  from 
annoyance  :  but  they  would  have  staid  longer  if 
their  Arab  conductors,  who  were  afraid  of  the  plague, 
had  not  teased  them  to  return ;  and  the  fact  of  their 
residence  in  Petra  was  beginning  to  spread. 

Messrs.  Laborde  and  Linant  arrived  in  Petra  from 
the  south  ;  and  on  reaching  a  point  from  which  they 
could  see  the  extent  of  the  town,  they  were  struck 
with  amazement  at  the  immense  mass  of  ruins  strewed 
around,  and  the  extensive  circle  of  rocks  inclosing 
the  place,  pierced  with  an  innumerable  quantity  of 
excavations.  In  fact,  words  are  inadequate  to  convey 
a  clear  idea  of  the  ruins  of  Petra. 

In  Laborde's  plan  of  Petra,  the  town  is  exhibited 
as  completely  encircled  by  huge  rocks.  These  rocks 
are  excavated  in  every  variety  of  form.  The  only 
entrance  to  the  town  is  from  the  south-west,  by  the 
windings  of  a  narrow  ravine,  through  which  flows 
the  river,  or  rather  stream,  of  Wady  Mousa*. 

"  We  wound  round  a  peak,"  says  M.  Laborde, 
"  surmounted  by  a  single  tree.  The  view  from  this 
point  exhibited  a  vast  frightful  desert ;  a  chaotic  sea, 
the  waves  of  which  were  petrified.  Following  the 
beaten  road,  we  saw  before  us  Mount  Hor,  crowned 

*  Wady  signifies  a  valley  ;  Wady  Mousa  is  the  valley  of  Moses. 


by  the  tomb  of  the  prophet,  if  we  are  to  credit  the 
ancient  tradition,  preserved  by  the  people  of  that 
country.  Several  large  and  ruinous  excavations, 
which  are  seen  in  the  way,  may  arrest  the  attention 
of  a  traveller  who  is  interested  by  such  objects,  and 
has  no  notion  of  those,  still  concealed  from  his  view 
by  the  curtain  of  rocks  which  extends  before  him  ; 
but  at  length  the  rock  leads  him  to  the  heights  above 
one  more  ravine  ;  whence  he  discovers  within  his 
horizon  the  most  singular  spectacle,  the  most  en- 
chanting picture,  which  Nature  has  wrought  in  her 
grandest  mood  of  creation ;  which  men,  influenced  by 
the  vainest  dreams  of  ambition,  have  yet  bequeathed 
to  the  generations  that  were  to  follow  them.  At 
Palmyra,  Nature  renders  the  works  of  man  insig- 
nificant by  her  own  immensity  and  her  boundless 
horizon,  within  which  some  hundreds  of  columns 
seem  entirely  lost.  Here,  on  the  contrary,  she  seems 
delighted  to  set,  in  her  most  noble  frame- work,  his 
productions,  which  aspire,  and  not  unsuccessfully,  to 
harmonize  with  her  own  majestic,  yet  fantastic,  ap- 
pearance. The  spectator  hesitates  for  a  moment,  as 
to  which  of  the  two  he  is  the  more  impelled  to 
admire ;  whether  he  is  to  accord  the  preference  to 
Nature,  who  invites  his  attention  to  her  matchless 
girdle  of  rocks,  wondrous  as  well  for  their  colour  as 
their  forms  ;  or  to  the  men  who  feared  not  to  mingle 
the  works  of  their  genius  with  such  splendid  efforts 
of  creative  power." 

We  now  give  an  abstract  of  what  has  been  written 
of  this  city,  mainly  taken  from  a  very  intelligent  pe- 
riodical journal,  published  at  Edinburgh  (Chambers's 

Nearly  at  the  spot  where  the  defile  opens  into  the 
site  of  the  city,  one  excavation  in  the  site  of  the  pass 
arrests  the  attention  of  the  traveller.  This  is  a  vast 
circular  theatre  hewn  out  of  the  solid  rock,  consisting 


of  thirty -three  seats  of  stone  sloping  upwards,  and 
surmounted,  and  in  some  degree  sheltered,  by  the 
rocks  above.  The  countless  tombs  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  this  ruined  edifice  led  M.  Laborde  to  re- 
mark on  the  extraordinary  taste  of  the  people  of 
Petra,  in  selecting  a  place  of  amusement,  encircled  on 
air  sides  by  the  mansions  and  memorials  of  death  ! 

It  is  unnecessary  to  enter  into  a  minute  descrip- 
tion of  the  excavated  tombs  and  sepulchres,  studding 
the  rocky  walls  around  Petra.  The  basis  of  the  archi- 
tecture, in  almost  all  cases,  is  Grecian,  mingled  with 
Roman ;  though  in  many  instances  a  style  is  apparent, 
which  must  be  regarded  as  Egyptian,  or  rather  the 
native  style  of  Petra.  Many  of  the  chambers  within 
the  tombs  are  so  immense,  that  their  real  character 
might  be  doubted  ;  were  it  not  for  the  recesses  they 
contain,  destined,  it  is  plain,  for  the  reception  of 
bodies.  How  enormous  must  have  been  the  labour 
and  expense,  necessary  for  the  excavation  of  these 
sepulchres,  some  of  which  are  large  enough  to  stable 
the  horses  of  a  whole  tribe  of  Arabs  !  It  is  impossible 
to  conceive  that  such  resting-places  could  have  been 
appropriated  to  any  other  persons  than  rulers  or 
rich  men,  and  great,  indeed,  as  Mr.  Burckhardt 
remarks,  "  must  have  been  the  opulence  of  a  city, 
which  could  dedicate  such  monuments  to  the  memory 
of  its  rulers."  Some  of  the  finest  mausoleums,  as  we 
have  already  seen,  are  not  in  the  main  valley,  but  in 
the  ravines  leading  from  it,  where  their  multiplicity 
is  beyond  conception.  In  a  ravine  on  the  north-west, 
M.  Laborde  beheld  one,  called  by  the  natives  El- 
Deir,  or  the  Convent,  of  miich  larger  dimensions  than 
the  Khasne,  and,  like  it,  sculptured  out  of  the  rock, 
though  not  in  a  style  so  perfect. 

As  the  visitor  advances  into  the  area,  he  beholds 
in  front  of  him  one  of  the  most  splendid  and  beauti- 
ful objects  in  or  around  Petra,  and  what  may  justly 


be  called  one  of  the  wonders  of  antiquity.  This  is 
the  front  of  a  great  temple,  nearly  sixty-  five  feet  in 
height,  excavated  from  the  solid  rock,  and  embel- 
lished with  the  richest  architectural  decorations,  all 
in  the  finest  state  of  preservation.  Six  pillars,  thirty- 
five  feet  high,  with  Corinthian  capitals,  support  an 
ornamented  pediment,  above  which  stand  six  smaller 
pillars,  the  centre  pair  crowned  by  a  vase,  and  sur- 
rounded by  statues  and  other  ornaments.  Mere 
description  can  do  no  justice  to  this  building.  Near 
it  stands  a  magnificent  triumphal  arch. 

This  temple  is  termed  by  the  Arabs  "  Khasne  Pha- 
raon" — Pharaoh's  treasure  ;  from  their  supposition 
that  here  are  hidden  those  stores  which  they  have 
vainly  sought  for  elsewhere.  In  the  sarcastic  words 
of  M.  Laborde,  "  It  was  quite  in  accordance  with 
their  character,  after  having  fruitlessly  spoiled  the 
monuments  inclosed  in  the  tombs,  to  seek  the  spot 
where  the  constructor  of  such  magnificent  edifices  had 
deposited  his  treasure.  That  spot  they  supposed  they 
had  found  at  last — it  was  the  urn  which  may  be  dis- 
tinguished on  the  top  of  the  monument.  This  must 
contain  all  the  riches  of  the  great  king ; — but,  un- 
happily, it  is  out  of  their  reach,  and  only  taunts  their 
desire.  Consequently,  each  time  that  they  pass 
through  the  ravine,  they  stop  an  instant,  fire  at  the 
urn,  and  endeavour  to  break  it,  in  the  hope  of  bring- 
ing it  down  and  securing  the  treasure.  Their  efforts 
are  fruitless ;  and  they  retire  murmuring  against  the 
king  of  Giants,  who  has  so  adroitly  placed  his  treasure 
120  feet  above  their  reach." 

The  temple  is  hewn  in  an  enormous  and  compact 
block  of  freestone,  which  is  lightly  coloured  with 
oxide  of  iron.  Its  high  state  of  preservation  is  owing 
to  the  shelter  which  the  surrounding  rocks  afford  it 
against  the  wind,  and  also  in  preserving  the  roof  from 
the  rain.  The  only  traces  of  deterioration  are  in  the 


statues  at  the  base  of  the  column,  which  has  been 
produced  by  the  humidity  undermining  the  parts 
most  in  relief,  or  nearest  to  the  ground.  To  the  same 
cause  may  be  attributed  the  fall  of  one  of  the  columns 
which  was  attached  to  the  front.  Had  the  structure 
been  built  instead  of  being  hewn,  the  fall  of  this 
column  would  have  dragged  down  the  entire  building. 
As  it  is,  it  merely  occasions  a  void,  which  does  not  de- 
stroy the  effect  of  the  whole.  "  It  has  even  been  use- 
ful," says  M.  Laborde,  "in  so  far  as  it  enabled  u?,  by 
taking  its  dimensions,  to  ascertain  the  probable  height 
of  the  temple,  which  it  would  otherwise  have  been  im- 
possible to  do  with  precision."  He  calls  the  temple 
"  one  of  the  wonders  of  antiquity,"  and  apologises  for 
the  expression  in  the  following  manner  : — "  We  are 
apt,  doubtless,  to  charge  the  traveller  with  exaggera- 
tion who  endeavours,  by  high-sounding  eulogiums, 
to  enhance  the  merit  of  his  fatigues,  or  the  value  of 
his  labours  :  but  here,  at  least,  plates  designed  with 
care  will  establish  the  truth  of  a  description  which 
might  otherwise  appear  extravagant." 

The  interior  of  the  temple  does  not  fulfil  the  expec- 
tations, created  by  the  magnificence  of  the  exterior. 
Several  steps  conduct  to  a  room,  the  door  of  which 
is  perceived  under  the  peristyle.  "Although  the 
chamber  is  hewn  regularly,  and  is  in  good  proportion, 
the  walls  are  rough,  its  doors  lead  to  nothing,  and 
the  entire  appears  to  have  been  abandoned  while  the 
work  was  yet  in  progress.  There  are  two  lateral 
chambers,  one  of  which  is  irregular,  and  the  other 
presents  two  apertures,  which  seem  to  have  been 
hewn  for  two  coffins." 

Captain  Irby  speaks  of  this  temple  in  the  follow- 
ing manner  :  "  The  position  is  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  that  could  be  imagined  for  the  front  of  a 
great  temple,  the  richness  and  exquisite  finish  of 
whose  decorations  offer  a  most  remarkable  contrast  to 


the  savage  scenery  that  surrounds  it.  It  is  of  a  very 
lofty  proportion,  the  elevation  comprising  two  stories. 
The  taste  is  not  exactly  to  be  commended  ;  but  many 
of  the  details  and  ornaments,  and  the  size  and  pro- 
portion of  the  great  doorway  especially,  to  which 
there  are  five  steps  of  ascent  from  the  portico,  are  very 
noble.  No  part  is  built,  the  whole  being  purely  a 
work  of  excavation  ;  and  its  minutest  embellishments, 
•wherever  the  hand  of  man  has  not  purposely  effaced 
and  obliterated  them,  are  so  perfect,  that  it  may  be 
doubted  whether  any  work  of  the  ancients,  except- 
ing, perhaps,  some  on  the  banks  of  the  Nile,  have 
come  down  to  our  time  so  little  injured  by  the  lapse 
of  ages.  There  is,  in  fact,  scarcely  a  building  of 
forty  years'  standing  in  England  so  well  preserved  in 
the  greater  part  of  its  architectural  decorations.  Of 
the  larger  members  of  the  architecture  nothing  is  de- 
ficient, excepting  a  single  column  of  the  portico ;  the 
statues  are  numerous  and  colossal." 

The  brook  of  "NVady  Mousa,  after  leaving  the  eastern 
defile  by  which  it  entered,  passes  directly  across  the 
valley,  and  makes  its  exit  by  a  rocky  ravine  on  the 
west,  almost  impassable  by  the  foot  of  man.  On  the 
banks  of  this  stream  are  situated  the  principal  ruins 
of  the  city.  There,  at  least,  are  found  those  in  chief 
preservation — for,  properly  speaking,  the  whole  valley 
may  be  said  to  be  covered  with  ruins. 

The  remains  of  paved-ways,  bridges,  and  other 
structures,  may  still  be  seen  among  the  other  ruins  of 
the  valley.  Not  the  least  interesting  object,  observ- 
able in  the  vale,  is  the  aqueduct  which  is  continued 
from  the  eastern  approach  along  the  face  of  the  rocks 
constituting  the  eastern  Avail  of  this  city.  This  aque- 
duct is  partly  hewn  and  partly  built,  and  is  yet  in  a 
very  perfect  condition. 

The  only  inscriptions,  hitherto  discovered  at  Petra, 
are  two  which  M.  Laborde  met  with  on  tombs.  One 


of  these,  in  Greek  characters,  was  so  much  mutilated 
as  to  be  unreadable,  and  the  other,  a  Latin  one,  noti- 
fied that  a  certain  Roman  consul  died  at  Petra,  when 
governor  of  Arabia. 

The  only  living  being  found  residing  in  the  imme- 
diate neighbourhood  of  the  ruins,  with  the  exception 
of  the  reptiles  that  infest  the  excavations,  was  a 
decrepit  old  man,  who  had  lived  for  forty  years  on 
the  top  of  Mount  Ilor,  an  eminence  at  the  west  of 
Petra,  where  a  tomb,  said  to  be  that  of  Aaron,  is 
seen.  The  wandering  Arabs,  who  revere  the  Jewish 
traditions,  hold  this  place  as  sacred,  and  support  its 
old  guardian  by  occasional  pilgrimages  and  con-, 

*  We  may  here  give  place  to  a  few  pertinent  observations,  in 
regard  to  the  infancy  and  old  age  of  nations,  written  by  M.  Claret 
Fleurien  : — "  If  we  are  not  disposed  to  challenge  all  the  testimonies 
of  antiquity,  we  cannot  refuse  to  believe  that  the  Old  World  has  had 
its  infancy  and  its  adolescence  :  and,  observing  it  in  its  progressive 
career,  we  may  consider  it  as  in  its  maturity,  [and  foresee,  in  an, 
unlimited  time,  its  decrepitude  and  its  end.  The  New  World,  like 
the  Old,  must  have  had  its  periods.  America,  at  the  epoch  of  its  dis- 
cover)', appears  as  if  little  remote  from  creation,  from  infancy,  if  we 
consider  it  in  regard  to  the  men  by  whom  it  was  inhabited  :  the 
greater  part  of  its  people  were  still  at  the  point  where  our  ancestors 
and  those  of  all  the  nations,  at  this  day  civilised,  were  four  thousand 
years  ago.  Read  what  travellers  and  historians  have  related  to  us 
of  the  inhabitants  of  the  New  World  ;  you  will  there  find  the  man 
of  the  Old  one  in  his  infancy  :  among  the  small  scattered  nations, 
you  will  fancy  that  you  see  the  first  Egyptians  ;  wild  and  savage  men, 
living  at  random,  ignorant  of  the  conveniences  of  life,  even  of  the 
use  of  fire,  and  not  knowing  how  to  form  arms  for  defending  them- 
selves against  the  attack  of  beasts4  :  in  the  Pesserais  of  Tierra  del 
Fuego,the  savage  Greeks,  living  on  the  leaves  of  trees,  and,  as  it  were, 
browsing  on  grass,  before  Pelasgus  had  taught  the  Arcadians  to  con- 
struct huts,  to  clothe  themselves  with  the  skin  of  animals,  and  to  eat 
acornsb  :  in  the  greater  part  of  the  savages  of  Canada,  the  ancient 
Scythians,  cutting  off  the  hairof  theirvanquished  enemies,  anddriuk- 

"Diodor.  Book  I.  Parag.  1.  Art.  3. 
bPausanias.  Book  VIII.  Chap.  1. 


For  want  of  space  we  must  here  close  our  account ; 
referring  for  a  more  enlarged  knowledge  of  this  cele- 
brated "  city  of  the  desert,"  to  the  travels  of  Burck- 
hardt,  Captains  Irby  and  Mangles,  and  MM.  Laborde 
and  Linant.  The  following  references  lead  to  some  of 

ing  their  blood  out  of  their  skull*  :  in  several  of  the  nations  of  the 
north  and  south,  the  inhabitant  of  the  East  Indies,  ignorant  of  culture, 
subsisting  only  on  fruits,  covered  with  skins  of  beasts,  and  killing 
the  old  men  and  the  infirm,  who  could  no  longer  follow  in  their 
excursions  the  rest  of  the  family1"  :  in  Mexico,  you  will  recognize 
the  Cimbri  and  the  Scythians,  burying  alive  with  the  dead  king  the 
great  officers  of  the  crown  c  :  in  Peru  as  well  as  Mexico,  and  even 
among  the  small  nations,  you  will  find  Druids,  Vates,  Eubages, 
mountebanks,  cheating  priests  and  credulous  mend  :  on  every  part 
of  the  Continent  and  in  the  neighbouring  islands,  you  will  see  the 
Bretons  or  Britons,  the  Picts  of  the  Romans,  and  the  Thracians, 
men  and  women,  painting  their  body  and  face,  puncturing  and  mak- 
ing incisions  in  their  skin  ;  and  the  latter  condemning  their  women 
to  till  the  ground,  to  curry  heavy  burdens,  and  imposing  on  them 
the  most  laborious  employments  e  :  in  the  forests  of  Canada,  in  the 
Brazils,  and  elsewhere,  you  will  find  Cantabri  causing  their  enemies 
whom  they  have  made  prisoners  of  war  to  undergo  torture,  and 
singing  the  song  of  the  dead  round  the  stake  where  the  victim  is 
expiring  in  the  most  frightful  torments  f :  in  short,  every  where, 
America  will  present  to  you  the  horrible  spectacle  of  those  human 
sacrifices,  with  which  the  people  of  both  worlds  have  polluted  the 
whole  surface  of  the  globe  ;  and  several  nations  of  the  New  World, 
like  some  of  those  of  the  Old  £,  will  make  you  shrink  with  horror 
at  the  sight  of  those  execrable  festivals,  where  man  feeds  with 
delight  on  the  flesh  of  his  fellow-creature.  The  picture  which  the 
New  World  exhibited  to  the  men  of  the  Old  who  discovered  it, 
therefore,  offered  no  feature  of  which  our  history  does  not  furnish  us 
with  a  model  in  the  infancy  of  our  political  societies." 

•  Herodot.  Book  IV. 

b  Ibid.  Book  III.  and  IV.— Val.  Max.  Book  II. 

c  Ibid,  and  Strabo. 

d  In  the  ancient  history  of  Gaul,  in  that  of  the  British  islands, 
and  in  all  the  histories  of  the  ancient  times  of  Europe,  of  the  North, 
of  Asia,  &c. 

e  Herodot.  Book  II.  f  Strabo,  Book  II. 

B  The  Irish  and  the  Massagetae,  according  to  Strabo,  Book  II.— 
The  Scythians,  according  to  Eusebius,  Preparat.  Evangel.  Book  II, 
Chap.  4,  and  other  people  of  the  Old  Continent. 

156  nrixs  OF  ANCIENT  CITIES. 

the  passages,  in  which  the  fate  of  this  city  was  foretold 
by  the  sacred  writers  *. 

"  I  will  stretch  out  mine  hand  upon  Edom,  and  will  cut  off 
man  and  beast  from  it,  and  I  will  make  it  desolate  from  Temau  ; 
and  they  of  Dedan  shall  fall  by  the  sword.  And  I  will  lay  my 
vengeance  upon  Edom  by  the  hand  of  my  people  Israel,  and  they 
shall  do  in  Edom  according  to  mine  anger,  and  according  to  my  fury, 
and  they  shall  know  my  vengeance,  saith  the  Lord  God." — Ezekiel, 
xxv.  13,  14. 

"  Say  unto  it,  thus  saith  the  Lord  God,  behold,  O  Mount  Seir,  I 
am  against  thee,  and  I  will  stretch  out  mine  hand  against  thee,  and 
I  will  make  thee  most  desolate,  I  will  lay  thy  cities  waste,  and  thou 
shall  be  desolate,  and  thou  shall  know  thai  I  am  the  Lord.  Be- 
cause thou  hast  had  a  perpetual  hatred,  and  hast  shed  the  blood  of 
the  children  of  Israel,  by  the  force  of  the  sword,  in  the  time  of  their 
calamity." — Ezekiel,  xxxv.  3,  4. 

"  The  cormorant  and  the  bittern  shall  possess  it,  the  owl  also  aud 
the  raven  shall  dwell  in  it,  and  he  shall  stretch  out  upon  it  the  line 
of  confusion,  and  the  stones  of  emptiness.  The  ihorns  shall  come 
up  in  her  palaces,  nettles  and  brambles  in  the  fortresses  thereof,  and 
it  shall  be  an  habitation  of  dragons,  and  a  court  for  owls." — Isaiah, 
xxxiv.  11,  13. 

"And  Edom  shall  be  a  desolation;  every  one,  that  goeth  by  it, 
shall  be  astonished,  and  shall  hiss  at  the  plagues  thereof." — Jere- 
miah, xlix.  17. 

"  And  the  house  of  Jacob  shall  be  a  fire,  and  the  house  of  Joseph 
a  flame,  and  the  house  of  Esau  for  stubble,  and  they  shall  kindle 
in  them,  and  devour  them,  and  there  shall  not  be  any  remaining  of 
the  house  of  Esau." — Obadiah,  18. 


THIS  was  a  town  of  Arcadia,  called  after  Phigalus. 
Bacchus  and  Diana  had  each  a  temple  there,  and  the 
public  places  were  adorned  with  the  statues  of  illus- 
trious natives.  "  In  the  forum,"  says  Anacharsis, 
"  is  a  statue  which  might  serve  for  the  history  of 
the  arts.  The  feet  are  almost  joined,  and  the 
pendant  hands  are  fastened  close  to  the  sides  and 
thighs;  for  in  this  manner  were  statues  formerly 
sculptured  in  Greece,  and  thus  they  are  still  in 

*  Diodorus  ;  Strabo  ;  Pliny  ;  Vincent  ;  Volney  ;  Seetzcn;  Burck- 
Lardt ;  Irby  and  Mangles ;  Laborde ;  Chambers  ;  Knight. 

OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  157 

Egypt.  It  was  erected  for  the  athlete  Arrhacion, 
who  gained  one  of  the  prizes  in  the  52nd,  53rd, 
and  54th  Olympiads.  We  may  hence  conclude 
that,  two  centuries  before  our  time,  many  statuaries 
still  servilely  followed  the  Egyptian  taste." 

This  town  was  situated  on  a  high  and  craggy 
rock,  near  Megalopolis.  Being  the  key,  as  it  were, 
of  Arcadia,  the  Lacedemonians  laid  siege  to  it  and 
took  it  659  B.  c.  In  order  to  regain  the  city,  the 
inhabitants  consulted  the  oracle  of  Delphos,  who 
directed  them  to  select  one  hundred  men  from 
Orestasium  to  assist  them.  These  brave  persons 
perished;  but  the  Orestasians,  in  concert  with  the 
Phigalians,  attacked  their  enemies  and  routed  them. 
The  Phigalians  afterwards  erected  a  monument  in 
honour  of  the  one  hundred  men  who  had  fallen. 

There  was  one  temple  dedicated  to  Diana  Conser- 
vatrix,  in  which  was  her  statue,  and  another  dedi- 
cated to  Apollo  the  Deliverer. 

Chandler  relates,  that  M.  Joachim  Bocher,  an 
architect  of  Paris,  was  desirous  of  examining  a  build- 
ing near  Caritena.  He  was  still  remote  from  that 
place,  when  he  perceived  a  ruin,  two  hours  from 
Verrizza,  which  prevented  him  from  going  further. 
This  ruin  stands  on  an  eminence,  sheltered  by  lofty 
mountains.  The  temple,  it  is  supposed,  was  that  of 
Apollo  Epicurius,  near  Phigalia.  It  was  of  the 
Doric  order,  and  had  six  columns  in  front.  The 
number  which  ranged  round  the  cella  was  thirty- 
eight.  Two  at  the  angles  are  fallen;  the  rest  are 
entire,  in  good  preservation,  and  support  their  ar- 
chitraves. Within  them  lies  a  confused  heap.  The 
stone  inclines  to  grey,  with  reddish  veins.  To  its 
beauty  is  added  great  precision  in  the  workmanship. 
These  remains  had  their  effect,  striking  equally  the 
mind  and  the  eye  of  the  beholder. 

The  walls  of  Phigalia  alone  remain;   they  were 


flanked  with  towers,  both  square  and  circular.  One 
gate  towards  the  east  is  yet  covered  by  blocks,  which 
approach  each  other  like  the  underside  of  a  stair- 
case. There  has  been  a  temple,  of  fine  limestone,  of 
the  Doric  order,  on  which  is  an  inscription. 

Pausanias  describes  Phigalia  as  surrounded  by 
mountains,  of  which  one  named  Cotylium  was  distant 
about  forty  stadia,  or  five  miles.  The  temple  of 
Apollo  stood  on  this,  at  a  place  called  Bassse. 

Under  the  ruins  of  this  temple,  the  Baron  Von 
Stachelberg  discovered,  in  1812,  some  curious  bas- 
reliefs,  which  are  now  in  the  British  Museum. 
They  were  executed  in  the  time  of  Pericles,  the 
temple  having  been  built  by  Ictinus,  the  architect  of 
the  Parthenon. 

These  bas-reliefs,  representing  the  battle  of  the 
Centaurs  and  Lapithse,  and  the  combat  between 
the  Greeks  and  Amazons,  composed  the  frieze  in 
the  interior  of  the  cella,  in  the  temple  of  Apollo  the 
Deliverer.  The  battle  of  the  Centaurs  and  Lapithae  is 
sculptured  on  eleven  slabs  of  marble;  that  of  the 
Greeks  and  Amazons  occupies  twelve. 

Besides  these  there  are  other  fragments  from  the 
same  temple: — 1.  A  fragment  of  a  Doric  capital  of 
one  of  the  columns  of  the  peristyle.  2.  A  fragment 
of  an  Ionic  temple  of  one  of  the  columns  of  the 
cella.  3.  Two  fragments  of  the  tiles,  which 
surmounted  the  pediments,  and  formed  the  superior 
moulding.  4.  Fragments  of  metopes,  found  in  the 

The  following  observations  lately  appeared  in  the 
Times  newspaper: — "  In  the  saloon  of  the  British 
Museum  are  the  celebrated  bas-reliefs,  found  at  Mount 
Cobylus,  near  the  ancient  city  of  Phigalia,  in  Arcadia. 
They  represent  the  battles  of  the  Greeks  and  Amazons, 
and  those  of  Theseus  and  the  Lapithse  against  the 
Centaurs.  According  to  Pausanias,  they  were  the 


work  of  Ictinus,  a  contemporary  of  Phidias.  The 
grandeur  of  conception  displayed  in  their  composition, 
the  variety  of  attitude  and  action  shown,  is  not 
surpassed  by  those  in  the  Elgin  saloon,  though  their 
execution  may  be  inferior.  The  combat  of  the 
Greeks  and  Amazons  occupies  twelve  slabs  of  marble, 
and  that  of  the  Centaurs  eleven.  Both  the  history 
of  the  Amazons  and  the  battle,  here  represented,  are 
obscure.  The  origin  of  the  name  is  derived  from 
two  words,  '  Ama'  or  '  Ma,'  which  in  all  old  lan- 
guages signifies  '  mother' — its  ubiquity  is  proof  of 
its  antiquity — and  the  ancient  name  of  the  sun,  as 
found  in  the  Temple  of  Heliopolis,  in  Egypt,  is 
'On,'  'Ton,'  or  'Zoan;'  but  that  any  nation  of 
Amazons,  in  the  vulgar  acceptation  of  the  word, 
ever  existed,  is  more  than  problematical.  Faber 
says  that  those  nations,  who  worshipped  the  female 
principle  of  the  world,  such  as  the  Iberians,  the 
Cimmerians,  the  Moot*,  the  Atalantians  of  Mauri- 
tania, and  the  lonians,  were  Amazons,  and  a  cele- 
brated invasion  of  Attica  by  them  is  mentioned. 
We  are  told  that  Eumolphus,  an  Egyptian,  was  the 
leader;  and  Pausanias  mentions  an  Attic  victory  or 
trophy,  called  an  Amazonium,  erected  to  their  manes. 
According  to  Arrian,  the  Queen  of  the  Amazons,  on 
the  borders  of  the  Caspian  Sea,  sent  ambassa- 
dors with  defiance  to  Alexander.  In  the  time  of 
Pompey,  they  were  still  supposed  to  exist ;  and  Dion 
Cassius  says,  that  in  the  Mithridatic  war  buskins 
and  boots  were  found  by  the  Roman  soldiers, 
undoubtedly  Amazonian.  The  worship  of  the  male 
and  female  deities  in  Greece  caused  peace  between 
the  sects,  and  the  origin  of  their  quarrel  and  their 
name  was  forgotten  in  Europe.  In  Asia  the  Persians 
and  the  Jews  seem  still  to  have  formed  an  exception. 
Cambyses,  in  his  invasion,  destroyed  in  Egypt  every- 


thing  connected  with  the  female  worship;  he  overturn- 
ed the  sphinxes,  but  he  left  the  obelisks  untouched. 
The  scene  of  the  combat,  depicted  on  these  ta- 
blets, is  drawn  with  great  force  and  spirit :  some  of 
the  Amazons  have  long  tunics,  others  short  vestments, 
only  reaching  to  the  knee;  one  on  horseback  has 
trousers,  and  loose  sleeves  reaching  to  the  wrist ;  on 
the  head  of  some  is  the  Archaic  helmet,  and  those 
without  have  the  hair  fastened  in  a  knot  on  the  top; 
they  all  but  one  wear  boots,  which  reach  to  the 
knees;  their  robes  are  fastened  with  a  zone;  some 
have  two  belts  crossed  between  the  breasts;  their 
arms  are  swords,  and  the  double-headed  Scythian 
battle-axe,  as  also  spears,  bows,  and  arrows.  None 
of  these  last  are  preserved,  they  being  probably  of 
bronze,  as  the  holes  remain,  and  added  afterwards, 
as  was  the  custom  with  ancient  sculpture;  the  shields 
are  small,  and  of  the  lunar  form,  opening  at  top. 
The  Athenian  warriors  have  cloaks,  or  tunics, 
fastened  round  the  neck,  and  tightened  about  the 
waist  by  a  belt;  it  reaches  no  lower  than  the  knee; 
the  right  arm  is  bare.  In  one  group  a  fierce  warrior 
has  seized  a  mounted  Amazon  by  the  hair ;  he  is 
dragging  her  from  the  horse,  which  is  rearing.  The 
action  of  the  female  figure  is  very  fine:  she  firmly 
maintains  her  seat,  till  relieved  by  another ;  who, 
with  uplifted  axe  and  shield  to  protect  her  from  the 
flying  arrows,  shall  have  brained  her  antagonist. 
The  18th  slab  has  five  figures  and  two  horses;  in 
one  the  horse  has  fallen,  and  an  Athenian  warrior 
has  his  right  hand  fixed  on  the  throat  of  the  Amazon, 
while,  with  the  other  hand,  he  has  grasped  her  foot, 
and  drags  her,  who  seems  to  have  lost  all  recollection, 
from  the  horse's  back.  The  position  of  the  centre 
figure  is  very  fine:  he  is  within  the  guard  of  the 
shield  of  the  Amazon,  and  is  striking  a  deadly  blow 

OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  161 

with  his  hand,  in  which  has  heen  a  sword.  In 
another  group  an  Athenian  has  fallen ;  he  rests  on 
his  left  hand,  and  extends  his  right  in  supplication 
to  the  female  warriors  who  surround  him,  and  is  in 
the  act  of  surrendering,  while  behind  him  an  Amazon 
is  striking  him  with  her  battle-axe.  In  the  sculp- 
tures of  the  Lapithee  and  Centaurs  all  the  warriors, 
with  the  exception  of  Theseus,  are  armed  with 
swords,  who,  as  an  imitator  of  Hercules,  has  a  club. 
The  shields  are  large  and  circular;  they  have  a 
broad  border  round  the  circumference,  and  resemble 
those  of  the  Ephibi  of  Athens.  Of  the  helmets  there 
are  four  kinds — one  which  fits  the  head  closely, 
without  either  crest  or  vizor;  another  with  a  crest, 
and  one  with  guards  for  the  ears,  and  a  fourth  with 
a  pointed  vizor.  In  one  of  the  sculptures  Theseus  is 
seen  attacking  a  Centaur;  he  has  the  head  of  the 
monster  under  his  left  arm,  and  with  the  right,  which 
probably  held  a  club  of  bronze,  as  the  hole  remains, 
he  is  destroying  him.  He  appears  to  have  arrived 
just  in  time  to  save  Hippodomia,  whom  the 
Centaur  has  disrobed,  and  who  is  clinging  to  the 
statue  of  Diana.  From  the  tiara  behind,  and  the 
lion's  skin,  this  figure  is  supposed  to  be  Theseus; 
the  Centaur  is  Eurytion;  a  female  figure  is  also  seen 
pleading  on  her  behalf,  and,  in  the  distance,  a  Goddess 
is  hastening  in  a  car  drawn  by  stags  to  the  rescue  ; 
this  probably  is  Diana,  as  the  temple  was  dedicated 
to  Apollo." 

The  city  of  Phigalia  is  now  become  a  mere  village, 
known  by  the  name  of  Paolitza  *. 


THIS  city  has  long  been  famous ;  for  it  was  in  a 
plain  near  to  it  that  was  fought  the  celebrated  battle 
between  the  Greeks  and  Persianst.  On  the  evening 

*  Chandler  ;  Bai  thelemy  ;  Rees  ;  B:e\vster  ;  Cell,      f  Rollin. 
VOL.  II.  M 


previous  to  the  engagement,  the  Grecians  held  a 
council  of  war,  in  which  it  was  resolved,  that  they 
should  decamp  from  the  place  they  were  in,  and 
march  to  another  more  conveniently  situated  for 
water.  Night  being  come  on,  and  the  officers  en- 
deavouring at  the  head  of  their  corps  to  make  more 
haste  than  ordinary  to  the  camp  marked  out  for 
them,  great  confusion  happened  among  the  troops, 
some  going  one  way  and  some  another,  without  ob- 
serving any  order  or  regularity  in  their  march.  At 
last  they  halted  near  the  little  city  of  Plataea. 

On  the  first  news  of  the  Grecians  being  decamped, 
Mardonius  drew  his  army  into  order  of  battle,  and 
pursued  them  with  hideous  shouting  and  bawling  of 
his  barbarian  forces,  who  thought  they  were  ad- 
vancing not  so  much  in  order  of  battle,  as  to  strip 
and  plunder  a  flying  enemy ;  and  their  general  like- 
wise, making  himself  sure  of  victory,  proudly  in- 
sulted Artaba/us ;  reproaching  him  with  his  fearful 
and  cowardly  prudence,  and  with  the  false  notion,  he 
had  conceived  of  the  Lacedaemonians,  who  never  fled, 
as  ho  pretended,  before  an  enemy ;  whereas  here  was 
an  instance  of  the  contrary.  But  the  general  found 
quickly  this  was  no  false  or  ill-grounded  notion.  He 
happened  to  fall  in  with  the  Lacedaemonians,  who 
were  alone  and  separated  from  the  body  of  the  Gre- 
cian army,  to  the  number  of  fifty  thousand  men, 
together  with  three  thousand  of  the  Tegeatae.  The 
encounter  was  exceedingly  fierce  and  resolute  on  both 
sides  ;  the  men  fought  with  the  courage  of  lions,  and 
the  barbarians  perceived  that  they  had  to  do  with 
soldiers,  who  were  determined  to  conquer  or  die  on 
the  field.  The  Athenian  troops,  to  whom  Pausanias 
sent  an  officer,  were  already  upon  their  march  to  their 
aid  i  but  the  Greeks  who  had  taken  part  with  the 
Persians,  to  the  number  of  fifty  thousand  men,  went 
out  to  meet  them  on  their  way,  and  hindered  them 


from  proceeding  any  farther.  Aristides,  with  his 
little  body  of  men,  bore  up  firmly  against  them,  and 
withstood  their  attack,  telling  them  how  insignificant 
a  superiority  of  numbers  is  against  true  courage  and 
bravery.  The  battle  being  thus  divided,  and  fought 
in  two  different  places,  the  Spartans  were  the  first 
who  broke  in  upon  the  Persian  forces,  and  put  them 
in  disorder.  Mardonius,  their  general,  falling  dead 
of  a  wound  he  had  received  in  the  engagement,  all 
his  army  betook  themselves  to  flight ;  and  those 
Greeks,  who  were  engaged  against  Aristides,  did  the 
same  thing  as  soon  as  they  understood  the  barbarians 
were  defeated.  The  latter  ran  away  to  their  former 
camp  which  they  had  quitted,  where  they  were 
sheltered  and  fortified  with  an  inclosure  of  wood. 

The  manner,  in  which  the  Lacedaemonians  treated 
the  Plataeans  some  time  after,  is,  also,  not  unworthy 
of  remembrance.  About  the  end  of  the  campaign, 
which  is  that  wherein  Mitylene  was  taken,  the  Pla- 
taeaus,  being  in  absolute  want  of  provisions,  and 
unable  to  make  the  least  defence,  surrendered,  upon 
condition  that  they  should  not  be  punished  till  they 
had  been  tried  and  judged  in  form  of  justice.  Five 
commissioners  came  for  that  purpose  from  Lacedae- 
mon ;  and  these,  without  charging  them  for  any 
crime,  barely  asked  them,  Whether  they  had  done 
any  service  to  the  Lacedtemonians  and  the  allies  in 
war  ?  The  Platasans  were  much  surprised  as  well  as 
puzzled  at  this  question,  and  were  sensible  that  it 
had  been  suggested  by  the  Thebans,  their  professed 
enemies,  who  had  vowed  their  destruction.  They 
therefore  put  the  Lacedaemonians  in  mind  of  the 
services,  they  had  done  to  Greece  in  general ;  both  at 
the  battle  of  Artemesium,  and  that  of  Platasa,  and 
particularly  in  Lacedsemonia,  at  the  time  of  the 
earthquake,  which  was  followed  by  the  revolt  of 
their  slaves.  The  only  reason,  they  declared,  of  their 
M  2 


having  joined  the  Athenians  afterwards,  was  to 
defend  themselves  from  the  hostilities  of  the  Thebans, 
against  whom  they  had  implored  the  assistance  of 
the  Lacedaemonians  to  no  purpose  :  that  if  that  was 
imputed  to  them  as  a  crime,  which  was  only  their 
misfortune,  it  ought  not  however  entirely  to  obliterate 
the  remembrance  of  their  former  services.  "  Cast 
your  eyes,"  said  they,  "  on  the  monuments  of  your 
ancestors,  which  you  see  here,  to  whom  we  annually 
pay  all  the  honours,  which  can  be  rendered  to  the 
manes  of  the  dead.  You  thought  fit  to  entrust  their 
bodies  with  us,  as  we  were  eye-witnesses  of  their 
bravery  ;  and  yet  you  will  now  give  up  their  ashes  to 
their  murderers,  in  abandoning  us  to  the  Thebans, 
who  fought  against  us  at  the  battle  of  Plataea.  Will 
you  enslave  a  province  where  Greece  recovered  its 
liberty  ?  Will  you  destroy  the  temples  of  those  gods 
to  whom  you  owe  the  victory  ?  Will  you  abolish  the 
memory  of  their  founders,  who  contributed  so  greatly 
to  your  safety  ?  On  this  occasion,  we  may  venture 
to  say,  our  interest  is  inseparable  from  your  glory ; 
and  you  cannot  deliver  up  your  ancient  friends  and 
benefactors  to  the  unjust  hatred  of  the  Thebans, 
without  eternal  infamy  to  yourselves." 

One  would  conclude,  that  these  just  remonstrances 
would  have  made  some  impression  on  the  Lacedae- 
monians ;  but  they  were  biassed  more  by  the  answer 
the  Thebans  made,  and  which  was  expressed  in  the 
most  bitter  and  haughty  terms  against  the  Platasans, 
and,  besides,  they  had  brought  their  instructions  from 
Lacedaemon.  They  stood,  therefore,  to  their  first 
question,  "  Whether  the  Plataaans  had  done  them 
any  service  during  the  war  ?"  And  making  them  pass 
one  after  another,  as  they  severally  answered  "  No," 
each  was  immediately  butchered,  and  not  one  escaped. 
About  two  hundred  were  killed  in  this  manner;  and 
twenty-five  Athenians,  who  were  among  them,  met 


the  same  unhappy  fate.  Their  wives,  who  were 
taken  prisoners,  were  made  slaves.  The  Thebans 
afterwards  peopled  their  city  with  exiles  from  Megara 
and  Plata^a ;  but,  the  year  after,  they  demolished  the 
latter  entirely.  It  was  in  this  manner  the  Lacedaemo- 
nians, in  the  hopes  of  reaping  great  advantages  from 
the  Thebans,  sacrificed  the  Platzeans  to  their  animo- 
sity, ninety -three  years  after  their  first  alliance  with 
the  Athenians. 

Herodotus  relates,  that  cenotaphs,  composed  of  heaps 
of  earth,  were  raised  near  the  town ;  but  no  vestige  of 
these  remain ;  nor  are  there  any  traces  of  the  sepul- 
chres of  those  who  fell  at  Plataea.  These  are  men- 
tioned by  Plutarch,  who  says,  that  at  the  anniversary 
of  those  who  were  killed  at  Platea,  the  Archon 
crossed  the  city  to  go  to  the  sepulchres,  and  drawing 
water  from  the  fountain  in  a  vase,  washed  the  columns 
of  the  tombs,  and  made  libations  of  wine,  oil,  milk, 
and  perfumes. 

Here  was  a  temple  of  Minerva,  in  which  Polyg- 
notus  executed  a  group  of  the  return  of  Ulysses ; 
and  a  statue  of  the  goddess  of  great  size,  of  gilt  wood; 
but  the  face,  hands,  and  feet,  were  of  ivory.  Also  a 
temple  of  Diana,  in  which  was  a  monument  of 
Euchidas,  a  citizen  of  Plataea,  to  commemorate  his 
having  run  from  Platasa  to  Delphos,  and  returned 
before  sunset :  he  expired  a  few  minutes  after.  The 
distance  was  thirty-seven  leagues  and  a  half. 

Mr.  Dodwell  says,  he  could  find  no  certain 
traces  of  this  temple,  nor  of  one  dedicated  to  Ceres, 
unless  several  heaps  of  large  stones  might  be  re- 
garded as  such.  Neither  could  he  find  any  remains 
of  a  stadium.  He  saw,  however,  a  frieze  of  white 
marble,  enriched  with  Ionic  ornaments. 

Dr.  Clarke  says,  that  the  upper  part  of  the  pro- 
montory is  covered  with  ruins ;  amidst  which  he 
found  some  pieces  of  serpentine  porphyry ;  and  the 


peasants,  he  says,  in  ploughing  the  soil  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood, find  their  labours  frequently  obstructed 
by  large  blocks  of  stone,  and  earth,  filled  with 
broken  remains  of  -terra  cottas.  The  ground-plot 
and  foundations  of  temples  are  visible  among  the 
vestiges  of  the  citadel,  and  remains  of  towers  arc 
conspicuous  upon  the  walls. 

The  walls  form  a  triangle  of  about  three  thousand 
three  hundred  yards  in  compass.  In  some  parts 
they  are  in  a  high  state  of-  preservation,  and  ex- 
tremely interesting ;  since  they  were  rebuilt  in  the 
reign  of  Alexander,  after  having  been  destroyed  by 
the  Persians.  They  are  of  regular  masonry,  eight 
feet  in  thickness,  and  fortified  by  towers,  most  of 
which  are  square. 

The  view  from  the  ruins  is  extremely  interesting 
and  beautiful.  "  When  we  look  towards  Thebes," 
says  Mr.  Dodwell,  "  we  behold  the  Asopos,  and  the 
other  small  streams,  winding  through  this  memorable 
plain,  which,  towards  the  west,  is  separated  by  alow 
range  of  hills  from  the  equally  celebrated  field  of  Leuc- 
tra;  while  the  distant  view  is  terminated  by  the  two 
pointed  summits  of  Helicon,  and  the  snow-topped 
heights  of  Parnassus." — "  What  must  this  city  have 
been,  in  all  its  pride  and  glory !"  exclaims  Mr.  Wil- 
liams. "  The  remains  now  appear  grey  as  twilight ; 
but  without  a  charm  of  returning  day.  Time  is  mo- 
delling now,  instead  of  art.  Miles  of  ancient  pottery 
and  tiles,  hardly  allowing  the  blades  of  corn  to  grow 
among  the  ruins;  sheep-tracks  among  the  massive 
foundations ;  asses  loaded  with  brush- wood,  from 
shrubs  growing  in  the  courts  of  ancient  palaces  and 
temples ;  shepherds  with  their  flocks,  the  hells  of  the 
goats  heard  from  among  the  rocks  ;  tombs  and  sar- 
cophagi of  ancient  heroes,  covered  with  moss,  some 
broken  and  some  entire  ;  fragments,  and  ornaments, 

* O * * * 

*  DodwdlT" 


and  stones  containing  mutilated  inscriptions  ; — these 
are  the  objects,  which  Plataea  now  presents.  But 
who,  that  stands  there,  with  a  recollection  of  its 
ancient  glory,  and  having  Parnassus  full  in  view,  can 
quit  the  spot  without  regret  ?  *  " 


Wreck  of  the  mighty — relics  of  the  dead — 
Who  may  remove  the  veil  o'er  P.SSTUM  spread, 
Who  pierce  the  clouds  that  rest  upon  your  name, 
Or  from  oblivion's  eddies  snatch  your  fame  1  — 
Yet  as  she  stands  within  your  mould' ring  walls, 
Vancy — the  days  of  former  pride  recals ;      • 
And  at  her  hidding — lo  !  the  Tyrrhene  shore, 
Swarms  with  its  countlets  multitude  once  more; 
And  bright  pavilions  rise  ; — her  magic  art 
Peoples  thy  streets,  and  throngs  thy  busy  mart. 
In  quick  succession  her  creative  power 
Restores  the  splendour  of  Phoenicia's  hour, 
Revives  the  Sybarite's  unbless'd  repose, 
Toss'd  on  the  foldings  of  the  Paestum  rose, 
Lucania's  thraldom — Rome's  imperial  sway, 
The  Vandal's  triumph — and  the  robber's  prey. 

But  truth  beholds  thee  now,  a  dreary  waste  ; 
Where  solitude  usurps  the  realms  of  taste. 
Where  once  thy  doubly  blooming  roses  smiled, 
The  nettle  riots,  and  the  thorn  runs  wild; 
Primeval  silence  broods  upon  thy  plain, 
And  ruin  holds  her  desolate  domain  : 
Save  where,  in  massive  pride,  three  temples  stand 
Colossal  fragments  of  a  mighty  land. 
Sepulchral  monuments  of  fame,  that  tower 
In  proud  derision  of  barbarian  power ; 
That  still  survive  and  mock,  with  front  sublime, 
The  spoiler's  vengeance,  and  the  strifes  of  time, 

ROGERS.       , 

WHEN  the  president  Dupaty  first  beheld  Paestum, 
he  expressed  his  admiration  in  the  following  manner: 

*  Herodotus;  Rollin  ;  Barthelemi;  Rees  ;  Brewster  ;  Clarke; 
Dodwell;  Williams. 

•f-  By  an  accident  this  article  is  misplaced,  which,  it  is  hoped,  the 
reader  will  be  pleased  to  excuse. 


— "  No ;  I  am  not  at  Paestum,  in  a  city  of  the  Sy- 
barites !  Never  did  the  Sybarites  choose  for  their 
habitation  so  horrible  a  desert ;  never  did  they 
build  a  city  in  the  midst  of  weeds,  on  a  parched 
soil,  on  a  spot  where  the  little  water  to  be  met  with 
is  stagnant  and  dirty.  Lead  me  to  one  of  those 
groves  of  roses,  which  still  bloom  in  the  poetry  of 
Virgil.*  Show  me  some  baths  of  alabaster ;  some 
palaces  of  marble ;  show  me  on  all  sides  voluptuous- 
ness, and  you  will  indeed  make  me  believe  I  am  at 
Paestum.  It  is  true,  nevertheless,  that  it  was  the 
Sybarites  who  built  these  three  temples,  in  one  of 
which  I  write  this  letter,  seated  on  the  ruins  of  a 
pediment,  which  has  withstood  the  ravages  of  two 
thousand  years.  How  strange  !  Sybarites  and  works 
that  have  endured  two  thousand  years !  How  could 
Sybarites  imagine  and  erect  so  prodigious  a  number 
of  columns  of  such  vile  materials,  of  such  uncouth 
workmanship,  of  so  heavy  a  mass,  and  such  a  same- 
ness of  form  ?  It  is  not  the  character  of  Grecian 
columns  to  crush  the  earth ;  they  lightly  mounted 
into  the  air ;  these,  on  the  contrary,  weigh  ponder- 
ously on  the  earth ;  they  fall.  The  Grecian  columns 
had  an  elegant  and  slender  shape,  around  which  the 
eye  continually  glided;  these  have  a  wide  and  clumsy 
form,  around  which  it  is  impossible  for  the  eye  to 
turn  :  our  pencils  and  our  graving-tools,  which  flatter 
every  monument,  have  endeavoured  in  vain  to  beau- 
tify them.  I  am  of  the  opinion  of  those,  who  think 
that  these  temples  were  the  earliest  essays  of  the 
Grecian  architecture,  and  not  its  master-pieces.  The 
Greeks,  when  they  erected  these  pillars,  were  search- 
ing for  the  column.  It  must  be  admitted,  however, 
that,  notwithstanding  their  rusticity,  these  temples 
do  possess  beauties ;  they  present  at  least  simplicity, 
unity,  and  a  whole,  which  constitute  the  first  of 
*  "  Bifericjue  rosaria  Psesti." 


beauties  :  the  imagination  ma}7  supply  almost  all  the 
others,  but  it  never  can  supply  these.  It  is  impos- 
sible to  visit  these  places  without  emotion.  I  pro- 
ceed across  desert  fields,  along  a  frightful  road,  far 
from  all  human  traces,  at  the  foot  of  rugged  moun- 
tains, on  shores  where  there  is  nothing  but  the  sea; 
and  suddenly  I  behold  a  temple,  then  a  second,  then 
a  third  :  I  make  my  way  through  grass  and  weeds ; 
I  mount  on  the  socle  of  a  column,  or  on  the  ruins 
of  a  pediment :  a  cloud  of  ravens  take  their  flight ; 
cows  low  in  the  bottom  of  a  sanctuary ;  the  adder, 
basking  between  the  column  and  the  weeds,  hisses 
and  makes  his  escape ;  a  young  shepherd,  however, 
carelessly  leaning  on  an  ancient  cornice,  stands  sere- 
nading with  his  reedy  pipe  the  vast  silence  of  this 
desert."  Such  was  the  language  of  Dupaty,  when 
he  entered  these  celebrated  ruins ;  nor  was  his  en- 
thusiasm in  any  way  misplaced. 

Pccstum  was  a  town  of  Lucania,  called  by  the 
Greeks  Posidonia  and  Neptunia,  from  its  being  si- 
tuated in  the  bay.  It  was  then  called  Sinus  Psestanus; 
now  the  Gulf  of  Salerno. 

Obscurity  hangs  not  only  over  the  origin,  but 
over  the  general  history  of  this  city.  The  mere  out- 
lines have  been  sketched,  perhaps,  with  accuracy ; 
but  the  details  are,  doubtless,  obliterated  for  ever. 

In  scenery  Peestum  yields  not  only  to  Baiae,  but  to 
many  other  towns  in  the  vicinity  of  Vesuvius  ;  yet, 
in  noble  and  well-preserved  monuments  of  antiquity, 
it  surpasses  any  city  in  Italy ;  the  immortal  capital 
alone  excepted. 

The  origin  of  the  city  may  be  safely  referred  to 
remote  antiquity ;  but  those  are  probably  in  the  right, 
who  would  fix  the  period  at  which  the  existing  tem- 
ples were  erected,  as  a  little  posterior  to  the  building 
of  the  Parthenon  at  Athens.  But  even  this  calcula- 
tion leaves  them  the  venerable  age  of  twenty-two  cen- 


turies  ;  and  so  firm  and  strong  arc  they  still,  that, 
except  in  the  case  of  extraordinary  convulsions  of 
nature,  two  thousand  two  hundred  and  many  more 
years  may  pass  over  their  mighty  columns  and  ar- 
chitraves, and  they  remain,  as  they  now  are, — the 
object  of  the  world's  admiration. 

Whatever  age  we  may  ascribe  to  the  temples, 
certain  it  is  that  the  city  cannot  be  less  than  two 
thousand  five  hundred  years  old. 

It  was  founded  by  a  colony  of  the  Dorians,  who 
called  it  Posetan ;  a  Phoenician  name  for  the  God  of 
the  Sea,  to  whom  it  was  dedicated.  Those  settlers 
were  driven  out  by  the  Sybarites,  who  extended 
the  name  to  Posidonia.  The  Sybarites  were  expelled 
by  the  Lucanians ;  and  these,  in  turn,  were  expelled 
by  the  Romans,  who  took  possession  of  it  ( A.C.  480). 
From  this  time  the  poets  alone  are  found  to  speak  of 
it.  It  was,  nevertheless,  the  first  city  of  Southern 
Italy,  that  embraced  the  Christian  doctrine.  In 
840,  the  Saracens,  having  subdued  Sicily,  surprised 
the  city,  and  took  possession.  The  question  now 
arises,  to  whom  was  Paesium  indebted  for  its  tem- 
ples ?  To  this  it  has  been  answered,  that,  as  the 
ruins  seem  to  exhibit  the  oldest  specimens  of  Greek 
architecture  now  in  existence,  the  probability  is,  that 
they  were  erected  by  the  Dorians. 

"  In  beholding  them,"  says  Mr.  Eustace,  "  and 
contemplating  their  solidity,  bordering  upon  heavi- 
ness, we  are  tempted  to  consider  them  as  an  interme- 
diate link  between  the  Egyptian  and  Grecian  monu- 
ments ;  and  the  first  attempt  to  pass  from  the  im- 
mense masses  of  the  former,  to  the  graceful  propor- 
tions of  the  latter." 

"  On  entering  the  walls,"  says  Mr.  Forsyth,  "  I 
felt  the  religion  of  the  place.  I  stood  as  on  sacred 
ground.  I  stood  amazed  at  the  long  obscurity  of  its 
mighty  ruins.  They  can  be  descried  with  a  glass 

nUINS    OP    ANCIENT    CITIES.  171 

from  Salerno  ;  the  high  road  of  Calabria  commands  a 
distant  view  ;  the  city  of  Capaccio  looks  down  upon 
them,  and  a  few  wretches  have  always  lived  on  the 
spot ;  yet  they  remain  unnoticed  by  the  best  Neapo- 
litan antiquaries." 

The  FIRST  temple*  that  presents  itself,  to  the  traveller 
from  Naples,  is  the  smallest.  It  consists  of  six  pil- 
lars at  each  end,  and  thirteen  on  each  side.  The 
cella  occupied  more  than  one-third  of  the  length,  and 
had  a  portico  of  two  rows  of  columns,  the  shafts 
and  capitals  of  which,  now  overgrown  with  grass  and 
weeds,  encumber  the  pavement,  and  almost  fill  the 
area  of  the  temple  : — 

The  serpent  sleeps,  and  the  she- \volf 

Suckles  her  young. 

The  columns  of  this  temple  are  thick  in  proportion 
to  their  elevation,  and  much  closer  to  each  other  than 
they  are  generally  found  to  be  in  Greek  temples;  "  and 
this,"  says  Mr.  Forsyth,  "  crowds  them  advanta- 
geously on  the  eye,  enlarges  our  idea  of  the  space, 
and  gives  a  grand  and  heroic  air  to  a  monument  of 
very  moderate  dimensions." 

In  the  open  space  t  between  the  first  and  second 
temples,  were  two  other  large  buildings,  built  of  the 
same  sort  of  stone,  and  nearly  of  the  same  size.  Their 
substructions  still  remain,  encumbered  with  fragments 
of  the  columns  of  the  entablatures  ;  and  so  overgrown 
with  brambles,  nettles,  and  weeds,  as  scarcely  to 
admit  a  near  inspection. 

The  SECOND  |,  or  the  Temple  of  NEPTUNE,  is  not 
the  largest,  but  by  far  the  most  massy  and  imposing 
of  the  three :  it  has  six  columns  in  front  and  fourteen 
in  length  ;  the  angular  column  to  the  west,  with  its 
capital,  has  been  struck  and  partially  shivered  by 
lightning.  It  once  threatened  to  fall  and  ruin  tha 
symmetry  of  one  of  the  most  perfect  monuments  now 

*  Eustace.         f  Ibid.  J  Anon. 


in  existence,  but  it  has  been  secured  by  iron  cramps. 
An  inner  peristyle  of  much  smaller  columns  rises  in 
the  cella,  in  two  stories,  with  only  an  architrave, 
which  has  neither  frieze  nor  cornice  between  the 
columns,  which  thus  almost  seem  standing,  the  one 
on  the  capital  of  the  other — a  defect  in  architecture, 
which  is,  however,  justified  by  Vitruvius  and  the 
example  of  the  Parthenon.  The  light  pillars  of  this 
interior  peristyle,  of  which  some  have  fallen,  rise  a 
few  feet  above  the  exterior  cornice  and  the  massy 
columns  of  the  temple.  Whether  you  gaze  at  this 
wonderful  edifice  from  without  or  from  within,  as 
you  stand  on  the  floor  of  the  cella,  which  is  much 
encumbered  with  heaps  of  fallen  stones  and  rubbish, 
the  effect  is  awfully  grand.  The  utter  solitude,  and 
the  silence,  never  broken  save  by  the  flight  and 
screams  of  the  crows  and  birds  of  prey,  which  your 
approach  may  scare  from  the  cornices  and  architraves, 
where  they  roost  in  great  numbers,  add  to  the 
solemn  impression,  produced  by  those  firm-set  and 
eternal-looking  columns. 

The  THIRD  edifice  is  the  largest*.  It  has  nine  pillars 
at  the  end  and  eighteen  on  the  sides.  Its  size  is  not 
its  only  distinction ;  a  row  of  pillars,  extending  from 
the  middle  pillar  at  one  end  to  the  middle  pillar  on 
the  other,  divides  it  into  equal  parts,  and  it  is  con- 
sidered that  though  it  is  now  called  a  temple,  it 
was  not  one  originally.  Some  imagine  it  to  have 
been  a  Curia,  others  a  Basilica,  and  others  an 

These  relics  stand  on  the  edge  of  a  vast  and  deso- 
late plain  t,  that  extends  from  the  neighbourhood  of 
Salerno  nearly  to  the  confines  of  Calabria.  The  ap- 
proach to  them  is  exceedingly  impressive.  For  miles 
scarcely  a  human  habitation  is  seen,  or  any  living 
creature,  save  herds  of  buffaloes.  And  when  you 

*  Eustace.  t  Anon. 


are  within  the  lines  of  the  ancient  walls  of  the  town 
— of  the  once  opulent  and  magnificent  Paestum — 
only  a  miserable  little  tavcrna,  or  house  of  enter- 
tainment, a  barn,  and  a  mean  modern  edifice,  belong- 
ing to  the  nominal  bishop  of  the  place,  and  nearly 
always  uninhabited,  meet  your  eye.  But  there  the 
three  ancient  edifices  rise  before  you  in  the  most  im- 
posing and  sublime  manner — they  can  hardly  be 
called  ruins,  they  have  still  such  a  character  of  firm- 
ness and  entireness.  Their  columns  seem  to  be 
rooted  in  the  earth,  or  to  have  grown  from  it ! 

"  Accustomed  as  we  were  *  to  the  ancient  and 
modern  magnificence  of  Rome,"  says  Stuart,  "  in 
regard  to  the  Parthenon,  and,  by  what  we  had  heard 
and  read,  impressed  with  an  advantageous  opinion 
of  what  we  were  to  see,  we  found  the  image  our 
fancy  had  preconceived  greatly  inferior  to  the  real 
object."  Yet  "Wheler,  who  upon  such  a  subject 
cannot  be  considered  as  of  equal  authority  with 
Stuart,  says  of  the  monuments  of  antiquity  yet  re- 
maining at  Athens, — "  I  dare  prefer  them  before  any 
place  in  the  world,  Rome  only  excepted."  "  If," 
continues  Dr.  Clarke,  "  there  be  upon  earth  any 
buildings,  which  may  be  fairly  brought  into  a  com- 
parison with  the  Parthenon,  they  are  the  temples  of 
Paestum  in  Lucania.  But  even  these  can  only  be  so 
with  reference  to  their  superior  antiquity,  to  their 
severe  simplicity,  and  to  the  perfection  of  design 
visible  in  their  structure.  In  graceful  proportion,  in 
magnificence,  in  costliness  of  materials,  in  splendid 
decoration,  and  in  every  thing  that  may  denote  the 
highest  degree  of  improvement  to  which  the  Doric 
style  of  architecture  ever  attained,  they  are  vastly 
inferior."  This  is,  at  least,  that  author's  opinion. 
Lusieri,  however,  entertained  different  sentiments. 
Lusieri  had  resided  at  Paestum ;  and  had  dedicated 


to  those  buildings  a  degree  of  study  which,  added  to 
his  knowledge  of  the  arts,  well  qualified  him  to 
decide  upon  a  question  as  to  the  relative  merits  of 
the  Athenian  and  Posidonian  specimens  of  Grecian 
architecture.  His  opinion  is  very  remarkable.  He 
considered  the  temples  at  Paestuin  as  examples  of  a 
pure  style,  or,  as  he  termed  it,  of  a  more  correct  and 
classical  taste.  "  In  these  buildings,"  said  he,  "  the 
Doric  order  attained  a  pre-eminence  beyond  which  it 
never  passed ;  not  a  stone  has  been  there  placed 
without  some  evident  and  important  design ;  every 
part  of  the  structure  bespeaks  its  own  essential 
utility  *." 

"  Can  there  be  any  doubt,"  says  Mr.  Williams, 
"  that  in  the  temple  of  Neptune  at  Paestum,  the 
very  forms  have  something  within  themselves,  cal- 
culated to  fill  the  mind  with  the  impression  which 
belongs  to  the  sublime ;  whilst,  in  the  temple  of 
Theseus  (at  Athens),  the  simple  preservation  of  its 
form  bespeaks  that  species  of  admiration,  that  peculiar 
feeling,  which  beauty  is  calculated  to  draw  forth  ? 
It  required  not  age  to  constitute  the  one  sublime,  or 
the  other  beautiful.  In  truth,  their  respective  charac- 
ters must  have  been  much  more  deeply  ^impressed 
upon  them  in  their  most  perfect  state,  than  in  the 
mutilated  form  in  which  they  now  stand ;  surrounded 
by  the  adventitious  attributes  with  which  antiquity 
invests  every  monument  of  human  art." 

*  The  Doric  order  may  be  thus  defined  : — a  column  without  a 
base,  terminated  by  a  capital,  consisting  of  a  square  abacus,  with 
an  ovolo  and  annulets.  An  entablature,  consisting  of  the  parts, — 
architrave,  frieze,  and  cornice  ;  the  architrave  plain,  the  frie/e  orna- 
mented with  triglyphs  symmetrically  disposed,  and  a  cornice  with 
mutules.  These  are  sufficient  to  constitute  a  definition  ;  and  are, 
I  believe,  all  that  can  be  asserted  without  exception;  but  some 
others  may  be  added  as  necessary  to  the  beauty  and  perfection  of 
the  order;  and  which,  though  not  universal,  arc,  however,  general 
among  the  examples  of  antiquity. — AIKIN,  on  the  Doric  order. 


Several  medals*  have  been  found  at  Fcestum  ;  but 
they  denote  a  degeneracy  from  Grecian  skill  and 
elegance,  being  more  clumsily  designed  and  executed 
than  most  coins  of  Magna  Graecia. 

The  private  habitations  t  were  unable  to  resist  the 
dilapidations  of  so  many  ages ;  but  the  town  wall  is 
almost  entire,  and  incloses  an  area  of  three  miles  in 
circumference.  In  many  places  it  is  of  the  original 
height,  and  built  with  oblong  stones,  dug  out  of  the 
adjacent  fields.  They  are  a  red  tavertino,  formed 
by  a  sediment  of  sulphureous  water,  of  which  a 
strong  stream  washes  the  foot  of  the  walls.  It  comes 
from  the  mountains,  and,  spreading  itself  over  a  flat, 
forms  pools,  where  buffaloes  are  in  summer  conti- 
nually wallowing  up  to  their  noses. 

These  walls  are  built  of  huge  polyhedric  stones*, 
which  afford  some  idea  of  what  has  been  lately 
thought  the  Cyclopean  construction.  Their  mate- 
rials, however,  are  a  grey  stone,  without  any  mix- 
ture of  the  marble,  granite,  and  lava,  which  are  held 
essential  to  their  construction.  They  are  five,  at 
least  §,  and,  in  some  places,  twelve  feet  high.  They 
are  formed  of  solid  blocks  of  stone,  with  towers  at 
intervals ;  the  archway  of  one  gate  only,  however, 
stands  entire.  Considering  the  materials  and  the 
extent  of  this  rampart,  which  incloses  a  space  of 
nearly  four  miles  round,  with  the  many  towers  that 
rose  at  intervals,  and  its  elevation  of  more  than  forty 
feet,  it  must  be  acknowledged  that  it  was,  on  the 
whole,  a  work  not  only  of  great  strength,  b\it  of 
great  magnificence. 

The  material,  of  which  they  are  built,  is  the  same 
throughout  each  of  the  temples  and  common  to  all. 
It  is  an  exceedingly  hard,  but  porous  and  brittle 
stone,  of  a  sober  brownish-grey  colour.  It  is  a 

*  Swinburne.        f  Ibid.          £  Forsyth.          §  Eustace. 


curious  fact,  that  not  only  the  ignorant  people  on  the 
spot,  but  Neapolitan  antiquaries  also,  wonder  whence 
the  ancients  brought  these  masses  of  curious  stone : 
and  yet  few  things  are  more  certain,  than  that  they 
found  them  on  the  spot. 

The  stone  of  these  edifices*  was  probably  formed  at 
Pajstum  itself,  by  the  brackish  water  of  the  Salso 
acting  on  vegetable  earth,  roots,  and  plants ;  for  you 
can  distinguish  their  petrified  tubes  in  every  column  : 
— and  Mr.  Macfarlane,  who  passed  a  considerable 
time  on  the  spot,  adds,  "  The  brackish  water  of  the 
river  Salso  that  runs  by  the  wall  of  the  town,  and  in 
different  branches  across  the  plain,  has  so  strong  a 
petrifying  virtue  that  you  can  almost  follow  the 
operation  with  the  eye.  The  waters  of  the  neighbour- 
ing Sele  (a  considerable  river — the  ancient  Silarus) 
have  in  all  ages  been  remarkable  for  the  same  quality. 
In  many  places  where  the  soil  had  been  removed,  we 
perceived  strata  of  stone  similar  to  the  stones  which 
compose  the  temples  ;  and  I  could  almost  venture  to 
say  that  the  substratum  of  all  the  plain,  from  the 
Sele  to  Acropoli,  is  of  the  like  substance.  Curious 
petrifactions  of  leaves,  pieces  of  wood,  insects,  and 
other  vegetable  and  animal  matters,  are  observed  in 
the  materials  of  columns,  walls,  &c." 

Taking  these  wonderful  objects  into  viewt,  their 
immemorial  antiquity,  their  astonishing  preservation, 
their  grandeur,  or  rather  grandiosity,  their  bold 
columnar  elevation,  at  once  massive  and  open,  their 
severe  simplicity  of  design,  that  simplicity  in  which 
art  gradually  begins,  and  to  which,  after  a  thousand 
revolutions  of  ornament,  it  again  returns,  taking,  says 
Mr.  Forsyth,  all  into  one  view,  "  I  do  not  hesitate  to 
call  these  the  most  impressive  monuments  I  ever  be- 
held on  earth." 

*  Foreyth.  f  Ibid. 


and  Herculaneum,   along  a  branch   of  the  Appian 

As  you  walk  round  the  city  walls  t,  and  see  how  the 
volcanic  matter  is  piled  upon  it  in  one  heap,  it  looks  as 
though  the  hand  of  man  had  purposely  buried  it, 
by  carrying  and  throwing  over  it  the  volcanic  mat- 
ter. This  matter  does  not  spread  in  any  direction 
beyond  the  town,  over  the  fine  plain  which  gently 
declines  towards  the  bay  of  Naples.  The  volcanic 
eruption  was  so  confined  in  its  course  or  its  fall,  as 

*  It  is  well  known  that  the  Romans  constructed  with  great  solidity, 
and  maintained  with  constant  care,  roads  diverging  from  the  capital 
to  the  extremities  of  the  empire.  The  good  condition  of  these  was 
thought  to  be  of  such  importance,  that  the  charge  was  only  entrusted 
to  persons  of  the  highest  dignity,  and  Augustus  himself  assumed  the 
care  of  those  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Rome.  The  expense  of  their 
construction  was  enormous,  but  they  were  built  to  last  for  ever,  and 
to  this  day  remain  entire  and  level,  in  many  parts  of  the  world,  where 
they  have  not  been  exposed  to  destructive  violence.  They  usually 
were  raised  some  height  above  the  ground  which  they  traversed,  and 
proceeded  in  as  straight  a  line  as  possible,  running  over  hill  and  val- 
ley with  a  sovereign  contempt  for  all  the  principles  of  engineering. 
They  consisted  of  three  distinct  layers  of  materials;  the  lowest,  stones 
mixed  with  cement,  (statumen  );  the  middle,  gravel  or  Email  stones, 
(rudera),  to  prepare  a  level  and  unyielding  surface  to  receive  the 
upper  and  most  important  structure,  which  consisted  of  large  masses 
accurately  fitted  together.  It  is  cuiious  to  observe  that,  after  many 
ages  of  imperfect  paving,  we  have  returned  to  the  same  plan.  The  new 
pavement  of  Cheapside  and  Holborn  is  based  in  the  same  way  upon 
broken  granite,  instead  of  loose  earth  which  is  constantly  working 
through  the  interstices,  and  vitiating  the  solid  bearing  which  the 
stones  should  possess.  A  further  security  against  its  working  into 
holes  is  given  by  dressing  each  stone  accurately  to  the  same  breadth, 
and  into  the  form  of  a  wedge,  like  the  voussoirs  of  an  arch,  so  that 
each  tier  of  stones  spans  the  street  like  a  bridge.  This  is  an  im- 
provement on  the  Roman  system  :  they  depended  for  the  solidity 
of  their  construction  on  the  size  of  their  blocks,  which  were  irre- 
gularly shaped,  although  carefully  and  firmly  fitted.  These  roads, 
especially  in  the  neighbourhood  of  cities,  had,  on  both  sides,  raised 
footways  (margines),  protected  by  curb-stones,  which  defined  the 
extent  of  the  central  part  (agger)  for  carriages.  The  latter  was 
barrelled,  that  no  water  might  lie  upon  it.  —Cell. 
-f-  Knight. 


to  bury  Pompeii,  and  only  Pompeii : — for  the  showers 
of  ashes  and  pumice-stone,  which  descended  in  the 
immediate  neighbourhood,  certainly  made  but  a  slight 
difference  in  the  elevation  of  the  plain.  When  a 
^own  has  been  buried  by  lava,  like  Herculaneum,  the 
process  is  easily  traced.  You  can  follow  the  black, 
hardened  lava  from  the  cone  of  the  mountain  to  the 
sea,  whose  waters  it  invaded  for  "  many  a  rood ;" 
.and  those  who  have  seen  the  lava  in  its  liquid 
state,  when  it  flows  on  like  a  river  of  molten 
iron,  can  conceive  at  once  how  it  would  bury 
every  thing  it  found  in  its  way.  There  is  often  a 
confusion  of  ideas,  among  those  who  have  not  had 
the  advantage  of  visiting  these  interesting  places,  as 
to  the  matter  which  covers  Pompeii  and  Hercula- 
rieum.  They  fancy  they  were  both  buried  by  lava. 
Herculaneum  was  so,  and  the  work  of  excavating 
there  was  like  digging  in  a  quarry  of  very  hard 
stone.  The  descent  into  the  places,  cleared,  is  like 
the  descent  into  a  quarry  or  mine,  and  you  are  always 
under  ground,  lighted  by  torches.  But  Pompeii* 
was  covered  by  loose  mud,  pumice-stone,  and  ashes ; 
over  which,  in  the  course  of  centuries,  there  collected 
vegetable  soil.  Beneath  this  shallow  soil,  the  whole 
is  very  crumbly  and  easy  to  dig, — in  few  spots  more 
difficult  than  one  of  our  common  gravel-pits.  The 
matter  excavated  is  carried  off  in  carts,  and  thrown 
outside  the  town  ;  and  at  times  when  the  labour  is  car- 
ried on  with  activity,  as  cart  after  cart  withdraws  with 
the  eartli  that  covered  them,  you  see  houses  entire, 
except  their  roofs,  which  have  nearly  all  fallen  in, 
make  their  appearance ;  and,  by  degrees,  a  whole 
street  opens  to  the  sunshine  or  the  shower,  just  like 
the  streets  of  any  inhabited  neighbouring  town.  It 
is  curious  to  observe,  as  the  volcanic  matter  is  re- 
moved, that  the  houses  are  built  principally  of  lava, 
the  more  ancient  product  of  the  same  Vesuvius, 
*  Knight. 

RflXS    OP    ANCIENT    CITIES.  ]81 

whose  latter  result  buried  and  concealed  Pompeii  for 
so  many  ages. 

It  is  certainly  surprising*,  that  this  most  interest- 
ing city  should  have  remained  undiscovered  till  so 
late  a  period,  and  that  antiquaries  and  learned  men 
should  have  so  long  and  materially  erred  ahout  its 
situation.  In  many  places,  masses  of  ruins,  portions 
of  the  buried  theatres,  temples,  and  houses,  were  not 
two  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  soil.  The  country 
people  were  continually  digging  up  pieces  of  worked 
marble,  and  other  antique  objects.  In  several  spots 
they  had  even  laid  open  the  outer  walls  of  the  town ; 
and  yet  men  did  not  find  out  what  it  was  that  the 
peculiar  isolated  mound  of  cinders  and  ashes,  earth 
and  pumice-stone,  covered.  There  is  another  circum- 
stance which  increases  the  wonder  of  Pompeii  being 
so  long  concealed.  A  subterranean  canal,  cut  from 
the  river  Sarno,  traverses  the  city,  and  is  seen  darkly 
and  silently  gliding  under  the  temple  of  Isis.  This 
is  said  to  have  been  cut  towards  the  middle  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  to  supply  the  contiguous  town  of 
Torre  dell'  Annunziata  with  fresh  water ;  it  probably 
ran  anciently  in  the  same  channel ;  but  cutting  it,  or 
clearing  it,  workmen  must  have  crossed  under  Pompeii 
from  one  side  to  the  other. 

In  a  work,  so  limited  in  extent  as  this,  it  is  utterly 
impossible  to  give  any  thing  like  a  representation  of 
the  various  objects  to  be  seen  in  the  exceedingly 
curious  ruins  of  this  city.  We  can,  therefore,  only 
give  a  general  outline,  and  refer  the  reader  to  the 
very  beautiful  illustrations,  published  by  Sir  William 
Gell,  in  1817  and  1819  ;  and  more  especially  to  those 
published  by  the  same  accomplished  antiquary  in 
1832.  Never  was  there  any  thing  equal,  or  in  any 
way  assimilating  to  them,  in  the  world  before !  The 
former  work  contains  all  that  was  excavated  up  to 
those  years ;  the  latter  the  topography,  edifices,  and 
*  Knight, 


ornaments  of  Pompeii,  the  result  of  excavation  since 

"  Pompeii,"  writes  Mr.  Taylor  to  M.  Ch.  Nodier, 
"  has  passed  near  twenty  centuries  in  the  bowels  of 
the  earth  ;  nations  have  trodden  above  its  site,  while 
its  monuments  still  remained  standing,  and  all  their 
ornaments  untouched.  A  cotemporary  of  Augustus, 
could  he  return  hither,  might  say,  '  I  greet  thee, 

0  my  country !  my  dwelling  is  the  only  spot  upon 
the  earth  which  has  preserved  itsjbrm  ;  an  immunity 
extending  even  to  the  smallest  objects  of  my  affec- 
tion.     Here  is  my  couch ;  there  are  my  favourite 
authors.    My  paintings,  also,  are  still  fresh,  as  when 
the   ingenious   artist   spread  them   over   my  walls. 
Come,  let  us  traverse  the  town;  let  us  visit  the  theatre; 

1  recognise  the  spot  where  I  joined,  for  the  first  time, 
in  the  plaudits  gi^en  to  the  fine  scenes  of  Terence 
and  Euripides.     Rome  is  but  one  vast  museum  ; — 
Pompeii  is  a  living  antiquity'  " 

The  houses  of  Pompeii  are  upon  a  small  scale ; 
generally  of  one,  sometimes  of  two  stories.  The 
principal  apartments  are  always  behind,  inclosing  a 
court,  with  a  portico  round  it,  and  a  marble  cistern 
in  the  middle.  The  pavements  are  all  mosaic,  and 
the  walls  are  stained  with  agreeable  colours ;  the  de- 
corations are  basso-relievos  in  stucco,  and  paintings 
in  medallion.  Marble  seems  to  have  been  common. 

On  both  sides  of  the  street*  the  houses  stand  quite 
in  contact  with  each  other,  as  in  modern  times. 
They  are  nearly  of  the  same  height  and  dimensions, 
being  similarly  paved  and  painted.  The  houses,  as 
we  have  before  stated,  are  on  a  small  scale.  The 
principal  apartments  are  always  behind,  surrounding 
a  court,  with  a  small  piazza  about  it,  and  having  a 
cistern  of  marble  in  its  centre. 

An  edifice,  supposed  to  be  Sallust's  house,  has  an 
unusually  showy  appearance.  The  rooms  are  painted 
*  Brewstcr. 


with  the  figures  of  gods  and  goddesses,  and  the  floors 
decorated  with  marbles  and  mosaic  pavements. 

The  gates  of  the  city,  now  visible,  are  five  in 
number.  These  are  known  by  the  names  of  Hercu- 
laneum  or  Naples,  Vesuvius,  Nola,  Sarno,  and 
Stabite*.  The  city  was  surrounded  with  walls,  the 
greater  portion  of  which  have  also  been  traced.  Its 
greatest  length  is  little  more  than  half  a  mile,  and  its 
circuit  nearly  two  miles.  It  occupied  an  area  of 
about  one  hundred  and  sixty-one  acres.  The  general 
figure  of  the  city  is  something  like  that  of  an  egg. 
There  have  been  excavated  about  eighty  houses,  an 
immense  number  of  small  shops,  the  public  baths, 
two  theatres,  two  basilicas,  eight  temples,  the  prison, 
tlie  amphitheatre,  with  other  public  buildings  of  less 
note;  and  also  fountains  and  tombs.  The  streets 
are  paved  with  large  irregular  pieces  of  lava,  neatly 
dovetailed  into  each  other.  This  pavement  is  rutted, 
with  the  chariot  wheels,  sometimes  to  the  depth  of 
one  inch  and  a  half.  In  general,  the  streets  are  so 
narrow,  that  they  may  be  crossed  at  one  stride; 
where  they  are  of  greater  breadth,  a  stepping-stone 
was  placed  in  the  middle  for  the  convenience  of  foot 
passengers.  On  each  side  of  the  street  there  is  a 
footpath,  the  sides  of  which  are  provided  with  curbe, 
varying  from  one  foot  to  eighteen  inches  high,  to 
prevent  the  encroachments  of  the  chariots. 

It  is  well  knownt,  that  amongst  the  Romans 
bathing  formed  part  of  every  day's  occupation.  In 
the  year  1824,  the  baths  of  Pompeii  were  excavated. 
They  are  admirably  arranged,  spacious,  highly  deco- 
rated, and  superior  to  any  thing  of  the  kind  in  modern 
cities.  They  are,  fortunately,  in  good  preservation, 
and  throw  considerable  light  on  what  the  ancients 
have  written  upon  the  subject.  Various  circum- 
stances prove,  that  the  completion  of  the  baths  only 
a  short  while  preceded  the  destruction  of  the  city. 
*  Chambers.  f  Anon. 


They  occupy  a  considerable  space,  and  are  divided 
into  three  separate  apartments.  One  of  these  was  set 
apart  for  the  fire-places  and  the  accommodation  of 
the  servants,  and  the  other  two  were  each  occupied 
by  a  set  of  baths,  one  of  which  was  appropriated  to 
the  men,  and  the  other  to  the  women.  The  apart- 
ments and  passages  are  paved  with  white  marble  in 
mosaic,  or  alternate  white  and  black  squares.  The 
chambers  are  ornamented  with  various  devices,  and 
highly  finished.  Above  one  thousand  lamps  were 
discovered  during  the  excavation. 

There  have  been  two  theatres  excavated,  a  large 
and  a  small  one  ;  both  of  which  display  the  remains 
of  considerable  magnificence.  They  are  constructed 
after  the  usual  plan  of  a  Roman  theatre.  The 
theatre  is  formed  upon  the  side  of  a  hill,  the  corridor 
being  the  highest  part,  so  that  the  audience,  on 
entering,  descended  at  once  to  their  seats.  There  is 
space  to  contain  about  five  thousand  persons.  This 
theatre  appears  to  have  been  entirely  covered  with 
marble,  although  only  a  few  fragments  remain. 

The  smaller  theatre  nearly  resembles  the  larger  one 
in  plan  and  disposition  of  parts  ;  but  there  is  this 
remarkable  difference; — it  appears  from  an  inscription 
to  have  been  permanently  roofed.  It  has  been 
computed  that  it  accommodated  one  thousand  five 
hundred  persons. 

The  amphitheatre  of  Pompeii  does  not  differ  in  any 
particular  from  other  Roman  buildings  of  the  same 
kind.  Its  form  is  oval;  its  length  is  four  hundred 
and  thirty  feet;  and  its  greatest  breadth  three  hun- 
dred and  thirty-five  feet.  There  were  paintings  in 
fresco — one,  representing  a  tigress  fighting  with  a 
wild  boar;  another,  a  stag  chased  by  a  lioness; 
another,  a  battle  between  a  bull  and  a  bear.  There 
were  other  representations  besides  these  ;  but  the 
whole  disappeared  upon  exposure  to  the  atmosphere*. 
*  Chambers. 


Adjoining  to  the  theatre*,  a  building  has  been 
excavated,  called,  from  the  style  of  its  architecture, 
the  Greek  temple  ;  otherwise,  the  temple  of  Hercules. 
The  date  of  its  erection  some  have  supposed  to  be 
as  far  back  as  eight  hundred  years  before  the 
Christian  era.  It  is  in  a  very  dilapidated  state. 
Before  the  steps  in  front  there  is  an  inclosure,  sup- 
posed to  have  been  a  pen  to  contain  victims  for  the 
sacrifice ;  and  by  its  side  there  are  two  altars. 

The  temple  of  Isist  is  one  of  the  most  perfect 
examples,  now  existing,  of  the  parts  and  disposition 
of  an  ancient  temple.  The  skeleton  of  a  priest  was 
found  in  one  of  the  rooms.  Near  his  remains  lay  an 
axe,  from  which  it  would  appear,  that  he  had  de- 
layed his  departure  till  the  door  was  closed  up,  and 
so  attempted  to  break  through  the  walls  with  his 
axe.  He  had  already  forced  his  way  through  two  ; 
but  before  he  could  pass  the  third,  was  suffocated  by 
the  vapour.  Within  the  sacred  precincts,  doubtless, 
lay  a  number  of  skeletons ;  probably  those  of  the 
priests,  who,  reposing  a  vain  confidence  in  their  deity, 
would  not  desert  her  temple,  until  escape  was  hopeless. 
Several  paintings  of  the  priests  of  Isis,  and  the  cere- 
monies of  their  worship,  were  found,  together  with  a 
statue  of  the  deity  herself. 

One  of  the  buildings,  surrounding  the  forum,  has 
received  the  appellation  of  the  Pantheon,  from  there 
having  been  found  in  the  centre  of  its  area  an  altar 
encircled  with  twelve  pedestals;  on  which,  it  has 
been  supposed,  stood  the  statues  of  the  mythological 
deities.  The  area  is  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet 
in  length,  by  ninety  in  breadth.  Numerous  cells, 
attached  to  this  building,  have  been  found ;  these,  in 
all  probability,  were  for  the  accommodation  of  priests. 
Near  to  this  plaee  were  discoverod  statues  of  Nero 
and  Messalina,  and  ninety-three  brass  coins. 
*  Chambers.  •(•  Anon. 


Adjoining  to  the  Pantheon*  is  a  building,  supposed 
to  have  been  a  place  for  the  meeting  of  the  senate  or 
town-council.  In  the  centre  is  an  altar,  and  on  each 
side  of  this,  in  two  large  recesses,  stand  two  pedestals, 
which  most  likely  supported  effigies  of  the  gods  to 
whom  the  place  was  sacred.  Near  this  is  a  small 
temple,  elevated  on  a  basement.  On  the  altar  there 
is  an  unfinished  bas-relief,  representing  a  sacrifice. 
In  the  cells  attached  to  the  building  were  found  a 
number  of  vessels  in  which  wine  was  kept. 

Adjoining  to  this  is  a  large  building,  which,  from 
various  inscriptions,  appears  to  have  been  erected  at 
the  expense  of  a  lady  named  Eumachia,  for  the  bene- 
fit of  the  public.  Amongst  other  relics  found,  was 
a  statue  of  this  lady,  five  feet  four  inches  high. 

The  forum  of  Pompeiit  is  situated  at  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  city,  and  is  entered  by  a  flight  of 
steps,  leading  downwards  through  an  arch  in  a  brick 
wall,'  still  partly  covered  with  stucco.  Upon  enter- 
ing, the  spectator  finds  himself  in  a  large  area,  sur- 
rounded by  columns,  the  ruins  of  temples,  triumphal 
arches,  and  other  public  erections.  There  are,  also, 
a  number  of  pedestals  for  the  support  of  statues. 

There  is  a  subterranean  wine-vault:}:  near  the  city 
gates,  which  has  been  examined  with  great  attention. 
It  is  very  extensive,  and  contains  the  earthen  ves- 
sels and  bottles  wherein  the  wine  had  been  kept. 
They  were  arranged  in  the  same  precise  order  as 
previous  to  the  awful  eruption  which  desolated  the 
city.  The  interior  of  this  place  much  resembles 
cloisters,  the  roof  being  arched  with  strong  stones. 
It  was  in  these  vaults  where  the  unhappy  inhabitants 
sought  refuge  from  the  sudden  and  overwhelming 
shower  of  fire  and  ashes. 

After  such  an  amazing  lapse  of  time§,  liquids  have 
been  found  approaching  to  a  fluid  state — an  instance 

*  Chambers.  f  Ibid.          J  Pbilip.  §  Brewster. 


of  which  cannot  be  sufficiently  admired,  in  a  phial 
of  oil,  conceived  to  be  that  of  olives.  It  is  white, 
greasy  to  the  touch,  and  emits  the  smell  of  rancid 
oil.  An  earthen  vase  was  found,  in  the  cellars,  con- 
taining wine,  which  now  resembles  a  lump  of  porous 
dark  violet-coloured  glass.  Eggs,  also,  have  been 
found,  whole  and  empty. 

On  the  north  side*  of  the  Pantheon,  there  runs  a 
street,  named  the  Street  of  Dried  Fruits,  from  the 
quantity  of  fruits  of  various  kinds,  preserved  in 
glass  vases,  which  have  been  found.  Scales,  money, 
moulds  for  pastry  and  bread,  were  discovered  in  the 
shops,  and  a  bronze  statue  of  Fame,  small  and  well 
executed  ;  having  bright  bracelets  of  gold  upon  the  • 
arms.  In  the  entrance  which  conducts  from  this 
street  tothe  Pantheon  a  box  was  found,  containing 
a  gold  ring  with  an  engraved  stone  in  it ;  also,  forty- 
one  silver,  and  one  thousand  and  thirty-six  brass,  coins. 

On  the  walls  are  representations  of  Cupid  making 
bread.  The  mill  stands  in  the  centre  of  the  picture, 
with  an  ass  on  each  side;  from  which  it  has  been  in- 
ferred, that  these  animals  were  employed  in  grinding 
corn.  Besides  these,  there  are  in  this  building  a 
great  number  of  very  beautiful  paintings. 

Three  bakers'  shopst  at  least  have  been  found,  all 
in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation.  The  mills,  the 
oven,  the  kneading-trough s,  the  vessels  for  contain- 
ing water,  flour,  and  leaven,  have  all  been  discovered, 
and  seem  to  leave  nothing  wanting  to  our  knowledge. 
In  some  vessels  the  very  flour  remained,  still  capable 
of  being  identified,  though  reduced  almost  to  a  cinder. 
One  of  these  shops  was  attached  to  the  house  of 
Sallust ;  the  other  to  that  of  Pansa.  The  third 
seems  to  have  belonged  to  a  sort  of  capitalist :  for 
instead  of  renting  a  mere  dependency  in  another 

*  Anon.  t  Parker. 


man's  house,  he  lived  in  a  tolerably  good  house  of 
his  own,  of  which  the  bakery  forms  a  part. 

Beneath  the  oven  is  an  ash-pit.  To  the  right  is 
a  large  room,  which  is  conjectured  to  be  a  stable. 
The  jaw  of  an  ass,  and  some  other  fragments  of  a 
skeleton,  were  found  in  it.  There  is  a  reservoir  for 
water  at  the  farther  end,  which  passes  through  the 
•wall,  and  is  common  both  to  this  room  and  the  next, 
so  that  it  could  be  filled  without  going  into  the 

In  another  place*  there  is  an  oil-mill ;  in  a  third, 
supposed  to  have  been  a  prison,  stocks  were  found  ; 
and  in  a  fourth  were  pieces  of  armour,  whence  it 
has  been  called  the  Guard-room.  In  this  quarter  of 
the  city  a  bronze  helmet  was  found,  enriched  with 
bas-reliefs,  relating  to  the  principal  events  of  the  cap- 
ture of  Troy.  Another  helmet  found  represents  the 
Triumph  of  Rome ;  greaves  of  bronze,  highly  orna- 
mented, also  were  found. 

Contiguous  to  the  little  theatre,  the  house  of  a 
sculptor  has  been  cleared.  There  were  found  sta- 
tues ;  some  half  finished ;  others  just  begun  :  with 
blocks  of  marble,  and  all  the  tools  required  by  the 

The  walls,  in  the  interior  of  the  buildings,  are 
generally  adorned  with  fresco  paintings,  the  colours 
of  which  are  in  a  state  of  perfect  preservation,  and 
have  all  the  freshness  of  recent  finishing.  The  shells, 
also,  which  decorate  some  of  the  public  fountains, 
have  sustained  no  injury  from  the  lapse  of  ages,  or 
the  volcanic  products  in  which  they  were  buried. 

During  the  progress  of  excavation,  t  at  Pompeii, 
a  painting  was  found  in  the  Casa  Carolina,  which 
scarcely  held  together  to  be  copied,  and  fell  to  pieces 
upon  the  first  rain.  It  was  of  grotesque  character,  and 

*  Chambers.  •{•  Knight. 

RflXS   OP    ANCIENT    CITIES.  189 

represented  a  pigmy  painter,  whose  only  covering  was 
a  tunic.  He  is  at  work  upon  the  portrait  of  another 
pigmy,  clothed  in  a  manner  to  indicate  a  person 
of  distinction.  The  artist  is  sitting  opposite  to 
his  sitter,  at  an  awful  distance  from  the  picture, 
which  is  placed  under  an  easel,  similar  in  construc- 
tion to  ours.  By  the  side  of  the  artist  stands  his 
palette,  which  is  a  little  table  with  four  feet,  and  by 
it  is  a  pot  to  wash  his  pencils  in.  He  therefore  was 
working  with  gum,  or  some  sort  of  water-colours  : 
but  he  did  not  confine  himself  to  this  branch  of  the 
arts ;  for  to  the  right  we  see  his  colour-grinder,  who 
prepares,  in  a  vessel  placed  over  some  hot  coals,  colours 
mixed  with  wax  and  oil.  Two  amateurs  enter  the 
studio,  and  appear  to  be  conversing  with  respect  to 
the  picture.  On  the  noise  occasioned  by  their  en- 
trance, a  scholar,  seated  in  the  distance,  turns  round 
to  look  at  them.  It  is  difficult  to  explain  the  pre- 
sence of  the  bird  in  the  painting-room.  The  picture 
is  not  complete  :  a  second  bird,  and,  at  the  opposite 
side,  a  child  playing  with  a  dog,  had  perished  before 
Mazois  (an  artist  who  has  preserved  some  of  the 
most  valuable  remains  at  Pompeii)  copied  it.  This 
picture  is  very  curious,  since  it  shows  how  few  things, 
in  the  mechanical  practice  of  painting,  have  changed 
during  two  thousand  years. 

There  is  another  picture*  preserved  at  Pompeii, 
representing  a  female,  employed  in  making  a  copy 
of  a  bearded  Bacchus.  She  is  dressed  in  a  light 
green  tunic,  without  sleeves,  over  which  she  wears 
a  dark  red  mantle.  Beside  her  is  a  box,  such,  as 
we  are  told  by  Varro,  as  painters  used,  divided  into 
compartments,  into  which  she  dips  her  brush. 

Among  the  recent  discoveries  at  Pompeiit,  may 
also  be  enumerated  a  bronze  vase,  encrusted  with  sil- 
ver, the  size  and  form  of  which  have  been  much 

*  Knight.  f  Brewsier. 


admired,  and  a  bronze  statue  of  Apollo,  of  admirable 
workmanship.  The  deity  is  represented  as  sacrificing, 
with  his  avenging  arm,  the  family  of  Niobe  ;  and  the 
beauty  of  its  form,  and  the  life  of  the  figure,  are  so  fine, 
that  it  is  said  to  be  the  finest  statue  in  the  Bourbon 
Museum.  "  As  to  the  furniture,"  says  Mr.  Mathews, 
"  they  illustrate  Solomon's  apophthegm,  that  there  is 
nothing  new  under  the  sun ;  for  there  is  much,  that, 
with  a  little  scouring,  would  scarcely  appear  old- 
fashioned  at  the  present  day." 

"  It  was  a  source  of  great  amusement,"  says  Mr. 
Blunt,  u  to  observe  the  doors  of  cafe-keepers,  bar- 
bers, tailors,  tradesmen,  in  short,  of  every  description, 
surmounted  by  very  tolerable  pictures,  indicating 
their  respective  occupations.  Thus,  at  a  surgeon  and 
apothecary's,  for  instance,  I  have  seen  a  series  of 
paintings  displaying  a  variety  of  cases,  to  which  the 
doctor  is  applying  his  healing  hand.  In  one  he  is 
extracting  a  tooth ;  in  another  applying  an  emetic ;  in 
a  third  bandaging  an  arm  or  a  leg."  In  1819,  seve- 
ral surgical  instruments  were  discovered  in  the  ruins  of 
a  house  near  the  gate  adjoining  to  the  burial-ground*. 
In  a  street,  which  conducts  to  the  Forum,  called 
the  Street  of  Fortune,  an  immense  number  of 
utensils  have  been  found.  Amongst  other  articles, 
were  vases,  basins  with  handles,  bells,  elastic  springs, 
binges,  buckles  for  harness,  a  lock,  an  inkstand,  gold 
ear-rings,  a  silver  spoon,  an  oval  caldron,  a  sauce- 
pan, a  mould  for  pastry,  and  a  weight  of  alabaster 
used  in  spinning,  with  its  ivory  axis  remaining  ;  a 
number  of  lamps,  three  boxes,  in  one  of  which  were 
found  several  coins  of  Titus,  Vespasian,  Domitian,  &c. 
Among  the  most  curious  things  found,  were  seven 
glazed  plates,  packed  in  straw  ;  a  pair  of  scales  and 
steelyard  were  also  discovered. 
Fishing-netst,  some  of  them  quite  entire,  have  been 
*  Brewster.  -J*  Chambers. 


found  in  great  numbers  in  Herculaneum  as  well  as  in 
Pompeii.  Linen,  also,  with  the  texture  well  denned. 
In  the  shop  of  a  baker  a  loaf  was  found,  still  retain- 
ing its  form,  with  the  baker's  name  stamped  upon  it, 
and  which,  to  satisfy  the  curiosity  of  modern  profes- 
sors of  the  art,  we  shall  give  :  it  was  "  Eleris  J. 
Crani  Riser."  On  the  counter  of  an  apothecary's 
shop  was  a  box  of  pills ;  and  by  the  side  of  it,  a 
small  cylindrical  roll,  evidently  ready  for  cutting  up. 

Along  the  south-side  of  another  building  runs  a 
broad  street,  which,  from  various  articles  of  jewellery 
being  found  there,  is  called  the  Street  of  the  Silversmiths. 
On  the  walls  of  the  shops  several  inscriptions  appear, 
one  of  which  has  been  thus  translated  :  "  The  Scribe 
Issus  beseeches  Marcus  Cerrinius  Vatia,  the  ^Edile,  to 
patronise  him  ;  he  is  deserving.'5 

Near  to  the  small  theatre,  a  large  angular  inclo- 
sure  has  been  excavated,  which  has  been  called  the 
Provision  Market  by  some,  by  others  the  Soldiers' 
Quarters.  It  contains  a  number  of  small  chambers, 
supposed  to  have  been  occupied  by  butchers,  and 
vendors  of  meats,  liquors,  &c.  In  one  of  these  was 
discovered  utensils  for  the  manufacture  of  soap. 

If  we  again  fancy  for  a  moment  the  furniture*,im- 
plements,  and  utensils,  which  would  be  brought  to 
light  in  our  own  houses  and  shops,  supposing  them  to 
be  overwhelmed,  and  thus  laid  open  some  centuries 
hence,  we  might  conjecture  that  many  of  the  same 
description  must  have  belonged  to  those  of  a  nation 
so  civilised  as  the  Romans  ;  but  still  it  is  pleasing  to 
ascertain,  from  a  testimony  that  cannot  deceive  us, 
the  evidence  of  the  relics  themselves,  that  they  had 
scales  very  little  different  from  our  own ;  silver 
spoons,  knives  (but  no  forks),  gridirons,  spits,  frying- 
pans,  scissars,  needles,  instruments  of  surgery,  sy- 
ringes, saws,  and  many  more,  all  made  of  fine  brass  ; 
*  Blunt. 


that  they  had  hammers,  and  picks,  and  compasses, 
and  iron  crows,  all  of  which  were  met  with  in  a 
statuary's  shop  ;  and  that  they  had  stamps  which  they 
used,  as  well  for  other  purposes,  as  for  impressing  the 
name  of  its  owner  on  bread  before  it  was  sent  to  the 
oven.  Thus  on  a  loaf,  still  preserved,  is  legible : 
Siligo  C.  Glanii  : — This  is  Caius  Glanius'  loaf. 

Many  of  their  seals  were  preserved  in  this  manner  ; 
consisting  of  an  oblong  piece  of  metal,  stamped  with 
letters  of  the  motto;  instruments  very  similar  to  those 
used  in  England  for  marking  linen.  Tims  possessed 
of  types  and  of  ink,  how  little  were  the  Romans  re- 
moved from  the  discovery  of  the  art  and  advantages 
of  printing  ! 

At  the  end  of  one  of  the  streets*,  was  discovered  a 
skeleton  ofaPompeian,  who,  apparently  for  the  sake 
of  sixty  coins,  a  small  plate,  and  a  saucepan  of  silver, 
had  remained  in  the  house  till  the  street  was  already 
half  filled  with  volcanic  matter.  From  the  situation 
in  which  he  was  found,  he  had  apparently  been 
arrested  in  the  act  of  escaping  from  the  window. 
Two  others  were  also  found  in  the  same  street. 

Only  sixty  skeletons^  have  been  discovered  in  all  ; 
it  is,  therefore,  clear,  that  the  greater  part  of  the 
inhabitants  had  found  time  to  escape.  There  were 
found  in  the  vault  of  a  house  in  the  suburbs,  the 
skeletons  of  seventeen  individuals,  who  appear  to 
have  sought  refuge  there  from  the  showers  of  ashes 
which  poured  from  the  sky.  There  was  also  pre- 
served, in  the  same  place  J,  a  sketch  of  a  woman, 
supposed  to  have  been  the  mistress  of  the  house,  with 
an  infant  locked  in  her  arms.  Her  form  was  imprinted 
upon  the  work,  which  formed  her  sepulchre  ;  but  only 
the  bones  remained.  To  these  a  chain  of  gold  was  sus- 
pended ;  and  rings,  with  jewels,  were  upon  her  fingers. 
The  remains  of  a  soldier,  also,  were  found  in  a  niche, 
*  Gell.  f  Parker.  J  Chambers. 


where,  in  all  probability,  he  was  performing  the 
office  of  sentinel.  His  hand  still  grasped  a  lance, 
and  the  usual  military  accoutrements  were  also  found 

In  one  of  the  baths'",  as  we  have  before  stated, 
was  found  the  skeleton  of  a  female,  whose  arms  and 
neck  were  covered  with  jewels.  In  addition  to  gold 
bracelets,  was  a  necklace;  the  workmanship  of  which 
is  marvellous.  Our  most  skilful  jewellers  could  make 
nothing  more  elegant,  or  of  a  better  taste.  It  has 
all  the  beautiful  finish  of  the  Moorish  jewels  of 
Granada,  and  of  the  same  designs  which  are  to  be 
found  in  the  dresses  of  the  Moorish  women,  and  of 
the  Jewesses  of  Tetuan,  on  the  coast  of  Africa. 

It  is  generally  supposed,  that  the  destruction  of 
this  city  was  sudden  and  unexpected ;  and  it  is  even 
recorded,  that  the  people  were  surprised  and  over- 
whelmed at  once  by  the  volcanic  storm,  while  in  the 
theatre.  (Dionys.  of  Hal.)  But  to  this  opinion 
many  objections  may  be  raised,  amongst  which  this; 
that  the  number  of  skeletons  in  Pompeii  does  not 
amount  to  sixty  ;  and  ten  times  this  number  would 
be  inconsiderable,  when  compared  with  the  extent 
and  population  of  the  city. 

The  most  perfect  and  most  curious  object,  how- 
ever, that  has  yet  been  discovered,  is  a  villa  at  a  little 
distance  from  the  town.  It  consists  of  three  courts ; 
in  the  third  and  largest  is  a  pond,  and  in  the  centre 
a  small  temple.  There  are  numerous  apartments  of 
every  description,  paved  in  mosaic,  coloured  and 
adorned  with  various  paintings  on  the  walls ;  all  in 
a  very  beautiful  style.  This  villa  is  supposed  to  have 
belonged  to  Cicero. 

"  The  ruins  of  Pompeii,"  says  Mr.  Eustace,  "  pos- 
sess a  secret  power,  that  captivates  and  melts  the 
soul !  In  other  times,  and  in  other  places,  one  single 

*  Taylor. 
VOL.  II.  O 


edifice,  a  temple,  a  theatre,  a  tomb,  that  had  escaped 
the  wreck  of  ages,  would  have  enchanted  us  ;  nay,  an 
arch,  the  remnant  of  a  wall,  even  one  solitary  co- 
lumn, was  beheld  with  veneration ;  but  to  discover 
a  single  ancient  house,  the  abode  of  a  Roman  in  his 
privacy,  the  scene  of  his  domestic  hours,  was  an 
object  of  fond,  but  hopeless  longing.  Here,  not  a 
temple,  nor  a  theatre,  nor  a  house,  but  a  whole  city 
rises  before  us,  untouched,  unaltered — the  very  same 
as  it  was  eighteen  hundred  years  ago,  when  inhab- 
ited by  Romans.  We  range  through  the  same 
streets ;  tread  the  very  same  pavement ;  behold  the 
same  walls ;  enter  the  same  doors  ;  and  repose  in  the 
same  apartments.  AVe  are  surrounded  by  the  same 
objects ;  and  out  of  the  same  windows  we  contemplate 
the  same  scenery.  In  the  midst  of  all  this,  not  a  voice 
is  heard — not  even  the  sound  of  a  foot — to  disturb 
the  loneliness  of  the  place,  or  to  interrupt  his  reflec- 
tions. All  around  is  silence  ;  not  the  silence  of  soli- 
tude and  repose,  but  of  death  and  devastation  : — the 
silence  of  a  great  city  without  one  single  inhabitant : 

'  Horror  ubique  animos,  simul  ipsa  silcntia  terrent. ' 

"  Perhaps  the  whole  world  does  not  exhibit  so  awful 
a  spectacle  as  Pompeii ;  and  when  it  was  first  disco- 
vered, when  skeletons  were  found  heaped  together  in 
the  streets  and  houses,  when  all  the  utensils,  and  even 
the  very  bread,  of  the  poor  suffocated  inhabitants, 
were  discernible,  what  a  speculation  must  this  ill- 
fated  city  have  furnished  to  a  thinking  mind  !  To 
visit  it  even  now,  is  absolutely  to  live  with  the  ancient 
Romans ;  and  when  we  see  houses,  shops,  furniture, 
fountains,  streets,  carriages,  and  implements  of  hus- 
bandry, exactly  similar  to  those  of  the  present  day, 
we  are  apt  to  conclude,  that  customs  and  manners 
have  undergone  but  little  alteration  for  the  last  two 
thousand  years." 

'•  In  walking  through  this  city  of  the  dead,"  says 


Chateaubriand,  "  one  idea  has  pursued  me.  As  the 
labourers  clear  the  different  edifices,  they  remove 
whatever  they  discover, — household  utensils,  imple- 
ments of  divers  trades,  pieces  of  furniture,  statues, 
MSS.,  &c.,  all  of  which  are  promiscuously  carried  to 
thePortici  Museum.  In  my  opinion,  people  might  have 
employed  their  time  better.  Why  not  have  left  these 
things  as  they  found  them,  and  where  they  found 
them  ?  Instead  of  their  removal,  they  should  have 
preserved  them  on  the  spot; — roofs,  ceilings,  floors, 
and  windows,  should  have  been  carefully  restored,  in 
order  to  prevent  the  destruction  of  the  walls  and 
paintings.  The  ancient  inclosure  of  the  town  should 
be  rebuilt,  the  gates  repaired,  and  a  guard  of  soldiers 
stationed  there,  together  with  some  individuals  well 
versed  in  the  arts.  Would  not  this  have  been  the 
most  interesting  museum  in  the  world  ?  A  Roman 
town  preserved  quite  entire,  as  if  its  inhabitants  had 
issued  forth  but  a  quarter  of  an  hour  before  !" 

"  I  am  filled  with  astonishment,"  says  Dupaty, 
"  in  walking  from  house  to  house,  from  temple  to 
temple,  from  street  to  street,  in  a  city  built  two 
thousand  years  ago,  inhabited  by  the  Romans,  dug 
out  by  a  king  of  Naples,  and  in  perfect  preservation. 
I  speak  of  Pompeii. 

"  The  inhabitants  of  this  city  were  asleep,  when 
suddenly  an  impetuous  wind  arose,  and,  detaching  a 
portion  of  the  cinders  which  covered  the  summit  of 
Vesuvius,  hurried  them  in  whirlwinds  through  the 
air  over  Pompeii,  and  within  a  quarter  of  an  hour 
entirely  overwhelmed  it,  together  with  Herculaneum, 
Sorento,  a  multitude  of  towns  and  villages,  thousands 
of  men  and  women,  and  the  elder  Pliny.  What  a 
dreadful  awakening  for  the  inhabitants  ?  Imprudent 
men !  Why  did  you  build  Pompeii  at  the  foot  of 
Vesuvius,  on  its  lava,  and  on  its  ashes  ?  In  fact, 
mankind  resemble  ants,  which,  after  an  accident  has 


Destroyed  one  of  their  hillocks,  set  about  repairing  it 
the  next  moment.  Pompeii  was  covered  with  ashes. 
The  descendants  of  those  very  men,  who  perished 
under  those  ashes,  planted  vineyards,  mulberry,  fig, 
and  poplar  trees  on  them  ;  the  roofs  of  this  city  were 
become  fields  and  orchards.  One  day,  while  some 
peasants  were  digging,  the  spade  penetrated  a  little 
deeper  than  usual ;  something  was  found  to  resist. 
It  was  a  city.  It  was  Pompeii.  I  entered  several  of 
the  rooms,  and  found  in  one  of  them  a  mill,  with 
which  the  soldiers  ground  their  corn  for  bread ;  in 
another  an  oil-mill,  in  which  they  crushed  the  olives. 
The  first  resembles  our  coffee-mills;  the  second  is 
formed  of  two  mill-stones,  which  were  moved  by  the 
hand,  in  a  vast  mortar,  round  an  iron  centre.  In 
another  of  these  rooms  I  saw  chains  still  fastened  to 
the  leg  of  a  criminal ;  in  a  second,  heaps  of  human 
bones  ;  and  in  a  third,  a  golden  necklace. 

"What  is  become  of  all  the  inhabitants?  We  see 
nobody  in  the  shops  !  not  a  creature  in  the  streets  ! 
all  the  houses  are  open !  Let  us  begin  by  visiting  the 
houses  on  the  right.  This  is  not  a  private  house  ; 
that  prodigious  number  of  chirurgical  instruments 
prove  this  edifice  must  have  had  some  relation  to  the 
art  in  which  they  are  used.  This  was  surely  a  school 
for  surgery.  These  houses  are  very  small ;  they  are 
exceedingly  ill  contrived ;  all  the  apartments  are 
detached ;  but  then  what  neatness  !  what  elegance  ! 
In  each  of  them  is  an  inner  portico,  a  mosaic  pave- 
ment, a  square  colonnade,  and  in  the  middle  a  cis- 
tern, to  collect  the  water  falling  from  the  roof.  In 
each  of  them  are  hot-baths,  and  stoves,  and  every- 
where paintings  in  fresco,  in  the  best  taste,  and  on 
the  most  pleasing  grounds.  Has  Raffaele  been  here 
to  copy  his  arabesques  ? 

"  Let  us  pass  over  to  the  other  side  of  the  street. 
These  houses  are  three  stories  high  ;  their  foundation 


is  on  the  lava,  which  has  formed  here  a  sort  of  hill, 
on  the  declivity  of  which  they  are  built.  From  above, 
in  the  third  story,  the  windows  look  into  the  street ; 
and  from  the  first  story,  into  a  garden. 

"  But  what  do  I  perceive  in  that  chamber.  They 
are  ten  death's-heads.  The  unfortunate  wretches 
saved  themselves  here,  where  they  could  not  be  saved. 
This  is  the  head  of  a  little  child :  its  father  and 
mother  then  are  there  !  Let  us  go  up  stairs  again  ; 
the  heart  feels  not  at  ease  here.  Suppose  we  take  a 
step  into  this  temple  for  a  moment,  since  it  is  left 
open.  What  deity  do  I  perceive  in  the  bottom  of 
that  niche  ?  It  is  the  god  of  Silence,  who  makes  a 
sign  writh  his  finger,  to  command  silence,  and  points 
to  the  goddess  Isis,  in  the  further  recess  of  the 

"  In  the  front  of  the  porch  there  are  three  altars. 
Here  the  victims  were  slaughtered,  and  the  blood, 
flowing  along  this  gutter  into  the  middle  of  that 
basin,  fell  from  thence  upon  the  head  of  the  priests. 
This  little  chamber,  near  the  altar,  was  undoubtedly 
the  sacristy.  The  priests  purified  themselves  in  this 

"  Here  are  some  inscriptions :  '  Popidi  ambleati, 
Cornelia  celsa.'  This  is  a  monument  erected  to  the 
memory  of  those  who  have  been  benefactors  to  Isis  ; 
that  is  to  say,  to  her  priests. 

"  I  cannot  be  far  from  the  country-house  of  Aufi- 
dius ;  for  there  are  the  gates  of  the  city.  Here  is  the 
tomb  of  the  family  of  Diomedes.  Let  us  rest  a  mo- 
ment under  these  porticoes,  where  the  philosophers 
used  to  sit. 

"  I  am  not  mistaken.  The  country-house  of 
Aufidius  is  charming ;  the  paintings  in  fresco  are 
delicious.  What  an  excellent  effect  have  those  blue 
grounds  !  With  what  propriety,  and  consequently 
with  what  taste,  are  the  figures  distributed  in  the 


panels !  Flora  herself  has  woven  that  garland.  But 
who  has  painted  this  Venus  ?  this  Adonis  ?  this 
youthful  Narcissus,  in  that  bath  ?  And  here  again, 
this  charming  Mercury  ?  It  is  surely  not  a  week 
since  they  were  painted. 

"  I  like  this  portico  round  the  garden ;  and  this 
square  covered  cellar  round  the  portico.  Do  these 
amphorae  contain  the  true  Falernian  ?  How  many 
consulates  has  this  wine  been  kept  ? 

"  But  it  is  late.  It  was  about  this  time  the 
play  began.  Let  us  go  to  the  covered  theatre  :  it  is 
shut.  Let  us  go  to  the  uncovered  theatre ;  that  too 
is  shut. 

"  I  know  not  how  far  I  have  succeeded  in  this 
attempt  to  give  you  an  idea  of  Pompeii."  Ex- 

NO.  XX.- — RAMA. 

RAMA  is  supposed  to  have  been  built  with  mate- 
rials, furnished  by  the  ruins  of  Lydda,  three  miles 
distant ;  and  it  is  the  spot  in  which  our  titular  saint, 
St.  George,  is  said  to  have  suffered  martyrdom ; 
although,  according  to  most  authors,  his  remains 
repose  in  a  magnificent  temple  at  Lydda. 

Notwithstanding  the  present  desolate  condition  of 
Rama,  it  was,  when  the  army  of  the  Crusaders 
arrived,  a  magnificent  city,  filled  with  wealth,  and 
abundance  of  all  the  luxuries  of  the  East.  It  was 
exceedingly  populous,  adorned  with  stately  buildings, 
and  well  fortified  with  walls  and  towers. 

The  Musselmans  here  reverence  the  tomb  of 
Locman,  the  wise;  also  the  sepulchres  of  seventy 
prophets,  who  are  believed  to  have  been  buried  here. 

*  Pliny;  Dupaty;  Taylor;  Knight;  Chambers;  Parker; 
Encyclop.  Londinensis  and  Metropolitana,  Rees'  and  Britannica  ; 
Phillips  ;  Chateaubriand  ;  Eustace  ;  Forsyth  ;  Blunt  ;  Stuart ; 
Clarke  ;  Williams  ;  Cell. 


Rama  is  situated  about  thirty  miles  from  Jeru- 
salem, in  the  middle  of  an  extensive  and  fertile  plain, 
which  is  part  of  the  great  field  of  Sharon.  "  It 
makes,"  says  Dr.  Clarke,  "  a  considerable  figure  at 
a  distance;  but  we  found  nothing  within  the  place 
except  traces  of  devastation  and  death.  It  exhibited 
one  scene  of  ruin:  houses,  fallen  or  deserted,  appeared 
on  every  side ;  and  instead  of  inhabitants,  we  beheld 
only  the  skeletons  or  putrifying  carcasses  of  horses 
and  camels.  A  plague,  or  rather  murrain,  during 
the  preceding  year,  had  committed  such  ravages, 
that  not  only  men,  women,  and  children,  but  cattle 
of  all  kinds,  and  every  thing  that  had  life,  became  its 
victims.  Few  of  the  inhabitants  of  Europe  can  have 
been  aware  of  the  state  of  suffering,  to  which  all  the 
coast  of  Palestine  and  Syria  was  exposed.  It 
followed,  and  in  part  accompanied,  the  dreadful 
ravages,  caused  by  the  march  of  the  French  army. 
From  the  accounts  we  received,  it  seemed  as  if  the 
exterminating  hand  of  Providence  was  exercised  in 
sweeping  from  the  earth  every  trace  of  ancient 
existence/  '  In  Rama*  there  was  a  voice  heard ; 
lamentation  and  weeping,  and  great  mourning; 
Rachel  weeping  for  her  children,  and  could  not  be 
comforted,  because  they  were  not.'  "t 

*  Jeremiah  xxxi.  15.  -j-  Brewster;  Clarke. 



To  seek  for  Rome,  vain  stranger,  art  thou  come, 

And  find'stno  mark,  within  Rome's  walls,  of  Rome? 

See  here  the  craggy  walls,  the  towers  defaced, 

And  piles  that  frighten  more  than  once  they  pleased  : 

See  the  vast  theatres,  a  shapeless  load, 

And  sights  more  tragic  than  they  ever  show'd. 

This,  this  is  Rome!     Her  haughty  carcass  spread 

Still  awes  in  ruin,  and  commands  when  dead. 

The  subject  world  first  took  from  her  their  fate ; 

And  when  she  only  stood  unconquer'd  yet, 

Herself  she  last  suhducd,  to  make  the  work  complete. 

But  ah  !  so  dear  the  fatal  triumph  cost, 

That  conquering  Rome  is  in  the  conquer'd  lost. 

Yet  rolling  Tiber  still  maintains  his  stream, 

Swell'd  with  the  glories  of  the  Roman  name. 

Strange  power  of  fate!  unshaken  moles  must  waste  ; 

While  things  that  ever  move,  for  ever  last. — VITALIS. 

As  the  plan  of  this  work  does  not  admit  of  otir 
giving  any  thing  like  a  history  of  the  various  trials 
and  fortunes  of  Rome;  we  must  confine  ourselves, 
almost  entirely,  to  a  few  particulars  relative  to  its 
origin,  summit  of  glory  and  empire,  its  decay,  and 
ultimate  ruin. 

There  is  no  unquestionable  narrative  of  facts,  on 
which  any  writer  can  build  the  primitive  history  of  this 
vast  city  and  empire;  but  in  its  place  we  have  a  mass 
of  popular  traditions  and  fabulous  records.  On  the 
taking  of  Troy,  .ZEneas,  a  prince  of  that  city,  quitted 
his  native  land,  and  after  a  long  period,  spent  in 
encountering  a  variety  of  vicissitudes,  he  arrived  on 
the  coast  of  Italy,  was  received  with  hospitality  by 
the  King  of  Latium,  whose  name  was  Latinus,  and 
afterwards  obtained  his  throne,  from  the  circumstance 
of  having  married  his  daughter. 

.ZEneas  after  this  built  the  city  of  Lavinium,  and, 
thirty  years  after,  his  son  founded  that  of  Alba  Longa, 
which  then  became  the  capital  of  Latium.  Three 
hundred  years  after,  Romulus  founded  Rome. 


Though  Livy  has  given  a  very  circumstantial  ac- 
count of  the  origin  of  this  city,  sufficient  data  have 
been  afforded,  since  his  history  was  written,  to  justify 
our  doubting  many  of  his  statements.  The  first  au- 
thor in  modern  times,  that  led  Europe  to  these  doubts, 
was,  we  believe,  Dr.  Taylor;  who,  in  a  work  written 
about  sixty  years  ago,  entitled  Elements  of  Civil 
Law,  has  the  following  passage  : — "  It  was  not  pecu- 
liar to  this  people,  to  have  the  dawn  of  their  history 
wrapped  up  in  fable  and  mythology,  or  set  in  with 
something  that  looked  like  marvellous  and  preter- 
natural. There  is  scarce  a  nation,  that  we  are  ac- 
quainted with,  but  has  this  foible  in  a  greater  or  less- 
er degree,  and  almost  pleads  a  right  to  be  indulged 
in  it.  "  Datur  hsec  venia  antiquitati,  ut  miscendo 
humana  divinis  primordia  urbium  augustiora  faciat." 
(Liv.  I.  Praef.)  Indeed  the  Romans  themselves  had 
some  suspicion  of  their  own  history.  They  generally 
dated  their  periods  not  AB  u.  c.  but  began  their  sera. 
from  their  consuls,  by  whom  they  always  reckoned. 
The  records  of  Rome  were  burned  at  the  irruption  of 
the  Gauls  :  they  had  nothing  for  it  but  tradition  be- 
fore that  period.  Nor  was  there  an  author  extant  of 
that  age,  or  near  it,  at  the  time  that  Livy  compiled 
his  history.  Diocles  Peparethius  (the  father  of 
Roman  history,  since  Fabius  Pictor,  the  first  his- 
torian that  Rome  produced,  and  all  his  followers, 
copied  him  implicitly)  was  a  writer  of  no  very  great 
credit.  The  birth  and  education  of  Romulus,  is  the 
exact  counter-part  of  that  of  another  founder  of  a 
great  empire ;  and  Romulus,  I  am  satisfied,  could 
not  resemble  more  his  brother  Remus,  than  his  brother 
Cyrus.  The  expedient  of  Tarquin's  conveying  ad- 
vice to  his  son,  by  striking  off  the  heads  of  flowers, 
is  given  with  the  minutest  difference,  by  Aristotle  to 
Periander  of  Corinth,  and  by  Herodotus  to  Thrasy- 
bulus.  Which  similarity  is  very  ill  accounted  for  by 


Camerarius.  This  was  one  of  those  ambulatory 
stories  which  (Plutarch  in  his  Greek  and  Roman 
Parallels  will  furnish  us  with  many  such)  seem 
confined  to  no  one  age,  race,  or  country ;  but  have 
been  adopted  in  their  turn,  at  several  periods  of  time, 
and  by  several  very  different  people,  and  are  perhaps, 
at  least  some  of  them,  true  of  none.  And,  lastly,  one 
would  imagine,  that  the  history  of  the  seven  kings, 
which  has  such  an  air  of  romance  in  it,  was  made  on 
purpose  for  Floras  to  be  ingenious  upon  in  his  recapi- 
tulation of  the  regal  state  of  Rome." 

The  truth  of  this  subject  we  leave  to  abler  hands  ; 
proceeding  at  once  to  the  manner  in  which  the  cere- 
monies are  recorded  to  have  been  adopted  at  the  first 
laying  down  the  foundations  of  the  city.  Romulus, 
having  sent  for  some  of  the  Tuscans,  to  instruct  him 
in  the  ceremonies  that  ought  to  be  observed  in  laying 
.  the  foundations,  and  they  having  instructed  him 
according  to  his  desire,  his  work  began  in  the  follow- 
ing manner : — First,  he  dug  a  trench,  and  threw 
into  it  the  first-fruits  of  all  things,  either  good  by 
custom,  or  necessary  by  nature  ;  and  every  man  taking 
a  small  turf  of  earth  of  the  country  from  which  he 
came,  they  all  cast  them  in  promiscuously  together. 
Making  their  trench  their  centre,  they  described  the 
city  in  a  circle  round  it.  Then  the  founder  fitted  to  a 
plough  a  brazen  plough-share;  and  yoking  together 
a  bull  and  a  cow,  drew  a  deep  line  or  furrow  round 
the  bounds ;  those  that  followed  after,  taking  care 
that  the  clods  fell  inwards  towards  the  city.  They 
built  the  wall  upon  this  line,  which  they  called  Pomce- 
rium,  from  pone  mcenia.  Though  the  phrase  of 
Pomcerium  proferre  be  commonly  used  in  authors, 
to  signify  the  enlarging  of  the  city,  it  is,  nevertheless, 
certain  that  the  city  might  be  enlarged  without  that 
ceremony.  For  Tacitus  and  Gellius  declare  no  per- 
son to  have  had  a  right  of  extending  the  Pomoerium, 


but  such  a  one  as  had  taken  away  some  part  of  an 
enemy's  country  in  war ;  whereby,  it  is  manifest,  that 
several  great  men,  who  never  obtained  the  honour, 
increased  the  buildings  with  considerable  additions. 
It  is  remarkable  that  the  same  ceremony  with  which 
the  foundations  of  their  cities  were  first  laid,  they  used, 
too,  in  destroying  and  rasing  places  taken  from  the 
enemy  ;  which  we  find  was  begun  by  the  chief  com- 
mander's turning  up  some  of  the  walls  with  a  plough. 
"We  do  not,  as  we  have  before  stated,  propose  to 
give  even  a  slight  history  of  this  celebrated  city. 
It  is  sufficient  for  our  purpose  to  state,  that  it  was 
first  governed  by  kings,  and  then  by  consuls,  up  to 
the  time  when  the  Gauls  took  the  city,  under  their 
commander  Brennus.  This  was  the  first  calamity 
that  Rome  experienced  at  the  hands  of  an  enemy; 
and  this  occurred  in  the  three  hundred  and  sixty- 
fifth  year  after  its  foundation. 

The  city  of  Veii  had  just  surrendered  to  Camillus 
after  a  ten  years'  siege,  when  the  Gauls  made  an 
irruption  into  Italy,  and  had  begun  to  besiege  Clu- 
sium,  a  Tuscan  city;  at  which  time  a  deputation 
arrived  at  Rome  with  an  entreaty  from  the  Clusians, 
that  the  Romans  would  interfere  in  their  behalf, 
through  the  medium  of  ambassadors.  This  request 
was  immediately  complied  with  ;  and  three  of  the 
Fabii,  persons  of  the  highest  rank,  were  despatched 
to  the  Gallic  camp.  The  Gauls,  out  of  respect  to 
the  name  of  Rome,  received  these  ambassadors  with 
all  imaginable  civility  ;  but  they  could  not  be  induced 
to  raise  the  siege.  Upon  this,  the  ambassadors  going 
into  the  town,  and  encouraging  the  Clusians  to  a 
sally,  one  of  them  was  seen  personally  engaged  in 
the  action.  This,  being  contrary  to  the  generally 
received  law  of  nations,  was  resented  in  so  high  a 
manner  by  the  enemy,  that,  breaking  up  from  before 
Clusium,  their  whole  army  marched  directly  against 


Rome.  At  about  eleven  miles  from  the  city,  they 
met  with  the  Roman  army,  commanded  by  the 
military  tribunes ;  who,  engaging  without  any  order 
or  discipline,  received  an  entire  defeat.  Upon  the 
arrival  of  this  ill  news  at  Rome,  the  greatest  part  of 
the  inhabitants  immediately  fled.  Those  that  re- 
solved to  stay,  however,  fortified  themselves  in  the 
Capitol.  The  Gauls  soon  appeared  at  the  city  gates  ; 
and,  destroying  all  with  fire  and  sword,  carried  on 
the  siege  of  the  Capitol  with  all  imaginable  fury. 
At  last,  resolving  on  a  general  assault,  they  were 
discovered  by  the  cackling  of  geese ;  and  as  many 
as  had  climbed  the  ramparts  were  driven  down 
by  Manlius ;  when  Camillus,  setting  upon  them 
in  the  rear  with  twenty  thousand  men  he  had  got 
together  about  the  oeuntry,  gave  them  a  total  over-- 

The  city,  however,  had  been  set  on  fire  by  the 
barbarians,  and  so  entirely  demolished,  that,  upon 
the  return  of  the  people,  they  resolved  upon  aban- 
doning the  ruins,  and  seeking  a  more  eligible  abode 
in  the  recently  conquered  city  of  Veii,  a  town  already 
built  and  well  provided  with  all  things.  But  this 
being  opposed  by  Camillus,  they  set  to  work  with 
such  extraordinary  diligence,  that  the  vacant  space 
of  the  old  city  was  quickly  covered  with  new  build- 
ings, and  the  whole  finished  within  the  short  space  of 
one  year.  The  Romans,  however,  on  this  occasion, 
were  in  too  great  a  hurry  to  think  of  either  order  or 
regularity..  The  city  was,  therefore,  rebuilt  without 
any  reference  to  order  ;  no  care  being  taken  to  form 
the  streets  in  straight  lines. 

In  this  conflagration,  all  the  public  records  were 
burned  ;  but  there  is  no  reason  to  believe,  that  it  was 
accompanied  by  any  losses,  which  a  lover  of  the  arts 
should  mourn  for.  As  many  writers  have  remarked, 
the  Romans  were  not  naturally  a  people  of  taste. 


They  never  excelled  in  the  fine  arts ;  and  even  their 
own  writers  invariably  allow,  that  they  were  indebted 
for  every  thing  that  was  elegant  in  the  arts  to  the 
people  of  Greece*. 

It  is  possible  that,  during  the  three  hundred  and 
fifty  years,  which  elapsed  from  the  Gallic  invasion 
till  the  reign  of  Augustus,  many  magnificent  build- 
ings may  have  been  erected ;  but  we  have  no  evi- 
dence that  such  was  the  case ;  and  the  few  facts, 
which  we  are  enabled  to  glean  from  the  pages  of 
ancient  writers,  are  scarcely  favourable  to  the  suppo- 
sition. The  commencement  of  the  age  of  Roman 
luxury  is  generally  dated  from  the  year  146  B.  c., 
when  the  fall  of  Carthage  and  of  Corinth  elevated 
the  power  of  the  republic  to  a  conspicuous  height. 
Yet,  more  than  fifty  years  afterwards,  no  marble 
columns  had  been  introduced  into  any  public  build- 
ings ;  and  the  example  of  using  them  as  decorations 
of  private  houses  was  set  by  the  orator  Crassus,  in 
the  beginning  of  the  first  century  before  the  Christian 

The  architectural  splendour  of  the  city  must  be 
dated  from  the  age  of  Augustus.  "  I  found  it  of 
brick,"  he  was  accustomed  to  say ;  "  I  shall  leave 
it  of  marble."  Nor  was  he  content  with  his  own 

*  The  conquest  of  Greece  contributed  to  the  decay  and  ruin  of 
that  very  empire,  by  introducing  into  Rome,  by  the  wealth  it 
brought  into  it,  a  taste  and  love  for  luxury  and  effeminate  pleasures  ; 
for  it  is  from  the  victory  over  Antiochus,  and  the  conquest  of 
Asia,  that  Pliny  dates  the  depravity  and  corruption  of  manners  in 
the  republic  of  Rome,  and  the  fatal  changes  which  ensued. 
•  Asia,  vanquished  by  the  Roman  arms,  afterwards  vanquished 
Rome  by  its  vices.  Foreign  wealth  extinguished  iii  that  city  a 
love  for  the  ancient  poverty  and  simplicity,  in  which  its  strength 
and  honour  consisted.  Luxury,  that  in  a  manner  entered  Rome 
in  triumph  with  the  superb  spoils  of  Asia,  brought  with  her  in  her 
train  irregularities  and  crimes  of  every  kind,  made  greater  havoc  in 
the  city  than  the  mightiest  armies  could  have  done,  and  in  that 
manner  avenged  the  conquered  globe. — ROLLIN. 


labours ;  at  his  instigation  many  private  individuals 
contributed  to  the  embellishment  of  the  capital. 
The  Pantheon,  one  of  the  noblest  structures  of 
Rome,  and  several  others,  were  the  works  of  his 
chief  minister,  Agrippa. 

Tiberius  and  Caligula  betrayed  no  wish  to  imitate 
their  predecessor ;  but  several  works  of  utility  and 
magnitude  were  completed  under  Claudius.  Then 
came,  however,  the  emperor  Nero;  with  whose  reign 
is  associated  that  memorable  conflagration,  which 
malice  attributed  to  the  Christians,  and  which  raged 
beyond  all  example  of  former  ages.  This  fire  left, 
of  the  fourteen  regions  into  which  Augustus  had 
divided  the  city,  only  four  parts  untouched.  It 
was,  therefore,  fatal  to  many  of  the  most  venerable 
fanes  and  trophies  of  the  earlier  ages.  This  con- 
flagration lasted  from  six  to  nine  days.  *In  the  time 
of  Titus,  too,  another  fire  ravaged  the  city  for  three 
days  and  nights ;  and  in  that  of  Trajan,  another 
conflagration  consumed  part  of  the  Forum,  and  the 
Golden  House  of  Nero ;  after  which  few  remains  of 
the  ancient  city  were  left ;  the  rest  being,  to  use  the 
language  of  Tacitus,  "  scanty  relics,  lacerated  and 

The  city,  nevertheless,  soon  rose  with  fresh  gran- 
deur and  beauty  from  its  ashes.  Trajan  performed 
his  part ;  and  Hadrian  followed  with  redoubled  assi- 
duity. They  were  followed  by  the  Antonines ;  and 
so  effective  was  the  example  they  set,  that  most  of 
the  more  opulent  senators  of  Rome  deemed  it  an 
honour,  and  almost  an  obligation,  to  contribute  to 
the  glory  and  external  splendour  of  their  native  city. 
These  monuments  of  architecture  were  adorned  with 
the  finest  and  most  beautiful  productions  of  sculpture 
and  painting.  Every  quarter  of  Rome  wras  filled  with 
temples,  theatres,  amphitheatres,  porticoes,  trium- 
phal arches,  and  aqueducts  ;  with  baths,  and  other 

RUIN'S    OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  207 

buildings,  conducive  to  the  health  and  pleasure,  not 
of  the  noble  citizens  only,  but  of  the  meanest. 

The  principal  conquests  of  the  Romans,  were 
achieved  under  the  republic ;  and  the  emperors,  for 
the  most  part,  were  satisfied  with  preserving  those 
dominions  which  had  been  acquired  by  the  policy  of 
the  senate,  the  active  emulation  of  the  senators,  and 
the  martial  enthusiasm  of  the  people.  The  seven 
first  centuries  were  filled  with  a  rapid  succession  of 
triumphs ;  but  it  was  for  Augustus,  to  relinquish 
the  ambitious  design  of  subduing  the  whole  earth, 
and  to  introduce  moderation  into  the  public  councils. 
He  bequeathed  a  valuable  legacy  to  his  successors, 
the  advice  of  confining  the  empire  within  those 
limits  which  nature  seemed  to  have  placed  as  its 
permanent  bulwarks  and  boundaries  : — on  the  west 
the  Atlantic  ocean  ;  the  Rhine  and  Danube  on  the 
north ;  the  Euphrates  on  the  east ;  and  towards  the 
south  the  deserts  of  Africa  and  Arabia. 

The  first  exception  to  this  policy  was  the  conquest 
of  Britain ;  the  second  the  conquests  of  Trajan.  It 
was,  however,  revived  by  Hadrian;  nearly  the  first 
measure  of  whose  reign  was  the  resignation  of  all 
that  emperor's  eastern  conquests. 

The  Roman  empire,  in  the  time  of  the  Antonines, 
was  about  two  thousand  miles  in  breadth,  from  the 
wall  of  Antoninus  and  the  northern  limits  of  Dacia, 
to  Mount  Atlas  and  the  tropic  of  Cancer.  It  ex- 
tended, in  length,  more  than  three  thousand  miles, 
from  the  Western  Ocean  to  the  Euphrates ;  it  was 
situated  in  the  finest  part  of  the  temperate  zone, 
between  the  twenty -fourth  and  fifty -sixth  de- 
grees of  northern  latitude ;  and  it  was  supposed  to 
contain  above  sixteen  hundred  thousand  square 
miles,  for  the  most  part  of  fertile  and  well  cultivated 

Pius  studied  the  defence  of  the  empire  rather  than 


the  enlargement  of  it — a  line  of  policy,  which  ren- 
dered him  more  serviceable  to  the  commonwealth  than 
the  greatest  conqueror.  Marcus  and  Lucius  ( Autoniui) 
made  the  first  division  of  the  empire.  At  length  it 
was  put  up  to  public  sale  and  sold  to  the  highest 
bidder.  It  was  afterwards  arrested  in  its  ruin  by 
Alexander  Severus.  The  fortunes  of  the  empire, 
after  the  progress  of  several  successive  tyrants,  was 
again  restored  by  the  courage,  conduct,  and  extraor- 
dinary virtues  of  Claudius  the  Second  ;  to  whom  has 
been  attributed,  with  every  probability  of  truth,  the 
courage  of  Trajan,  the  moderation  of  Augustus,  and 
the  piety  of  Antoninus. 

Then  followed  Aurelian,  Tacitus,  and  Probus ; 
and  Rome  felt  redeemed  from  the  ruin  that  awaited 
her :  but  Constantine  laid  the  inevitable  ground- 
work of  its  destmction,  by  removing  the  imperial 
throne  to  Byzantium.  Rome  became  an  easy  prey 
to  her  barbarian  enemies  ;  by  whom  she  was  several 
times  sacked,  pillaged,  and  partially  burned.  The 
most  powerful  of  these  enemies  was  Alaric  : — the 
people  he  had  to  conquer  arid  take  advantage 
of,  are  thus  described  by  Ammianus  Marcellinus  : — 
"  Their  long  robes  of  silk  purple  float  in  the  wind, 
and  as  they  are  agitated,  by  art  or  accident,  they 
occasionally  discover  the  under-garments,  the  rich 
tunics,  embroidered  with  the  figures  of  various 
animals.  Followed  by  a  train  of  fifty  servants,  and 
tearing  up  the  pavement,  they  move  along  the  street 
with  the  same  impetuous  speed,  as  if  they  had  tra- 
velled with  post-horses ;  and  the  example  of  the 
senators  is  boldly  imitated  by  the  matrons  and  ladies, 
whose  covered-carriages  are  continually  driving  round 
the  immense  space  of  the  city  and  suburbs.  When- 
ever these  persons  of  high  distinction  condescend  to 
visit  the  public  baths,  they  assume,  on  their  entrance, 
a  tone  of  loud  and  insolent  command,  and  appropriate 


to  their  own  use  the  conveniences  which  were  designed 
for  the  Roman  people.  As  soon  as  they  have  indulged 
themselves  in  the  refreshments  of  the  bath,  they 
resume  their  rings,  and  the  other  ensigns  of  their 
dignity;  select  from  their  private  wardrobe  of  the 
finest  linen,  such  as  might  suffice  for  a  dozen  persons, 
the  garments  the  most  agreeable  to  their  fancy,  and 
maintain  till  their  departure  the  same  haughty 
demeanour,  which,  perhaps,  might  have  been  excused 
in  the  great  Marcellus,  after  the  conquest  of  Syracuse. 

"  Sometimes,  indeed,  these  heroes  undertake  more 
arduous  achievements  ;  they  visit  their  estates  in 
Italy,  and  procure  themselves,  by  the  toil  of  servile 
hands,  the  amusements  of  the  chase.  If  at  any  time, 
but  more  especially  on  a  hot  day,  they  have  courage 
to  sail  in  their  painted  galleys,  from  the  Lucrine 
Lake  to  their  elegant  villas  on  the  sea-coast  of  Puteoli 
and  Cajeta,  they  compare  their  own  expeditions  to 
the  marches  of  Ctesar  and  Alexander.  Yet,  should  a 
fly  presume  to  settle  on  the  silken  folds  of  their 
gilded  umbrellas ;  should  a  sun-beam  penetrate 
through  some  unregarded  and  imperceptible  chink 
they  deplore  their  intolerable  hardships,  and  lament, 
in  affected  language,  that  they  were  not  born  in  the 
land  of  the  Cimmerians,  the  regions  of  eternal  dark- 

Such  was  the  character  of  the  nobles  of  Rome  at 
the  period  in  which  their  city  was  taken  possession  of 
by  Alaric.  As  soon  as  the  barbarian  had  got  pos- 
session of  the  Roman  port,  he  summoned  the  city  to 
surrender  at  discretion ;  and  his  demands  were 
enforced  by  the  positive  declaration,  that  a  refusal, 
or  even  a  delay,  should  be  instantly  followed  by  the 
destruction  of  the  magazines,  on  which  the  life  of 
the  Roman  people  depended.  The  clamours  of  that 
people,  and  the  terror  of  famine,  subdued  the  pride 
of  the  senate.  They  listened  without  reluctance  to 

YOL.  II.  P 


the  proposing  of  a  new  emperor  on  the  throne  of 
Honorius  ;  and  the  suffrage  of  the  Gothic  conqueror 
bestowed  the  purple  on  Attains,  the  prefect  of  thy 
city.  Attains  was  created  emperor  by  the  Gothl- 
and Romans ;  he  was,  however,  soon  degraded  by 
Alaric,  and  Rome  subjected  to  a  general  sack.  Tlu> 
conqueror  no  longer  dissembled  his  appetite  for  plun- 
der. The  trembling  senate,  without  any  hopes  of 
relief,  prepared,  by  a  desperate  resistance,  to  delay 
the  ruin  of  their  country.  But  they  were  unable  to 
guard  against  the  secret  conspiracy  of  their  slaves 
and  domestics.  At  the  hour  of  midnight,  the  Sala- 
rian  gate  was  opened,  and  the  inhabitants  were 
awakened  by  the  tremendous  sound  of  the  Gothic 
trumpet.  Eleven  hundred  and  sixty-three  years 
after  the  foundation  of  Rome,  the  imperial  city, 
which  had  subdued  and  civilised  so  considerable  a 
part  of  mankind,  was  delivered  to  the  licentious  fury 
of  the  tribes  of  Scythia  and  Germany.  A  cruel 
slaughter  was  made  of  the  Romans  ;  the  streets  of  the 
city  were  filled  with  dead  bodies,  which,  during  the 
consternation,  remained  unburied.  The  despair  of 
the  inhabitants  was  sometimes  converted  into  fury  ; 
and  whenever  the  barbarians  were  provoked  by 
opposition,  they  extended  the  promiscuous  massacre 
to  the  feeble,  the  innocent,  and  the  helpless.  The 
private  revenge  of  40,000  slaves  was  exercised  with- 
out pity  or  remorse  ;  and  the  ignominious  lashes, 
which  they  had  formerly  received,  were  washed  away 
in  the  blood  of  the  guilty,  or  obnoxious  families.  The 
matrons  and  virgins  of  Rome  were  exposed  to  inju- 
ries more  dreadful,  in  the  apprehension  of  chastity, 
than  death  itself. 

When  the  portable  riches  had  been  seized,  the 
palaces  were  rudely  stripped  of  their  splendid  and 
costly  furniture  ;  the  side-boards  of  massy  plate,  and 
the  variegated  wardrobes  of  silk  and  purple,  were 


irregularly  piled  in  the  wagons,  that  always  followed 
the  march  of  a  Gothic  army.  The  most  exquisite 
works  of  art  were  roughly  handled,  or  wantonly 
destroyed  ;  many  a  statue  was  melted  for  the  sake  of 
the  precious  materials  ;  and  many  a  vase,  in  the  divi- 
sion of  the  spoil,  was  shivered  into  fragments  by  the 
stroke  of  the  battle-axe.  The  sack  lasted  six  days. 

The  edifices,  too,  of  Rome  received  no  small  injury 
from  the  violence  of  the  Goths;  but  those  injuries 
appear  to  have  been  somewhat  exaggerated.  At  their 
entrance  they  fired  a  multitude  of  houses ;  and  the 
ruins  of  the  palace  of  Sallust  remained,  in  the  age  of 
Justinian,  a  stately  monument  of  the  Gothic  confla- 
gration. Procopius  confines  the  fire  to  one  peculiar 
quarter  ;  but  adds,  that  the  Goths  ravaged  the  whole 
city.  Cassiodorus  says,  that  many  of  the  "  wonders 
of  Rome,"  were  burned;  and  Olympiodorus  speaks  of 
the  infinite  quantity  of  wealth,  which  Alaric  carried 
away.  AVe  collect,  also,  how  great  the  disaster 
was,  when  he  tells  us,  that,  on  the  retreat  of  the 
Goths,  14,000  returned  in  one  day. 

The  injury  done  by  Genseric  (A.D.  455),  is  said 
to  have  been  not  so  great  as  that,  perpetrated  by  the 
Goths  ;  yet  most  writers  record  that  the  Vandals  and 
Moors  emptied  Rome  of  most  of  her  wealth.  They 
revenged  the  injuries  of  Carthage.  The  pillage  lasted 
fourteen  days  and  nights ;  and  all  that  yet  remained 
of  public  or  private  wealth,  of  sacred  or  profane 
treasure,  were  transported  to  the  vessels  of  Genseric. 
Among  the  spoils,  the  splendid  relics  of  two  temples, 
or  rather  of  two  religions,  exhibited  the  remarkable 
example  of  the  vicissitude  of  human  things.  Since 
the  abolition  of  Paganism,  the  capital  had  been  vio- 
lated and  abandoned;  yet  the  statues  of  the  gods  and 
heroes  were  still  respected,  and  the  curious  roof  of 
gilt  bronze  was  reserved  for  the  rapacious  hands  of 
Generic.  The  holy  instruments  of  the  Jewish  wor- 


ship  had  been  ostentatiously  displayed  to  the  Roman 
people,  in  the  triumph  of  Titus.  They  were  after- 
wards deposited  in  the  temple  of  Peace ;  and,  at  the 
end  of  four  hundred  years,  the  spoils  of  Jerusalem 
were  transferred  to  Carthage,  by  a  barbarian  who 
derived  his  origin  from  the  shores  of  the  Baltic.  It 
was  difficult  either  to  escape  or  to  satisfy  the  avarice 
of  a  conqueror,  who  possessed  leisure  to  collect,  and 
ships  to  transport,  the  wealth  of  the  capital.  The 
imperial  ornaments  of  the  palace,  the  magnificent 
furniture  and  wardrobe,  the  sideboards  of  massy  plate, 
were  accumulated  with  disorderly  rapine ;  the  gold 
and  silver  amounted  to  several  thousand  talents ;  yet 
even  the  brass  and  copper  were  laboriously  removed. 
The  empress  was  rudely  stripped  of  her  jewels,  and, 
with  her  two  daughters,  the  only  surviving  remains 
of  the  great  Theodosius,  was  compelled,  as  a  captive, 
to  follow  the  haughty  Vandal;  who  immediately 
hoisted  sail,  and  returned,  with  a  prosperous  naviga- 
tion, to  the  port  of  Carthage.  Many  thousand 
Romans  of  both  sexes,  chosen  for  some  useful  or 
agreeable  qualifications,  reluctantly  embarked  on 
board  the  fleet  of  Genseric  ;  and  their  distress  was 
aggravated  by  the  unfeeling  barbarian,  who,  in  the 
division  of  the  booty,  separated  the  wives  from  their 
husbands,  and  the  children  from  their  parents. 

The  consequences  of  this  Vandal  invasion,  to  the 
public  and  private  buildings,  are  thus  regarded  by 
the  same  authority  (Gibbon)  : — "  The  spectator,  who 
casts  a  mournful  view  over  the  ruins  of  ancient  Rome, 
is  tempted  to  accuse  the  memory  of  the  Goths  and 
Vandals,  for  the  mischief  which  they  had  neither  the 
leisure,  nor  power,  nor  perhaps  the  inclination,  to 
perpetrate.  The  tempests  of  war  might  strike  some 
lofty  turrets  to  the  ground  ;  but  the  destruction  which 
undermined  the  foundations  of  those  massy  fabrics, 
was  prosecuted,  slowly  and  silently,  during  a  period 


of  ten  centuries.  The  decay  of  the  city  had  gradu- 
ally impaired  the  value  of  the  public  works.  The 
circus  and  theatres  might  still  excite,  but  they  sel- 
dom gratified,  the  desires  of  the  people ;  the  temples, 
which  had  escaped  the  zeal  of  the  Christians,  were 
no  longer  inhabited,  either  by  gods  or  men ;  the 
diminished  crowds  of  the  Romans  were  lost  in  the 
immense  space  of  their  baths  and  porticoes  ;  and  the 
stately  libraries  and  halls  of  justice  became  useless 
to  an  indolent  generation,  whose  repose  was  seldom 
disturbed,  either  by  study  or  business.  The  monu- 
ments of  consular  or  imperial  greatness  were  no 
longer  revered  as  the  immortal  glory  of  the  capital; 
they  were  only  esteemed  as  an  inexhaustible  mine  of 
materials,  cheaper  and  more  convenient  than  the  dis- 
tant quarry.  Specious  petitions  were  addressed  to 
the  easy  magistrates  of  Rome,  which  stated  the  want 
of  bricks  or  stones  for  some  necessary  service ;  the 
fairest  forms  of  architecture  wrere  rudely  defaced  for 
the  sake  of  some  paltry  or  pretended  repairs ;  and  the 
degenerate  Romans,  who  converted  the  spoil  to  their 
own  emolument,  demolished,  with  sacrilegious  hands, 
the  labours  of  their  ancestors.  " 

In  472  the  city  was  sacked  by  Ricimer,  who 
enjoyed  power  under  cover  of  the  name  of  the 
Emperor  Libius  Severus.  His  victorious  troops, 
breaking  down  every  barrier,  rushed  with  irresistible 
violence  into  the  heart  of  the  city,  and  Rome  was 
subverted.  The  unfortunate  emperor  (Anthemius) 
was  dragged  from  his  concealment,  and  inhumanly 
massacred  by  the  command  of  Ricimer  his  son-in- 
law  ;  who  thus  added  a  third,  or  perhaps  a  fourth, 
emperor  to  the  number  of  his  victims.  The  soldiers, 
who  united  the  rage  of  factious  citizens  with  the 
savage  manners  of  barbarians,  were  indulged,  with- 
out control,  in  the  licence  of  rapine  and  murder  ;  the 
crowd  of  slaves  and  plebeians,  who  were  unconcerned 


in  the  event,  could  only  gain  by  the  indiscriminate 

pillage  ;  and  the  face  of  the  city  exhibited  the 
strange  contrast  of  stern  cruelty  and  dissolute  in- 
temperance. The  sack  of  Rome  by  Ricimer  is  gene- 
rally overlooked  by  the  apologists  of  the  early 
invaders  ;  but  it  must  not  be  forgotten,  that  they 
were  indulged  in  the  plunder  of  all  but  two  regions 
of  the  city. 

To  Vitiges  (about  A.I>.  540)  must  be  ascribed  the 
destruction  of  the  aqueducts,  which  rendered  the 
thermae  useless ;  and  as  these  appear  never  to  have 
been  frequented  afterwards,  their  dilapidation  must 
be  partially,  but  only  partially,  ascribed  to  the 

Vitiges  burned  every  thing  without  the  walls,  and 
commenced  the  desolation  of  the  Campagna. 

The  last  emperor  of  Rome  was  Augustulus. 
Odoacer,  king  of  the  Heruli,  entered  Italy  with  a 
vast  multitude  of  barbarians,  and  having  ravaged  it, 

.  -t 

at  length  approached  Rome  itself.  The  city  made 
no  resistance ;  he  therefore  deposed  Augustulus,  and 
took  the  dignity  of  empire  on  himself.  From  this 
period  the  Romans  lost  all  command  in  Italy. 

A.  D.  479.  Five  centuries  elapsed  from  the  age 
of  Trajan  and  the  Antonines,  to  the  total  extinction 
of  the  Roman  empire  in  the  west.  At  that  unhappy 
period,  the  Saxons  fiercely  struggled  with  the  natives 
for  the  possession  of  Britain.  Gaul  and  Spain  were 
divided  between  the  powerful  monarchies  of  the 
Franks  and  Visigoths  ;  and  the  dependent  kingdoms 
of  the  Suevi  and  Burgundians  in  Africa  were  ex- 
posed to  the  cruel  persecution  of  the  Vandals,  and 
the  savage  insults  of  the  Moors.  Rome  and  Italy, 
as  far  as  the  banks  of  the  Danube,  were  afflicted  by 
an  army  of  barbarian  mercenaries,  whose  lawless 
tyranny  was  succeeded  by  the  reign  of  Theodoric, 
the  Ostrogoth.  All  the  subjects  of  the  empire,  who, 


by  the  use  of  the  Latin  langiiage,  more  partictilarly 
rleserved  the  name  and  privileges  of  Romans,  were 
oppressed  by  the  disgrace  and  calamities  of  foreign 
conquest ;  and  the  victorious  nations  of  Germany 
established  a  new  system  of  manners  and  government 
in  the  western  countries  of  Europe. 

That  Home,  however,  did  not  always  suffer  from 
the  Goths,  is  evident  from  a  passage  in  one  of  the 
letters  written  by  Cassiodorus,  at  one  time  minister 
to  Theodoric  : — "  The  care  of  the  Roman  city  is  a 
subject  to  which  our  thoughts  are  ever  awake.  For 
•what  is  there  which  it  behoves  us  to  provide  for,  more 
worthy  than  the  keeping  up  the  repair  of  a  city 
which,  it  is  evident,  contains  the  ornaments  of  our 
republic  ?  therefore,  let  your  illustrious  highness 
know,  that  we  have  appointed  a  notable  person,  on 
account  of  its  splendid  Cloaca?,  which  are  productive 
of  so  much  astonishment  to  beholders,  that  they  may 
well  be  said  to  surpass  the  wonders  of  other  cities. 
There  thou  mayest  see  flowing  rivers,  inclosed,  as  it 
wore,  in  hollow  mountains.  There  thou  mayest  see 
the  rapid  waters  navigated  by  vessels,  not  without 
some  anxiety  lest  they  should  suffer  shipwreck  in  the 
precipitate  torrent.  Hence,  O  matchless  Rome !  it 
may  be  inferred  what  greatness  is  in  thee.  For  what 
city  may  dare  to  contend  with  thy  lofty  superstruc- 
tures, when  even  thy  lowest  recesses  can  find  no 
parallel  ?" 

In  546,  Rome  was  besieged  by  Totila  the  Goth. 
Having  reduced,  by  force  or  treaty,  the  towns  of 
inferior  note  in  the  midland  provinces  of  Italy, 
Totila  proceeded  to  besiege  Rome.  He  took  it 
December  17th  of  the  same  year.  On  the  loss  of 
the  city,  several  persons, — some  say  five  hundred, 
— took  refuge  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter.  As 
soon  as  the  daylight  had  displayed  the  victory  of 


the  Goths,  their  monarch  visited  the  tomb  of  the 
prince  of  the  apostles  ;  but  while  he  prayed  at  the 
altar,  twenty-five  soldiers  and  sixty  citizens  were  put 
to  the  sword  in  the  vestibule  of  the  temple.  The 
arch-deacon  Pelagius  stood  before  him  with  the 
gospels  in  his  hand. — "  O  Lord,  be  merciful  to  your 
servant."  "  Pelagius,"  said  Totila,  with  an  insulting 
smile,  "  your  pride  now  condescends  to  become  a 
suppliant."  "  I  am  a  suppliant,"  replied  the  prudent 
arch-deacon;  "  God  has  now  made  us  your  subjects, 
and,  as  your  subjects,  we  are  entitled  to  your  cle- 
mency." At  his  humble  prayer,  the  lives  of  the 
Romans  were  spared;  and  the  chastity  of  the  maids 
and  matrons  was  preserved  inviolate  from  the  pas- 
sions of  the  hungry  soldiers.  But  they  were  re- 
warded by  the  freedom  of  pillage.  The  houses  of 
the  senators  were  plentifully  stored  with  gold  and 
silver.  The  sons  and  daughters  of  Roman  consuls 
tasted  the  misery  which  they  had  spurned  or  relieved, 
wandered  in  tattered  garments  through  the  streets 
of  the  city,  and  begged  their  bread  before  the  gates 
of  their  hereditary  mansions. 

Against  the  city  he  appeared  inexorable.  One 
third  of  the  walls  was  demolished  by  his  command  ; 
fire  and  engines  prepared  to  consume  or  subvert  the 
most  stately  works  of  antiquity  ;  and  the  world  was 
astonished  by  the  fatal  decree,  that  Rome  should  be 
changed  into  "  a  pasture  for  cattle!"  Belisarius,  hear- 
ing of  this,  wrote  him  a  letter,  in  which  he  observed, 
"  That  if  Totila  conquered,  he  ought,  for  his  own 
sake,  to  preserve  a  city,  which  would  then  be  his 
own  by  right  of  conquest,  and  would,  at  the  same 
time,  be  the  most  beautiful  city  in  his  dominions. 
That  it  would  be  his  own  loss,  if  he  destroyed  it, 
and  redound  to  his  utter  dishonour.  For  Rome, 
having  been  raised  to  so  great  a  grandeur  and  ma- 


jesty  by  the  virtue  and  industry  of  former  ages, 
posterity  would  consider  him  as  a  common  enemy  of 
mankind,  in  depriving  them  of  an  example  and  living 
representation  of  their  ancestors." 

In  consequence  of  this  letter,  Totila  permitting 
his  resolution  to  be  diverted,  signified  to  the  ambas- 
sadors of  Belisarius,  that  he  should  spare  the  city  ; 
and  he  stationed  his  army  at  the  distance  of  one 
hundred  and  twenty  furlongs,  to  observe  the  motions 
of  the  Roman  general.  With  the  remainder  of  his 
forces,  he  occupied,  on  the  summit  of  Gargarus,  one 
of  the  camps  of  Hannibal.  The  senators  were  dragged 
in  his  train,  and  afterwards  confined  in  the  fortresses 
of  Campagna.  The  citizens,  with  their  wives  and 
children,  were  dispersed  in  exile  ;  and,  during  forty 
days,  Rome  was  abandoned  to  desolate  and  dreary 

Totila  is  known  to  have  destroyed  a  third  part 
of  the  walls  ;  and  although  he  desisted  from  his  me- 
ditated destruction  of  every  monument,  the  extent 
of  the  injury  inflicted  by  that  conqueror  may  have 
been  greater  than  is  usually  supposed.  Procopius 
affirms,  that  he  did  burn  "  not  a  small  portion  of 
the  city,"  especially  beyond  the  Tiber.  One  of  the 
authors  of  the  Chronicles  records  a  fire,  and  the 
total  abandonment  of  the  city  for  more  than  forty 
days ;  and  it  must  be  mentioned,  that  there  is  no 
certain  trace  of  the  palace  of  the  Cassars  having 
survived  the  irruption  of  Totila. 

With  Totila,  the  dilapidation  of  Rome  by  the 
barbarians  is  generally  allowed  to  terminate. 

The  incursion  of  the  Lombards  in  578  and  593 
completed  the  desolation  of  the  Campagna  ;  but  did 
not  affect  the  city  itself. 

Their  king  Luitprand  (in  741)  has  been  absolved 
from  a  supposed  violence  ;  but  Astolphus  (in  754) 
did  assault  the  city  violently  ;  and  whatever  struc- 


turcs  were  near  the  walls  must  be  supposed  to  have 
suffered  from  the  attack. 

From  that  period,  Rome  was  not  forcibly  entered, 
that  is  not  after  a  siege,  until  the  fall  of  the  Carlo- 
vingian  race,  when  it  was  defended  in  the  name  of 
the  emperor  Lambert ;  and  assaulted  and  taken  by 
barbarians,  commanded  by  Arnulphus,  son  of  Carlo- 
man  of  Bavaria  (A.  D.  896). 

It  would  exceed  our  limits  were  we  to  enter  into 
a  detail  of  the  various  causes,  which  were  so  long  at 
work  in  effecting  the  ruin  of  the  ancient  monuments 
of  Rome.  If  we  except  the  Pantheon,  the  ancient 
remains  have  been  so  mutilated  and  destroyed,  that 
even  the  name  is,  in  many  cases,  doubtful.  If  a  per- 
son, says  Dr.  Burton,  expects  to  find  at  Rome  such 
magnificent  remains,  as  he  has  read  of  in  Athens,  he 
will  be  grievously  disappointed.  It  is  highly  neces- 
sary to  know,  that  whatever  exists  at  Rome  as  a 
monument  of  ancient  times' has  suffered  from  various 

Gibbon  states  four  causes  of  decay  : — The  injuries 
of  time  and  nature ;  the  hostile  attacks  of  the  bar- 
barians and  christians ;  the  use  and  abuse  of  the 
materials  ;  and  the  domestic  quarrels  of  the  Romans. 
There  is  great  truth  in  Pope's  remark — 

Some  felt  the  silent  strokes  of  mouldering  age  ; 
Some  hostile  fury  ;  some  religious  rage  ; 
Barbarian  blindness,  Christian  zeal  conspire, 
And  Papal  piety,  and  Gothic  fire. 

The  injuries  done  by  the  Christian  clergy  to  the 
architectural  beauty  of  Rome,  may  be  divided  into 
two  kinds :  those,  which  were  commanded,  or  con- 
nived at,  by  the  Romans,  for  useful  repairs  or  con- 
structions; and  those,  which  were  encouraged  or 
permitted  from  motives  of  fanaticism. 

In  the  year  426,  during  the  reign  of  Theodosius 
the  Younger,  there  was  a  great  destruction  of  the 


temples  and  fanes.  "  The  destruction  of  the  idol- 
atrous fanes,"  says  an  ecclesiastical  writer,  "  was 
from  the  foundation  ;  and  so  complete,  that  we  cannot 
perceive  a  vestige  of  the  former  superstition.  Their 
temples  are  so  destroyed,  that  the  appearance  of  their 
form  no  longer  remains;  nor  can  those  of  our  times 
recognise  the  shape  of  their  altars.  As  for  their 
materials,  they  are  dedicated  to  the  fanes  of  the 
martyrs.  Temples  are  not  found  among  the  wonders 
admired  by  Theodoric,  except  the  half-stripped 
Capitoline  fane  is  to  be  enumerated;  and  Procopius 
confines  his  notices  to  the  Temple  of  Peace,  and  to 
the  Temple  of  Janus.  In  the  reign  of  Justinian,  the 
temples  were  partly  in  private  hands,  and,  therefore, 
not  universally  protected  as  public  edifices.  Pagan 
structures  would  naturally  suffer  more  at  the  first 
triumph  of  Christianity  than  afterwards,  when  the 
rage  and  the  merit  of  destruction  must  have  dimi- 
nished. It  is  not  then  rasli  to  believe,  that  many 
temples  were  destroyed  or  despoiled,  and  the  mate- 
rials employed  to  the  honour  of  the  new  religion. 
Du  Barga  asserts  that  there  were  marks  on  the 
obelisks  of  their  having  been  all  overthrown,  with 
the  exception  of  one,  which  was  not  dedicated  to  any 
of  the  false  gods  of  antiquity." 

The  destruction  of  the  baths  are  attributed  to  the 
same  piety,  and  those  of  Diocletian  and  Caracalla 
showed,  in  the  eighth  century,  evident  marks  of 
human  violence.  Pope  Gregory  III.  employed  nine 
columns  of  some  ancient  building  for  the  church  of  St. 
Peter.  The  rebuilding  of  the  city  walls  by  four  popes, 
in  the  same  century,  was  a  useful  but  a  destructive 
operation.  Pope  Hadrian  I.  threw  down  an  im- 
mense structure  of  Tiburtine  stone  to  enlarge  the 
church  of  St.  Maria  in  Cosmedin.  Bonus  I.  had  be- 
fore (A.  D.  676)  stripped  the  marble  from  a  large 
pyramid,  generally  known  by  the  name  of  Scipio's 


Tomb.  Paul  II.  employed  the  stones  of  the  Coli- 
seum to  build  a  palace.  Sixtus  IV.  took  down  the 
Temple  of  Hercules,  and  destroyed  the  remains  of  an 
ancient  bridge  to  make  four  hundred  cannon-balls  for 
the  castle  of  St.  Angelo.  Paul  III.  and  his  nephews 
laboured  incessantly  at  the  quarry  of  the  Coliseum. 
He  devastated,  also,  many  other  buildings.  Sixtus 
V.  threw  down  several  statues  still  remaining  in  the 
capital.  Urban  VIII.  took  off  the  bronze  from  the 
portico  of  the  Pantheon,  and  some  of  the  base  of  the 
sepulchre  of  Cecilia  Metella;  and  Paul  V.  removed 
the  entablature  and  pediment  of  a  structure  in  the 
Forum  of  Nerva,  and  also  the  remaining  column  of 
the  Temple  of  Peace.  Lastly,  Alexander  VII. 
took  down  the  arch  called  "  di  Portogallo,"  in  order 
to  widen  the  Corso.  The  inferior  clergy,  too,  were 
great  depredators ;  insomuch  that  a  volume  of  no 
inconsiderable  size  has  been  composed  by  one  of  their 
own  order  to  enumerate  the  Pagan  materials  applied 
to  the  use  of  the  church. 

It  is  difficult  to  say  where  this  system  of  depre- 
dation would  have  stopped,  had  not  Benedict  XIV. 
erected  a  cross  in  the  centre  of  the  arena,  and  declared 
the  place  sacred,  out  of  respect  to  the  blood  of  the 
many  martyrs  who  had  been  butchered  there  during 
the  persecution.  This  declaration,  if  issued  two  or 
three  centuries  before,  would  have  preserved  the 
Coliseum  entire;  it  can  now  only  protect  its  re- 
mains, and  transmit  them  in  their  present  state  to 

Conflagrations,  also,  contributed  to  the  destruction 
of  the  city.  In  312  the  temple  of  Fortuna  was 
burned  down.  The  palaces  of  Symmachus  and  Lam- 
padius,  with  the  baths  of  Constantine,  suffered  by 
the  same  cause. 

Nor  must  the  destruction  be  confined  to  one  ele- 
ment. The  Tiber  rose,  not  unfrequently,  to  the  walls, 


and  many  inundations  arc  recorded.  Indeed,  even 
so  early  as  the  second  siege  of  the  city  by  Totila, 
there  was  so  much  uncultivated  land  within  the 
walls,  that  Diogenes,  the  governor,  thought  the 
corn,  he  had  sown,  would  be  sufficient  to  supply 
the  garrison  and  citizens  in  a  protracted  defence. 

It  is  impossible  to  assign  a  precise  date  to  the 
total  destruction  of  the  greater  portion  of  the  ancient 
site;  but  the  calamities  of  the  seventh  and  eighth 
centuries  must  have  contributed  to,  if  they  did  not 
complete,  the  change.  A  scarcity  in  the  year  604, 
a  violent  earthquake  a  few  years  afterwards,  a 
pestilence  in  or  about  the  year  678,  five  great  inun- 
dations of  the  Tiber  from  680  to  797,  a  second 
famine  in  the  pontificate  of  Pope  Constantino,  which 
lasted  thirty-six  months,  a  pestilence  in  the  last 
year  of  the  seventh  century,  and  the  assault  of  the 
Lombards  for  three  months  in  755; — these  are  the 
events  which  compose  the  Roman  history  of  this 
unhappy  period. 

Added  to  all  this,  the  importance  of  the  new 
city  accelerated  the  ruin  of  the  old;  and  great 
was  the  destruction  during  the  periods  in  which 
separate  parties  fought  their  battles  in  the  public 
streets,  after  the  restoration  of  the  empire  of  the 
West;  in  which  we  must  record  the  ruin,  caused  by 
Robert  Guiscard,  which  proved  more  injurious  to 
the  remains  of  Rome,  from  1082  to  1084,  than  all 
the  preceding  barbarians  of  every  age:  for  the 
Normans  and  Saracens  of  his  army,  with  the  papal 
faction,  burned  the  town  from  the  Flaminian 
gate  to  the  Antonine  column,  and  laid  waste  the 
sides  of  the  Esquiline  to  the  Lateran;  thence  he  set 
fire  to  the  region  from  that  church  to  the  Coliseum 
and  the  Capitol.  He  attacked  the  Coliseum  for 
several  days,  and  finished  the  ruin  of  the  Capitol. 

A  cotemporary  writer  says,  that  all  the  regions  of 


the  city  were  ruined;  and  another  spectator,  who 
was  in  Rome  twelve  years  afterwards,  laments  that 
although  what  remained  could  not  be  equalled — 
what  was  ruined,  could  never  be  repaired. 

Thou  stranger  which  for  Rome  in  Rome  here  seckest, 
And  nought  of  Rome  in  Rome  perceiv'st  at  all, 
These  same  old  walls,  old  arches,  which  thou  seest, 
Old  palaces,  is  that  which  Rome  men  call. 

Behold  what  wreck,  what  ruin,  and  what  waste, 
And  how  that  she  which  with  her  mighty  power 
Tamed  all  the  world,  hath  tamed  herself  at  last, 
The  prey  of  Time,  which  all  things  doth  devour. 

Rome  now  of  Kome  is  the  only  funerall, 
And  only  Rome,  of  Rome  hath  victory  ; 
Ne  ought  save  Tyher,  hastening  to  his  fall 
Remains  of  all  :  O  World's  inconstancy  ! 

That  which  is  firm,  doth  flit  and  fall  away  ; 

And  that  is  flitting,  doth  abide  and  stay. 

SPENSER'S  Ruins  of  Rome. 

In  the  annals  for  1 167,  we  find  that  the  Germans 
Barbarossa  assaulted  the  Vatican  for  a  week,  and  that 
the  Pope  saved  himself  in  the  Capitol.  The  Colonna 
were  driven  from  the  mausoleum  of  Augustus.  After 
the  Popes  had  begun  to  yield  in  the  unequal  contest 
with  the  senators  and  people,  and  had  ceased  to  be 
constantly  in  the  capital,  the  field  was  left  open  for 
the  wars  of  the  senators  ;  that  is,  of  the  nobles  them- 
selves. The  Colonna  and  Ursini  then  appear  among 
the  destroyers  of  the  city.  In  1291,  a  civil  war 
occurred,  which  lasted  six  months ;  the  issue  of  which 
was,  according  to  a  spectator,  that  Rome  was  reduced 
to  the  condition  of  a  town  "  besieged,  bombarded  and 

At  the  period  in  which  Henry  VII.  was  crowned 
Emperor,  battles  were  fought  in  every  quarter  of  tha 
city.  The  fall  of  houses,  indeed,  the  fire,  theslaugh- 
ter,  the  ringing  of  the  bells  from  the  churches,  the 
shouts  of  the  combatants,  and  the  clanging  of  arms, 
the  Roman  people  rushing  from  all  quarters  towards 


the  Capitol ;  this  universal  uproar  attended  the 
coronation  of  the  new  Caesar,  and  the  Cardinals  ap- 
prehended the  total  destruction  of  the  city. 

The  absence  of  the  Popes,  also,  from  the  year 
1360  to  137(5,  lias  been  esteemed  peculiarly  cala- 
mitous to  the  ancient  fabrics.  Petrarch  was  over- 
whelmed with  regret.  He  complained  that  the 
ruins  were  in  danger  of  perishing ;  that  the  nobles 
were  the  rivals  of  time  and  the  ancient  Bar- 
barians ;  and  that  the  columns  and  precious  mar- 
bles of  Rome  were  devoted  to  the  decoration  of 
the  slothful  metropolis  of  their  Neapolitan  rivals. 
Yet,  it  appears  that  these  columns  and  marbles 
were  taken  from  palaces  comparatively  modern, 
from  the  thresholds  of  churches,  from  the  shrines 
of  sepulchres,  from  structures  to  which  they  had 
been  conveyed  from  their  original  state,  and  finally; 
from  ruins  actually  fallen.  The  solid  masses  of 
antiquity  are  not  said  to  have  suffered  from  this  spolia- 
tion ;  and  the  edifices,  whose  impending  ruin  affected 
Petrarch,  were  the  sacred  basilicas,  then  converted 
into  fortresses. 

The  great  earthquake  of  1349  operated,  also,  in  a 
very  destructive  manner;  several  ancient  ornaments 
being  thrown  down  ;  and  an  inundation  of  the  Tiber 
is  recorded  among  the  afflictions  of  the  times.  The 
summits  of  the  hills  alone  were  above  the  water ; 
and  the  lower  grounds  were  for  eight  days  converted 
into  a  lake. 

The  return  of  the  Popes  was  the  signal  of  renewed 
violence.  The  Colonna  and  Ursini,  the  people  and 
the  church,  fought  for  the  Capitol  and  towers  ;  and 
the  forces  of  the  Popes  repeatedly  bombarded  the 

During  the  great  schism  of  the  West,  the  hostile 
entries  of  Ladislaus  of  Naples,  and  the  tumultuous 
government  of  the  famous  Perugian,  Braccio  Montone, 


despoiled  the  tomb  of  Hadrian,  and  doubtless  other 
monuments.  Yet  that  violence  is  supposed  to  have 
been  less  pernicious  than  the  peaceful  spoliation 
which  succeeded  the  extinction  of  the  schism  of 
Martin  V,  in  1417  ;  and  the  suppression  of  the  last 
revolt  of  the  Romans  by  his  successor  Eugenius  IV, 
in  1434  :  for  from  that  epoch  is  dated  the  consumption 
of  such  marble  or  travertine,  as  might  either  be 
stripped  with  facility  from  the  stone  monuments, 
or  be  found  in  isolated  fragments. 

We  now  give  place  to  a  description  of  what  re- 
mained in  the  time  of  Poggio  Bracciolini.  Besides  a 
bridge,  an  arch,  a  sepulchre,  and  the  pyramid  of 
Cestius,  he  could  discern,  of  the  age  of  the  republic,  1, 
a  double  row  of  vaults,  in  the  salt-office  of  the  Capitol, 
which  were  inscribed  with  the  name  and  munificence 
of  Catullus.  2,  Eleven  temples  were  visible,  in  some 
degree,  from  the  perfect  form  of  the  Pantheon  to  the 
three  arches  and  a  marble  column  of  the  temple  of 
Peace,  which  Vespasian  erected  after  the  civil  wars 
and  the  Jewish  triumph.  3,  Of  the  public  baths, 
none  were  sufficiently  entire  to  represent  the  use  and 
distribution  of  the  several  parts;  but  those  of  Dio- 
cletian and  Caracalla  still  retained  the  titles  of  the 
founders,  and  astonished  the  curious  spectator ;  who, 
in  observing  their  solidity  and  extent,  the  variety  of 
marbles,  the  size  and  multitude  of  the  columns,  com- 
pared the  labour  and  expense  with  the  use  and  the  im- 
portance. Of  the  baths  of  Constantine,  of  Alexander, 
of  Domitian,  or  rather  of  Titus,  some  vestige  might 
yet  be  found.  4,  The  triumphal  arches  of  Titus, 
Severus,  and  Constantine  were  entire,  both  the  struc- 
tures and  the  inscriptions;  a  falling  fragment  was 
honoured  with  the  name  of  Trajan ;  and  two  arches 
were  still  extant  in  the  Flaminian  way.  5,  After  the 
wonder,  of  the  Coliseum,  Poggo  might  have  over- 
looked a  small  amphitheatre  of  brick,  most  probably 


for  the  use  of  the  Praetorian  camp  :  the  theatres  of 
Marcellus  and  Pompey  were  occupied,  in  a  great 
measure,  by  public  and  private  buildings ;  and  in 
the  Circus  Agonalis  and  Maximus,  little  more  than 
the  situation  and  the  form  could  be  investigated. 
6,  The  columns  of  Trajan  and  Antonine  were  still 
erect;  but  the  Egyptian  obelisks  were  broken  or  buried. 
A  people  of  gods  and  heroes,  the  workmanship  of 
art,  was  reduced  to  one  equestrian  figure  of  gilt  brass, 
and  to  five  marble  statues,  of  which  the  most  con- 
spicuous were  the  two  horses  of  Phidias  and  Praxi- 
teles. 7,  The  two  mausoleums  or  sepulchres  of 
Augustus  and  Hadrian  could  not  totally  be  lost  ; 
but  the  former  was  visible  only  as  a  mound  of  earth  ; 
and  the  latter,  the  castle  of  St.  Angelo,  had  acquired 
the  name  and  appearance  of  a  modern  fortress.  With 
the  addition  of  some  separate  and  nameless  columns, 
such  were  the  remains  of  the  ancient  city. 

In  the  intervals  between  the  two  visits  of  Poggio 
to  Rome,  the  cell,  and  part  of  the  Temple  of  Con- 
cord, and  the  base  of  the  tomb  of  Metella,  were 
ground  to  lime;  also  a  portico  near  the  Minerva. 
Poggio's  description  of  the  ruins,  it  may  be  observed, 
is  not  sufficiently  minute  or  correct  to  supply  the 
deficiency  of  his  contemporary  Blondus ;  but  we  may 
distinctly  mark,  that  the  site  of  ancient  Rome  had 
arrived  at  the  desolation  in  which  it  is  seen  at  the 
present  day.  The  Rome  of  the  lower  and  middle 
ages  was  a  mass  of  irregular  lanes,  built  upon  or 
amongst  ruins,  and  surmounted  by  brick  towers, 
many  of  them  on  ancient  basements.  The  streets 
were  so  narrow,  that  two  horsemen  could  ride 
abreast.  Two  hundred  houses,  three  towers,  and 
three  churches,  choked  up  the  forum  of  Trajan.  The 
reformation  of  Sixtus  IV.,  and  the  embellishments  of 
his  successors,  have  obliterated  this  town,  and  that 

VOL.    II.  Q, 


which  is  now  seen  is  a  capital,  which  can  only  date 
from  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century. 

Not  long  before  the  imperialists  carried  Rome,  the 
Colonnas,  in  1526,  sacked  it,  as  it  were;  and  that 
was  followed  by  that  of  the  Abate  di  Farfa,  and  the 
peasantry  of  the  Orsini  family*. 

Rome  was  assaulted  by  the  Bourbon,  May  5, 
1527 ;  and  the  imperialists  left  it  February  1 7, 1528. 

No  sooner  was  the  Bourbon  in  sight  of  Rome,  than 
he  harangued  his  troops,  and  pointed  to  the  end  of 
all  their  sufferings.  Being  destitute  of  artillery,  with 
which  he  might  batter  the  walls,  he  instantly  made 
his  dispositions  for  an  assault ;  and  having  disco- 
vered a  breach,  he  planted,  with  his  own  hands,  a 
ladder  against  the  rampart,  and  prepared  to  mount 
it,  followed  by  his  German  bands.  But,  at  that 
instant,  a  shot,  discharged  from  the  first  arquebuse 
which  was  fired,  terminated  at  once  his  life  and  his 
misfortunes.  Much  fruitless  inquiry  has  been  made 
to  ascertain  the  author  of  his  death,  which  is  com- 
monly attributed  to  a  priest ;  but  Benvenuto  Cellini, 
so  well  known  by  his  extraordinary  adventures  and 
writings,  lays  claim  to  the  merit  of  killing  this  hero. 
By  whatever  hand  he  fell  he  preserved,  even  in  the 
act  of  expiring,  all  his  presence  as  well  as  greatness 
of  mind.  He  no  sooner  felt  himself  wounded,  than 
he  ordered  a  Gascon  captain,  named  Jonas,  to  cover 
him  with  a  cloak,  in  order  to  conceal  his  death,  lest 
it  should  damp  the  courage  of  his  soldiers.  Jonas 
executed  his  commands  with  punctuality.  The  Con- 

*  The  cicerone  said  to  the  king  of  Sweden,  as  that  monarch  was 
looking  over  the  ruins  of  the  Coliseum, — "  Ah,  sire,  what  cursed 
Goths  those  were,  that  tore  away  so  many  fine  tilings  here,  and 
pulled  down  such  magnificent  pillars,  &c."  .  "  Hold,  hold,  friend," 
cried  the  king,  "  what  were  your  Roman  nohles  doing,  I  would  ask, 
when  they  laboured  to  destroy  an  edifice  like  this,  and  build  their 
palaces  with  its  materials  !" 


stable  still  continued  to  breathe  when  the  city  was 
taken.  lie  was,  therefore,  carried  thither,  and  there 
expired,  May  5,  1527,  at  thirty-eight  years  of  age. 

Philipart,  prince  of  Orange,  contrived  to  keep  the 
troops  in  ignorance  of  their  commander's  death,  till 
they  were  masters  of  Rome ;  and  then,  to  render 
them  inaccessible  to  pity,  he  revealed  to  them  the 
fate  of  Bourbon.  No  language  can  express  the  fury 
with  which  they  were  animated  at  this  sad  intelli- 
gence. They  rent  the  air  with  the  cries  of  "  Came, 
carne  !  Sangre,  sangre  !  Bourbon,  Bourbon  !" 

Theimagination  is  Appalled  at  the  bare  recital  of  the 
wanton  outrages  on  human  nature,  which  were  com- 
mitted by  Bourbon's  army,  during  the  time  that  they 
remained  masters  of  Rome.  The  pillage  lasted,  with- 
out any  interruption,  for  two  months. 

Never  had  that  proud  city  suffered  from  her  bar- 
barian conquerors,  in  the  decline  of  the  Roman  empire, 
— from  Alaric,  from  Genseric,  or  from  Odoacer, — the 
same  merciless  treatment  as  she  underwent  from  the 
rage  of  the  imperial  troops  ; — the  subjects,  or  the  sol- 
diers of  a  Catholic  king  !  Rapacity,  lust,  and  impiety, 
were  exhausted  by  these  men.  Roman  ladies  of  the 
noblest  extraction  were  submitted  to  the  basest  and 
vilest  prostitution.  The  sacred  ornaments  of  the 
sacerdotal,  and  even,  of  the  pontifical  dignity,  were 
converted  to  purposes  of  ridicule  and  buffoonery. 
Priests,  nay  even  bishops  and  cardinals,  were  de- 
graded to  the  brutal  passions  of  the  soldiery;  and 
after  having  suffered  every  ignominy  of  blows,  muti- 
lation, and  personal  contumely,  were  massacred  in 
pastime.  Exorbitant  ransoms  were  exacted  re- 
peatedly from  the  same  persons  ;  and  when  they  had 
no  longer  wherewithal  to  purchase  life,  they  were 
butchered  without  mercy.  Nuns,  virgins,  matrons, 
were  publicly  devoted  to  the  infamous  appetites  of 


the  soldiers ;  who  first  violated,  and  then  stabbed, 
the  victims  of  their  pleasures.  The  streets  were 
strewed  with  the  dead  ;  and  it  is  said  that  eight  thou- 
sand young  women,  of  all  ranks  and  conditions,  were 
found  to  be  pregnant  within  five  months  from  the 
sack  of  the  unfortunate  city. 

Three  years  after  the  sack  by  Bourbon,  that  is  in 
1530,  an  inundation  of  the  Tiber  ruined  a  multi- 
tude of  edifices  both  public  and  private,  and  was 
almost  equally  calamitous  with  the  sack  of  Rome. 
Simond,  writing  from  Rome  in  January  1818,  says  : 
"  The  Tiber  has  been  very  high,  and  the  lower 
parts  of  the  town  under  water;  yet  this  is  nothing 
compared  with  the  inundations  recorded  on  two  pil- 
lars at  the  port  of  Ripetta,  a  sort  of  landing-place. 
The  mark  on  one  of  them  is  full  eighteen  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  adjoining  streets ;  and,  considering 
the  rapidity  of  the  stream,  a  great  part  of  the  city 
must  then  have  been  in  imminent  danger  of  being 
swept  away."  In  1819  the  Pantheon  was  flooded  ; 
but  this  is  not  an  uncommon  event,  as  it  stands  near 
the  river,  and  the  drain,  which  should  carry  off  the 
rain-water  that  falls  through  the  aperture  in  the  top, 
communicates  with  the  stream.  The  inundations  of 
the  Tiber,  indeed,  are  one  of  the  causes,  which  com- 
bined to  destroy  so  many  of  the  monuments  of  Rome 
during  the  middle  ages.  There  is  one  recorded  in 
1345,  among  the  afflictions  of  the  times,  when  only 
the  summits  of  the  hills  were  above  the  water,  and 
the  lower  grounds  were  converted  into  a  lake  for  the 
space  of  eight  days.  Several  floods  are  mentioned  by 
the  ancient  writers  ;  and  Tacitus  speaks  of  a  project 
which  was  debated  in  the  senate,  A.D.  15,  for  divert- 
ing some  of  the  streams  running  into  the  Tiber,  but 
which  was  not  carried  into  execution  in  consequence 
of  the  petitions  of  various  towns,  who  sent  deputies 


to  oppose  it ;  partly  on  the  ground  of  their  local 
interests  being  aftected,  and  partly  from  a  feeling  of 
superstition,  which  emboldened  them  to  urge  that 
"  Nature  had  assigned  to  rivers  their  proper  courses," 
and  other  reasons  of  a  similar  nature. 

Aurelian  endeavoured  to  put  an  effectual  stop  to  the 
calamities  which  sprang  from  the  lawless  river,  by 
raising  its  banks  and  clearing  its  channel.  However, 
the  deposits  resulting  from  these  frequent  inundations 
have  contributed  greatly  to  that  vast  accumulation  of 
soil,  which  has  raised  the  surface  of  modern  Rome  so 
many  feet  above  the  ancient  level ;  and  thus  the  evil 
itself  has  occasioned  a  remedy  to  a  partial  extent. 

We  must  now  close  this  portion  of  our  imperfect 
account,  and  proceed  to  give  our  readers  some  idea 
in  respect  to  the  present  condition  of  Rome's  ancient 
remains  ;  gleaned,  for  the  most  part,  from  the  pages 
of  writers  who  have  recently  been  sojourners  in  "  the 
Eternal  City  :"  but  in  doing  this  we  by  no  means 
wish  our  readers  to  expect  the  full  and  minute  parti- 
culars, which  they  may  find  in  works  entirely  dedi- 
cated to  the  subject ;  for  Rome,  even  in  its  anti- 
quities, would  require  a  volume  for  itself. 

When  Poggio  Bracciolini  visited  Rome  in  the 
fifteenth  century,  he  complained  that  nothing  of  old 
Rome  subsisted  entire,  and  that  few  monuments  of 
the  free  city  remained ;  and  many  writers  of  more 
recent  times  have  made  the  same  complaint.  "  The 
artist,"  says  Sir  John  Hobhouse,  "  may  be  compa- 
ratively indifferent  to  the  date  and  history,  and  re- 
gard chiefly  the  architectural  merit  of  a  structure ;  but 
the  Rome  which  the  Florentine  republican  regretted, 
and  which  an  Englishman  would  wish  to  find,  is  not 
that  of  Augustus  and  his  successors,  but  of  those 
greater  and  better  men,  of  whose  heroic  actions  his 
earliest  impressions  are  composed."  To  which,  how- 


ever,  may  be  added  what  Dr.  Burton  questions, 
viz.,  Whether,  in  his  expectations,  the  traveller  may 
not  betray  his  ignorance  of  real  history.  "  The  works 
of  the  Romans,  in  the  early  ages  of  their  nation, 
were  remarkable  for  their  solidity  and  strength ;  but 
there  seems  no  reason  to  suppose  that  much  taste  or 
elegance  was  displayed  in  them.  But  then,  again,  if 
we  wish  to  confine  ourselves  to  the  republic,  there  is 
surely  no  need  of  monuments  of  brick  and  stone  to 
awaken  our  recollections  of  such  a  period.  If  we  must 
have  visible  objects  on  which  to  fix  our  attention,  we 
have  the  ground  itself  on  which  the  Romans  trod  ;  we 
have  the  Seven  Hills  ;  we  have  the  Campus  Martius, 
the  Forum, — all  places  familiar  to  us  from  history,  and 
in  which  we  can  assign  the  precise  spot  where  some 
memorable  action  was  performed.  Those  who  feel 
a  gratification,  by  placing  their  footsteps  where 
Cicero  or  Caesar  did  before  them,  in  the  consciousness 
of  standing  upon  the  same  hill  which  Manlius  de- 
fended, and  in  all  those  associations  which  bring  the 
actors  themselves  upon  the  scene,  may  have  all 
their  enthusiasm  satisfied,  and  need  not  complain 
that  there  are  no  monuments  of  the  time  of  the 

The  remains  of  ancient  Rome  may  be  classed  in 
three  different  periods.  Of  the  first,  the  works  ot 
the  kings,  embracing  a  period  of  two  hundred  and 
forty-four  years,  from  the  foundation  of  the  city  by 
Romulus  to  the  expulsion  of  Tarquin,  very  little 
have  escaped  the  ravages  of  time ;  the  Tullian  walls 
and  prison,  with  the  Cloaca  Maxima,  being  the  only 
identified  remains.  Of  the  works  of  the  republic, 
which  lasted  four  hundred  and  sixty-one  years, 
although  the  city,  during  that  period,  was  more  than 
once  besieged,  burned,  and  sacked,  many  works  are 
yet  extant : — the  military  ways  and  aqueducts,  and 


some  small  temples  and  tombs.  But  it  was  during  the 
third  period,  that  of  the  emperors,  that  Rome  attained 
the  meridian  of  her  glory.  For  three  centuries  all  the 
known  world  was  either  subject  to  her,  or  bound  by 
commercial  treaties  ;  and  the  taste  and  magnificence  of 
the  Romans  were  displayed  in  the  erection  of  temples 
to  the  gods,  triumphal  arches  and  pillars  to  con- 
querors, amphitheatres,  palaces,  and  other  works  of 
ostentation  and  luxury,  for  which  architecture  was 
made  to  exhaust  her  treasures,  and  no  expense  was 
spared  to  decorate. 

Architecture  was  unknown  to  the  Romans  tmtil 
Tarquin  came  down  from  Etruria.  Hence  the  few 
works  of  the  kings,  which  still  remain,  were  built  in 
the  Etruscan  style,  with  large  uncemented,  but  regu- 
lar blocks.  In  the  gardens  of  the  convent  Giovanni 
a  S.  Paolo  is  a  ruin  of  the  Curia  Hostilia,  called 
the  Rostrum  of  Cicero ;  and  some  few  fragments, 
also,  remain  of  a  bridge,  erected  by  Ancus  Martius. 
On  this  bridge  (Pons  Sublicius)  Horatius  Codes  op- 
posed singly  the  army  of  Porsenna ;  and  from  it, 
in  subsequent  times,  the  bodies  of  Commodus  and 
Heliogabalus  were  thrown  into  the  Tiber.  In  the 
pontificate  -of  Nicholas  V.  it  was  destroyed  by  an 
inundation.  There  are  also  the  remains  of  a  large 
brick  edifice,  supposed  to  have  been  the  Curia, 
erected  by  Tullus  Hostilius,  which  was  destroyed  by 
fire  when  the  populace  burned  in  it  the  corpse  of  Clo- 
dius.  Julius  Caesar  commenced  its  restoration ;  and 
Augustus  finished  it,  and  gave  it  the  name  of  Curia 
Julia,  in  honour  of  his  father  by  adoption. 

In  regard  to  the  form  and  size  of  the  city,  we  must 
follow  the  direction  of  the  seven  hills  upon  which  it 
was  built.  1.  Of  these  MONS  PALATINES  has  always 
had  the  preference.  It  was  in  this  place  that  Romu- 
lus laid  the  foundation  of  the  city,  in  a  quad- 


rangular  form ;  and  here  the  same  king  and  Tulhi3 
Hostilius  kept  their  courts,  as  did  Augustus  after- 
wards, and  all  the  succeeding  emperors.  This  hill 
was  in  compass  1200  paces.  2.  MONS  TARPEITJS, 
took  its  name  from  Tarpeia,  a  Roman  virgin,  who  in 
this  place  betrayed  the  city  to  the  Sabines.  It  had 
afterwards  the  denomination  of  Capitolinus,  from  the 
head  of  a  man,  casually  found  here  in  digging  for  the 
foundation  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter.  This  hill  was 
added  to  the  city  by  Titus  Tatius,  king  of  the  Sa- 
bines ;  when,  having  been  first  overcome  in  the  field 
by  Romulus,  he  and  his  subjects  were  permitted  to 
incorporate  with  the  Romans.  3.  MONS  ESQUI- 
LINUS  was  taken  in  by  Servius  Tullius,  who  had  here 
his  royal  seat.  4.  MONS  VIMINALIS  derived  its  name 
from  the  osiers  that  grew  very  plentifully  upon  it. 
This  hill  was  taken  in  by  Servius  Tullus.  5.  MONS 
C<ELIUS  owes  its  name  to  Coelius,  or  Coeles,  a  Tuscan 
general  greatly  celebrated  in  his  time,  who  pitched 
his  tents  here  when  he  came  to  the  assistance  of 
Romulus  against  the  Sabines.  Its  having  been  taken 
into  the  city  is  attributed  to  Tullus  Hostilius,  by 
Livy  and  Dionysius ;  but  by  Strabo,  to  Ancus 
Martius.  6.  COLLIS  QUIRINALIS  was  so  called  from 
the  temple  of  Quirinus,  another  name  of  Romulus ;  or 
from  the  Curetes,  a  people  that  removed  hither  from 
a  Sabine  city,  called  Cures.  It  afterwards  changed 
its  name  to  Caballus,  Mons  Caballi,  and  Caballinus, 
from  the  two  marble  horses,  with  each  a  man  hold- 
ing him,  which  are  set  up  here.  They  are  still 
standing,  and,  if  the  inscription  on  the  pilasters  be 
true,  were  the  work  of  Phidias  and  Praxiteles;  made 
by  those  masters  to  represent  Alexander  and  his 
horse  Bucephalus,  and  sent  to  Nero  as  a  present  by 
Tiridates  king  of  Armenia.  7.  MONS  AVENTINUS 
derived  its  name  from  Aventinus,  an  Alban  king, 


from  the  river  Avens,  or  from  (ab  Avibus)  the  birds, 
that  used  to  flock  there  from  the  Tiber.  Gellius 
affirms,  that  this  hill  was  not  enclosed  within  the 
bounds  of  the  city,  till  the  time  of  Claudius;  but 
Eutropius  expressly  states  that  it  was  taken  into  it 
even  so  early  as  that  of  Ancus  Martius. 

As  to  the  extent  of  the  whole  city,  the  greatest, 
recorded  in  history,  was  in  the  reign  of  Valerian, 
who  enlarged  the  walls  to  such  a  degree,  as  to  sur- 
round a  space  of  fifty  miles.  The  number  of  in- 
habitants, in  its  flourishing  state,  is  computed  by 
Lipsius  at  four  millions.  The  present  extent  of  the 
walls  is  about  thirteen  miles.  Sir  John  Hobhouse 
walked  round  them  in  three  hours,  thirty- three 
minutes  and  three  quarters ;  and  Dr.  Burton  did 
the  same  in  three  hours  and  ten  minutes. 

This  circuit  will  bring  into  view  specimens  of  every 
construction,  from  the  days  of  Servius  Tullius  down 
to  the  present.  Aurelian  took  into  his  walls  whatever 
he  found  standing  in  their  line,  and  they  now  include 
some  remains  of  the  Tullian  walls,  the  walls  of  the 
Praetorian  barracks,  the  facing  of  a  tank,  aqueducts, 
sepulchral  monuments,  a  menagerie,  an  amphitheatre, 
a  pyramid,  &c.  Thus  do  they  exhibit  the  uncemented 
blocks  of  the  Etruscan  style,  the  reticular  work  of 
the  republic,  the  travertine  preferred  by  the  first 
emperors,  the  alternate  tufa  and  bricks  employed  by 
their  successors,  and  that  poverty  of  materials  which 
marks  the  declining  empire.  Since  the  first  breach, 
made  by  Totila,  the  walls  have  been  often  and  vari- 
ously repaired;  sometimes  by  a  case  of  brick- work, 
filled  up  with  shattered  marbles,  rubble,  shard,  and 
mortar.  In  some  parts,  the  cementitious  work  is 
unfaced;  here  you  find  stones  and  tufa  mixed;  there 
tufa  alone,  laid  in  the  Saracenic  manner  :  the  latter  re- 
pairs have  the  brick  revetement  of  modern  fortification. 


The  gates  of  Rome,  at  the  present  day,  are  sixteen 
in  number,  of  which  only  twelve  are  open.  The 
wall  of  Romulus  had  but  three  or  four ;  and  there 
has  been  much  discussion  among  antiquaries,  as  to 
their  position.  That  of  Servius  had  seven  ;  but  in 
the  time  of  Pliny,  (in  the  middle  of  the  first  cen- 
tury) there  were  no  less  than  thirty-seven  gates  to 
the  city.  The  twelve  gates  at  present  in  use  cor-' 
respond  to  some  of  the  principal  gates  of  former 

Modern  Rome,  however,  can  scarcely  be  said  to 
rest  upon  the  ancient  base.  Scarcely  two-thirds  of  the 
space  within  the  walls  are  now  inhabited,  and  the 
most  thickly  peopled  district  is  comprised  within 
what  was  anciently  the  open  plain  of  the  Campus 
Martins.  On  the  other  hand  the  most  populous 
part  of  the  ancient  Rome  is  now  but  a  landscape ; 
it  would  almost  seem,  indeed,  as  if  tlie  city  had 
slipped  off  its  seven  hills  into  the  plain  beneath.  A 
remarkable  change,  too,  has  taken  place  in  the  sur- 
face of  the  site  itself.  In  the  valleys  the  ground  has 
been  raised  not  less  than  fourteen  or  fifteen  feet. 
This  is  strikingly  observable  in  the  Forum,  where 
there  has  been  a  great  rise  above  the  ancient  level, 
owing  partly  to  the  accumulation  of  soil  and  rubbish 
brought  down  by  the  rains ;  bnt  chiefly,  as  there  is 
reason  to  believe,  to  that  occasioned  by  the  demo- 
lition of  ancient  buildings,  and  the  practice  which 
prevailed  of  erecting  new  structures  upon  the  pros- 
trate ruins. 

The  Tiber,  too,  still  remains ;  but  its  present  ap- 
pearance has  been  variously  estimated.  "  The  Tiber," 
says  Dr.  Burton,  "  is  a  stream  of  which  classical 
recollections  are  apt  to  raise  too  favourable  anti- 
cipations. When  we  think  of  the  fleets  of  the  capital 
of  the  world  sailing  up  it,  and  pouring  in  their 


treasures  of  tributary  kingdoms,  we  are  likely  to 
attach  to  it  ideas  of  grandeur  and  magnificence. 
But  if  we  come  to  the  Tiber  with  such  expectations, 
our  disappointment  will  be  great." 

Sir  John  Hobhouse  speaks  differently  :  "  Arrived 
at  the  bank  of  the  Tiber,"  he  says,  speaking  of  the 
traveller's  approach  to  Rome  from  the  north,  across 
the  Ponte  Molle,  "  he  does  not  find  the  muddy 
insignificant  streani,  which  the  disappointments  of 
overheated  imaginations  have  described  it ;  but  one 
of  the  finest  rivers  of  Europe,  now  rolling  through 
a  vale  of  gardens,  and  now  sweeping  the  base  of 
swelling  acclivities,  clothed  with  wood,  and  crowned 
with  villas,  and  their  evergreen  shrubberies."  Not- 
withstanding this,  the  Tiber  can  be  by  no  means 
called  a  large  river,  and  it  is  scarcely  navigable  even 
below  Rome,  owing  to  the  frequent  shoals  which 
impede  its  course.  A  steam-boat,  which  plies  be- 
tween the  capital  and  Fiumicino,  a  distance  of  about 
sixteen  miles,  is  generally  five  or  six  hours  in  making 
the  passage.  Ordinary  vessels  are  three  days  in 
making  their  way  up  the  Tiber  to  Rome ;  being 
towed  up  always  by  buffaloes.  The  velocity  of  its 
current  may  be  estimated  from  the  fact,  that  it  de- 
posits its  coarser  gravel  thirty  miles  from  the  city, 
and  its  finer  at  twelve ;  it  hence  pursues  its  course 
to  the  sea,  charged  only  with  a  fine  yellowish  sand, 
imparting  to  its  waters  that  peculiar  colour,  which 
poets  call  golden,  and  travellers  muddy.  Yet  these 
waters  enjoyed,  at  one  time,  a  high  reputation  for 
sweetness  and  salubrious  qualities.  Pope  Paul  the 
Third  invariably  carried  a  supply  of  the  water  of  the 
Tiber  with  him  on  his  longest  journeys  ;  and  his 
predecessor,  Clement  the  Seventh,  was  similarly  pro- 
vided, by  order  of  his  physician,  when  he  repaired 
to  Marseilles,  to  celebrate  the  marriage  of  his  niece, 


Catherine  de  Medici,  with  the  brother  of  the  Dau- 
phin, afterwards  Henry  the  Second  of  France. 

Both  within  and  without  the  walls  of  Rome,  frag- 
ments of  aqueducts  may  be  seen.  Of  these  "  some," 
says  Mr.  Woods,  "  are  of  stone,  others  of  brick- 
work, but  the  former  cannot  be  traced  for  any  conti- 
nuance ;  and  while  two  or  three  are  sometimes  sup- 
ported on  a  range  of  arches,  in  other  places  almost 
every  one  seems  to  have  a  range  to  itself.  It  is 
curious  to  trace  these  repairs,  executed,  perhaps,  fif- 
teen centuries  ago.  The  execution  of  the  brick-work, 
in  most  instances,  or  perhaps  in  all,  shows  them  to 
be  decidedly  prior  to  the  age  of  Constantino ;  and 
the  principal  restorations,  in  all  probability,  took 
place  when  the  upper  water-courses  were  added. 
They  generally  consist  of  brick  arches,  built  within 
the  ancient  stone  ones ;  sometimes  resting  on  the  old 
piers,  but  more  often  carried  down  to  the  ground ; 
and,  in  some  cases,  the  whole  arch  has  been  filled 
up,  or  only  a  mere  door- way  left  at  the  bottom. 
Sometimes  this  internal  work  has  been  wholly,  or 
partially,  destroyed ;  and  sometimes  the  original 
stone- work  has  disappeared,  as  the  owner  of  the 
ground  happened  to  want  bricks,  or  squared  stones. 
In  one  place  the  ancient  piers  have  been  entirely 
buried  in  the  more  recent  brick-work  ;  but  the  brick- 
work has  been  broken,  and  the  original  stone-work 
taken  away  :  presenting  a  very  singular,  and,  at  first 
sight,  wholly  unaccountable  appearance.  In  other 
parts,  the  whole  has  fallen,  apparently  without 
having  had  these  brick  additions;  for  a  range  of 
parallel  mounds  mark  the  situation  of  the  prostrated 

"  I  do  not  know  any  thing  more  striking,"  says 
Simond,  "  than  these  endless  arches  of  Roman  aque- 
ducts, pursuing,  with  great  strides,  their  irregular 


course  over  the  desert.  They  suggest  the  idea  of 
immensity,  of  durability,  of  simplicity,  of  boundless 
power,  reckless  of  cost  and  labour,  all  for  a  useful 
purpose,  and  regardless  of  beauty.  A  river  in  mid- 
air, which  had  been  flowing  on  ceaselessly  for  fifteen 
or  eighteen  hundred,  or  two  thousand  years,  poured 
its  cataracts  in  the  streets  and  public  squares  of  Rome, 
when  she  was  mistress,  and  also  when  she  was  the 
slave  of  nations;  and  quenched  the  thirst  of  Attila, 
and  of  Genseric,  as  it  had  before  quenched  that  of 
Brutus  and  Caesar,  and  as  it  has  since  quenched  that 
of  beggars  and  of  popes.  During  those  ages  of  de- 
solation and  darkness,  when  Rome  had  almost  ceased 
to  be  a  city,  this  artificial  river  ran  to  waste  among 
the  ruins ;  but  now  fills  again  the  numerous  and 
magnificent  fountains  of  the  modern  city.  Only 
three  out  of  eleven  of  these  ancient  aqueduct  ?  remain 
entire,  and  in  a  state  to  conduct  water  ;  what,  then, 
must  have  been  the  profusion  of  water  to  ancient 
Rome  ?  " 

The  Tarpeian  rock  still  exists  ;  but  has  little  in  its 
appearance  to  gratify  the  associations  of  a  classic  tra- 
veller. Seneca  describes  it  as  it  existed  in  his  time 
thus: — "A  lofty  and  precipitous  mass  rises  up,  rugged 
with  many  rocks,  which  either  bruise  the  body  to 
death,  or  hurry  one  down  still  more  violently.  The 
points  projecting  from  the  sides,  and  the  gloomy 
prospect  of  its  vast  height,  are  truly  horrid.  This 
place  is  chosen  in  particular,  that  the  criminals  may 
not  require  to  be  thrown  down  more  than  once." 

Poggio  Bracciolini  gives  a  melancholy  picture  of 
what,  in  his  time,  was  the  state  of  this  celebrated 
rock.  "  This  Tarpeian  rock  was  a  savage  and  soli- 
tary thicket.  In  the  time  of  the  poet  it  was  covered 
with  the  golden  roofs  of  a  temple ;  the  temple  is  over- 
thrown, the  gold  has  been  pillaged,  the  wheel  of 
fortune  has  accomplished  her  revolution,  and  the 


sacred  ground  is  again  disfigured  with  thorns  and 
brambles.  The  hill  of  the  Capitol,  on  which  we  sit, 
was  formerly  the  head  of  the  Roman  empire,  the 
citadel  of  the  earth,  the  terror  of  kings  ;  illustrated 
by  the  footsteps  of  so  ma  iy  triumphs,  enriched  with 
the  spoils  and  attributes  of  so  many  nations.  This 
spectacle  of  the  world,  how  is  it  fallen  !  how  changed! 
how  defaced !  The  path  of  victory  is  obliterated 
by  vines,  and  the  benches  of  the  senators  are  con- 
cealed by  a  dunghill." 

"  Like  the  modern  Tiber,  the  modern  Tarpeian," 
says  an  elegant  traveller,  "  is  little  able  to  bear  the 
weight  of  its  ancient  reputation."  "  The  only  preci- 
pice that  remains,"  says  another  traveller  (Mathews) 
"  is  one  about  thirty  feet  from  the  point  of  a  wall, 
where  you  might  leap  down  on  the  dung,  mixed  in 
the  fold  below,  without  any  fear  of  breaking  your 

The  Aqueducts  were,  beyond  all  question,  some 
of  the  noblest  designs  of  the  Romans.  Frontinus,  a 
Roman  author,  and  a  person  of  consular  dignity,  who 
compiled  a  treatise  on  this  subject,  affirms  them  to 
be  the  clearest  token  of  the  grandeur  of  the  empire. 
The  first  invention  of  them  is  attributed  to  Appius 
Claudius,  A.  u.  c.  441 ,  who  brought  water  into  the  city 
by  a  channel  eleven  miles  in  length.  But  this  was  very 
inconsiderable  compared  to  those  that  were  afterwards 
carried  on  by  the  emperors  and  other  persons ;  several 
of  which  were  cut  through  the  mountains,  and  all 
other  impediments,  for  above  forty  miles  together  ; 
and  of  such  height,  that  a  man  on  horseback,  as  Pro- 
copius  informs  us,  might  ride  through  them  without 
the  least  difficulty.  This,  however,  is  meant  only  of 
the  constant  course  of  the  channel ;  for  the  vaults  and 
arches  were,  in  some  places,  109  feet  high. 

Procopius  makes  the  Aqueducts  only  fourteen  ; 
but  Aurelius  Victor  has  enlarged  the  number  to 


twenty.  The  Claudian  Aqueduct  conveyed  800,000 
tons  of  water  each  day  into  the  city. 

The  Forums  of  Rome  were  of  two  kinds ;  one  a 
place  of  popular  assembly,  both  for  business,  and 
pleasure ;  serving  at  once  the  purposes  of  what  we 
call  an  Exchange,  certain  courts  of  justice,  and  of 
hustings  for  the  election  of  public  functionaries  :  the 
other  consisted  of  market-places.  The  chief  forum 
was  emphatically  called  the  Roman,  or  the  Great 

The  second  forum,  built  in  Rome,  was  erected  by 
Julius  Csesar.  The  third  was  called  sometimes  the 
Augustan,  from  its  having  been  formed  by  Augustus  ; 
and  sometimes  the  Forum  of  Mars  from  the  temple 
of  that  god,  erected  by  him.  Some  remains  are  still 
in  existence.  The  fourth  forum  was  begun  by  Domi- 
tian,  but  being  finished  by  Nerva,  it  was  called  after 
his  name.  A  fifth  forum  was  built  by  the  emperor 
Trajan ;  said  to  have  been  the  most  celebrated  work 
of  the  kind  in  the  city.  It  was  built  with  the 
spoils  he  had  taken  in  his  wars.  The  roof  was  of 

Ammianus  Marcellinus,  in  his  description  of  Con- 
stantino's triumphal  entrance  into  Rome,  when  he  has 
brought  him,  with  no  ordinary  admiration,  by  the 
Baths,  the  Pantheon,  the  Capitol,  and  other  noble 
structures,  as  soon  as  ever  he  gives  him  a  sight  of  the 
Forum  of  Trajan,  he  puts  him  into  an  ecstacy,  and 
cannot  forbear  making  a  harangue  upon  the  matter. 
We  meet  in  the  same  place  with  a  very  smart  rer 
partee,  which  Constantino  received  at  the  time  from 
Ormisdas,  a  Persian  prince.  The  emperor,  as  he 
greatly  admired  everything  belonging  to  this  noble 
pile,  so  he  had  a  particular  fancy  for  the  statue 
of  Trajan's  horse,  which  stood  on  the  top  of  it, 
and  .expressed  his  desire  of  doinw  as  much  for 
his  own  beast.  "  Pray,  sir,"  says  the  prince,  "  before 


you  talk  of  getting  such  a  horse,  will  you  be  pleased 
to  build  such  a  stable  to  put  him  in  ?" 

Besides  these  there  was  another.  This  was  situ- 
ated not  in  the  city,  but  in  its  neighbourhood.  It 
was  called  the  Forum  Populi,  which  is  frequently 
mentioned  in  the  history  of  the  republic  ;  and  which 
interests  us  as  being  the  popular  and  commercial 
resort  of  a  free  people.  At  stated  periods,  the  Ro- 
mans, and  their  friends  and  allies,  used  to  meet  at 
that  spot,  and  celebrate  the  Latinos  Feriee ;  on  which 
many  holidays  and  religious  ceremonies  were  accom- 
panied by  renewals  of  treaties  of  amity,  by  the  inter- 
change of  commodities,  and  by  manly  sports  and 
pastimes.  While  the  Roman  citizens  came  from 
the  Tiber,  the  free  confederates  descended  from  their 
mountains,  or  wended  their  way  from  the  fertile 
plains  beyond  the  river.  Sir  William  Gell  thinks 
he  can  fix  this  interesting  spot.  The  habitations 
around  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Latialis,  on  Mont 
Albano,  are  supposed  to  have  constituted  the  village 
called  Forum  Popnli.  It  is  probable  that  the 
meeting  of  the  Latin  confederates  upon  the  moun- 
tain, and  the  fair  held  there,  led  to  its  erection.  Here 
the  consuls  had  a  house  where  they  sometimes 
lodged,  which  Dio  Cassius  (lib.  Hi.)  says  was  struck 
with  lightning. 

We  now  return  to  the  Great  Forum. 

It  was  once, 

And  long  the  centre  of  their  universe, 

The  Forum, — whence  a  mandate,  eagle-winged, 

Went  to  the  ends  of  the  earth.     Let  us  descend 

Slowly.     At  every  step  much  may  be  lost. 

The  very  dust  we  tread  stirs  as  with  life  ; 

And  not  a  breath  hut  from  the  ground  sends  up 

Something  of  human  grandeur. 

We  are  come  : — 

And  now  where  once  the  mightiest  spirits  met 
In  terrible  conflict  ;  this,  while  Rome  was  free, 
The  noblest  theatre  on  this  side  heaven  ! — ROGERS. 


The  Forum*  was  an  entirely  open  space  ;  it  hart 
public  buildings  in  it,  as  well  as  around  it ;  we  even 
read  of  streets  passing  through  it.  The  Curia,  or 
Senate-house,  stood  near  the  foot  of  the  Palatine 
hill,  in  about  the  middle  of  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Forum.  It  was  built  originally  by  Tullus  Hostilius, 
the  third  king  of  Rome  ;  and,  after  having  been  re- 
paired by  Sylla,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  year 
53  B.  c.,  when  the  body  of  Clodius,  who  had  been 
murdered  by  Milo,  was  carried  into  it  by  a  tumul- 
tuous multitude,  and  there  burnt  on  a  funeral  pile, 
formed  of  benches  of  the  senators,  the  tables,  the 
archives,  and  such  other  materials  as  the  place 
afforded.  Sylla's  son  rebuilt  it ;  but  under  the 
false  pretence  of  erecting  a  temple  to  "  Felicity." 
It  was  again  restored  by  Julius  Caesar. 

Vitruvius  says,  that  the  Greek  Forum  was  square, 
with  ambulatories  in  the  upper  story ;  the  Roman 
was  oblong,  with  porticos,  and  shops  for  bankers, 
and  with  galleries  in  the  upper  floor,  adapted  for  the 
management  of  the  public  revenues.  The  Roman 
forum  also  included  many  other  edifices  of  a  differ- 
ent nature  ;  as  the  basilicas,  prison,  curiae,  and  were 
enriched  with  colonnades  and  sculpture.  That  of 
Trajan  was  entered  by  four  triumphal  arches,  and 
had  his  magnificent  column  in  the  centre  of  it. 

A  few  words  will  describe  the  present  state  of  this 
celebrated  spot: — 

Now  all  is  changed  !  and  here,  as  in  the  wild, 

The  day  is  silent,  dreary  as  the  night ; 

None  stirring,  save  the  herdsman  and  his  herd, 

Savage  alike  ;  or  they  that  would  explore, 

Discuss  and  learnedly  ;  or  they  that  come 

(And  there  are  many  who  have  crossed  the  eartli) 

That  they  may  give  the  hours  to  meditation, 

And  wander,  often  saying  to  themselves   . 

'•  This  was  the  Roman  Forum." 

*   Knight. 
VOL.  II.  K 


The  list  of  edifices  in  the  Forum  would  be  tedious  ; 
nor  could  even  learned  antiquaries  now  make  it 
correct ;  but  among  them  we  may  mention  the 
temple  of  the  Penates,  or  household  gods,  the  temple 
of  Concord,  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Stator,  the  temple 
of  Castor  and  Pollux*,  the  temple  of  Vesta,  the 
temple  of  Victory,-  the  temple  of  Julius  Caesar,  and 
the  arches  of  Fabian,  Tiberius,  and  Severus.  All 
these,  however,  and  in  most  cases  even  the  traces  of 
them,  have  disappeared, — the  few  objects  remaining 
being  a  puzzle  to  such  persons  as  take  an  interest  in 
them,  and  examine  the  matters  on  the  spot. 

"  The  glories  of  the  Forum  are  now  fled  for  ever," 
says  Mr.  Eustace.  Its  temples  are  fallen;  its  sanctua- 
ries are  crumbled  into  dust;  its  colonnades  encumber 
pavements,  now  buried  under  their  remains.  The 
walls  of  the  rostra,  stripped  of  their  ornaments,  and 
doomed  to  eternal  silence;  a  few  shattered  porticos, 
and  here  and  there  an  insulated  column  standing  in 
the  midst  of  broken  shafts,  Vast  fragments  of  marble 
capitals  and  cornices  heaped  together  in  masses, 
remind  the  traveller  that  the  field  which  he  now 
traverses  was  once  the  Roman  foruint.  It  is  reduced, 
indeed,  not  to  the  pasture-ground  for  cattle,  which 
Virgil  has  described,  but  to  the  market-place  for 
pigs,  sheep,  and  oxen  ;  being  now  the  Smithfield  of 

*  "  The  public  colossal  statues  of  Castor  and  Pollux,  said  to  be 
by  Phidias  and  Praxiteles,  on  Monte  Cavallo,"  says  Mr.  Williams, 
"  are  superior  to  all  the  statue*  of  that  description  which  I  have 
seen  in  Italy.  Both  of  the  figures  are  in  the  act  of  guiding  their 
horses,  and  are  remarkable  for  lightness  and  manly  beauty  ;  sug- 
gesting no  idea  of  huge  blocks  of  marble,  as  most  of  the  colossal 
statues  do.  The  proportions  of  these  figures  are  exquisite,  and 
from  certain  points  appear  little  inferior  to  the  finest  statues  in 
the  world.  The  horses,  however,  are  not  so  well  proportioned. 
That  the  sculptors  might  give  dignity  to  the  figures,  they  have  made 
the  horses  comparatively  small, — a  liberty  which  will  not  be  con- 
demned by  the  judicious  critic.  " 

f  Parker. 


Rome.  The  hills,  the  rivers,  the  roads  and  bridges, 
in  this  mother  of  cities,  mostly  go  by  their  ancient 
Latin  names,  slightly  altered  in  Italian,  but  the 
Forum  has  not  even  retained  its  name;  it  is  now 
called  Campo  Vaccino,  or  the  Field  of  Cows ! 

This  scene*,  though  now  so  desolate  and  degraded, 
was  once  the  great  centre  of  all  the  business,  power, 
and  splendour  of  Rome.  Here,  as  long  as  the 
Romans  were  a  free  people,  all  the  affairs  of  the 
state  were  debated  in  the  most  public  manner;  and 
from  the  rostra,  elevated  in  the  midst  of  the  square, 
and  with  their  eyes  fixed  on  the  capitol,  which 
immediately  faced  them,  and  which  was  suited  to 
fill  their  minds  with  patriotism,  whilst  the  Tar- 
peian  rock  reminded  them  of  the  fate  reserved  for 
treason  and  corruption,  the  noblest  of  orators 
"  wielded  at  will"  the  fierce  democracy,  or  filled  the 
souls  of  gathered  thousands  with  one  object,  one 
wish,  one  passion — the  freedom  and  glory  of  the 
Roman  race; — a  freedom  which  would  have  been 
more  enduring  had  the  glory  been  less. 

"  Yes;  in  yon  field  below, 
A  thousand  years  of  silenced  factions  sleep — 
The  Forum,  where  the  immortal  accents  glow, 
And  still  the  eloquent  air  breathes,  burns,  of  Cicero! 

"  The  field  of  freedom,  faction,  fame,  and  blood. 

Here  a  proud  people's  passions  were  exhaled, 

From  the  first  hour  of  empire  in  the  bud, 

To  that  when  further  worlds  to  conquer  fail'd; 

But  long  before  had  Freedom's  face  been  veil'd, 

And  Anarchy  assumed  her  attributes; 

Till  every  lawless  soldier  who  assail'd 

Trod  on  the  trembling  senate's  slavish  mutes, 
Or  raised  the  venal  voice  of  baser  prostitutes." 

Here  the  orators  of  the  people  brought  their  accu- 
sations against  public  men,  or  pronounced  eulogies 
on  such  as  had  died  for  their  country;  and  here,  also, 

*  Knight. 
K  2 


were  exhibited  the  bleeding  heads  or  lifeless  bodies 
of  traitors,  or,  as  it  but  too  often  happened,  of  men 
unjustly  deemed  so  by  an  overbearing  faction.  The 
Forum  was  the  court  of  justice,  and  in  homely  days 
of  the  early  republic,  civil  and  criminal  causes  were 
tried  and  decided  by  simple  laws  in  the  open  air,  or 
in  very  plain  sheds  built  in  this  square.  The  humble 
schools  for  the  republican  children  (for  even  these 
old  Romans  had  places  of  public  instruction  for  the 
poor  people)  stood  round  the  Forum,  which  seems  to 
have  been  intermixed  with  shops,  shambles,  stalls, 
lowly  temples,  and  altars. 

No  object  within  the  walls  of  Rome,  according  to 
Dr.  Burton,  is  so  melancholy  as  the  Forum.  "  We 
may  lament,"  says  he,  "  the  ruin  of  a  temple  or  a 
palace,  but  our  interest  in  the  remaining  fragments 
is  frequently  diminished  by  our  either  not  knowing 
with  certainty  to  what  building. they  belonged,  or 
because  history  has  not  stamped  them  with  any 
peculiar  recollections.  But  standing  upon  the  hill  of 
the  Capitol,  and  looking  down  upon  the  Forum,  we 
contemplate  a  scene  with  which  we  fancy  ourselves 
familiar,  and  we  seem  suddenly  to  have  quitted  the 
habitations  of  living  men.  Not  only  is  its  former 
grandeur  utterly  annihilated,  but  the  ground  has  not 
been  applied  to  any  other  purpose.  When  we 
descend  into  it,  we  find  that  many  of  the  ancient 
buildings  are  buried  under  irregular  heaps  of  soil. 
A  warm  imagination  might  fancy  that  some  spell 
hung  over  the  spot,  forbidding  it  to  be  profaned  by 
the  ordinary  occupations  of  inhabited  citk  s.  What 
Virgil  says  of  its  appearance  before  the  Trojan 
settlers  arrived,  is  singularly  true  at  the  present 
moment : 

There  oxen  strolled  where  palaces  are  raised, 

And  bellowing  herds  in  the  proud  Forum  grazed*." 

Where  the  Roman  people  saw  temples  erected  to 
*  "  After  the  fall  of  Rome,"  savs  Vasi,  "  and  particularly  in  tbe 


perpetuate  their  exploits  ;  and  where  the  Roman  no- 
bles vied  with  each  other  in  the  magnificence  of  their 
dwellings,  we  see  now  a  few  isolated  pillars  standing 
amongst  some  broken  arches.  Or  if  the  curiosity  of 
foreigners  has  investigated  what  the  natives  neither 
think  nor  care  about,  we  may,  perhaps,  see  the  rem- 
nant of  a  statue,  or  a  column,  extracted  from  the 
rubbish.  Where  the  Comitia  were  held,  where 
Cicero  harangued,  and  where  the  triumphal  proces- 
sions passed,  we  have  now  no  animated  beings,  ex- 
cept strangers,  attracted  by  curiosity  ;  the  convicts 
who  are  employed  in  excavating,  as  a  punishment, 
and  those  more  harmless  animals,  who  find  a  scanty 
pasture,  and  a  shelter  from  the  sun  under  a  grove  of 
trees.  If  we  look  to  the  boundaries  of  this  desola- 
tion, the  prospect  is  equally  mournful.  At  one  end 
we  have  the  hill  of  the  Capitol ;  on  the  summit  of 
which,  instead  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter,  the  wonder 
of  the  world,  we  have  the  palace  of  the  solitary  se- 

year  1084,  when  Robert  Guiscard  visited  the  city,  this  spot,  so 
famous,  was  despoiled  of  all  its  ornaments;  and  the  buildings  hav- 
ing been  in  great  part  ruined,  it  has  served  from  that  time  to  our 
days  as  a  market  for  oxen  and  cows,  whence  is  derived  the  name 
of  Campo  Vaccino  (cow-field),  under  which  it  was  lately  known. 
At  the  present  day,  however,  it  has  lost  that  vile  denomination,  and 
obtained  again  the  appellation  of  Forum  Romanum."  Mr. 
Woods,  however,  says,  that  it  was  called  Campo  Vaccino,  not  as 
being  the  market,  but  as  the  place  where  the  long-horned  oxen, 
which  have  drawn  the  carts  of  the  country-people  to  Rome,  wait  till 
their  masters  are  ready  to  go  back  again.  Vasi  is  mistaken,  in  say- 
ing that  "  this  vile  denomination  "  has  been  lost ;  it  never  will  be 
lost — it  is  too  accurately  descriptive — it  tells  the  tale  of  degradation 
too  well,  not  to  last  as  long  as  the  Forum  remains.  Nor  would  it 
be  correct  to  call  the  space  marked  Campo  Vaccino,  in  the  modem 
maps  of  Rome,  by  the  name  of  Forum  Romanum, — or  Foro 
Romano,  to  use  the  Italian  form.  The  Campo  Vaccino  is  a  much 
larger  space  than  the  existing  remnant  of  the  ancient  Forum ;  and 
though  it  is  quite  correct  to  call  that  remnant  a  part  of  the  Campo 
Vaccino,  yet  to  call  the  Campo  Vaccino  the  Forum  Romanum, 
would  give  rise  to  very  incorrect  notions  concerning  the  limits  and 
site  of  the  ancient  Forum." — Anon. 


nator.  If  we  wish  to  ascend  this  eminence,  we  have, 
on  one  side,  the  most  ancient  structure  in  Rome,  and 
that  a  prison  ;  on  the  other,  the  ruins  of  a  temple, 
which  seems  to  have  been  amongst  the  finest  in  the 
city,  and  the  name  of  whicli  is  not  known.  If  we 
turn  from  the  capital,  we  have,  on  our  right,  the 
Palatine  hill,  which  once  contained  the  whole  Roman 
people,  and  which  was  afterwards  insufficient  for  the 
house  of  one  emperor,  and  is  now  occupied  by  a  few 
gardens,  and  a  convent.  On  the  left,  there  is  a  range 
of  churches,  formed  out  of  ancient  temples ;  and  in 
front,  we  discover  at  a  considerable  distance,  through 
the  branches  of  trees,  and  the  ruins  of  buildings,  the 
mouldering  arches  of  the  Colosseum. 

The  Mausoleo  Adriano  was  erected  by  Adrian,  in 
the  gardens  of  Domitian.  It  is  two  stories  high  ; 
the  lower  square,  the  upper  round.  It  was  formerly 
covered  with  Parian  marble,  and  encircled  by  a  concen- 
tric portico,  and  surmounted  by  a  cupola.  The  Pons 
TElius  was  the  approach  to  it;  during  the  middle  ages, 
it  was  used  as  a  fortress;  and  the  uppcrworks,  of  brick, 
were  added  to  it  by  Alexander  VI. ;  when  it  became 
the  citadel  of  Rome.  This  castle  was  of  great  ser- 
A-ice  to  Pope  Clement  VII.,  when  the  city  was  sur- 
prised (A.  D.  1527)  by  the  imperial  army.  The  castle 
was  formerly  the  burial-place  of  the  Roman  empe- 
rors, which,  after  Augustus's  mausoleum  on  the  side 
of  the  Tiber  was  filled  with  arms,  Adrian  built  for 
himself  and  his  successors  ;  hence  it  acquired  the  name 
of  Moles  Hadriani.  The  large  round  tower  in  the 
centre  of  the  edifice  was  formerly  adorned  with  a 
considerable  number  of  small  pillars  and  statues ;  but 
most  of  them  were  broken  to  pieces  by  the  Romans 
themselves,  who  made  use  of  them  to  defend  them- 
selves against  the  Goths,  when  they  assaulted  the 
city  ;  as  may  be  read  at  large  in  Procopius  and  Baro- 
uius.  On  the  top  of  it  stood  the  Pigna,  since  in 

RUINS    OF    AiVCIENT    CITIES.  247 

the  Belvidere  Gardens.  It  received  its  name  of  St. 
Angelo,  from  the  supposed  appearance  of  an  angel, 
at  the  time  of  a  pestilence,  during  the  reign  of  Gre- 
gory the  Great.  It  was  fortified  by  Pope  Urban 
VII.,  with  five  regular  bastions,  ramparts,  moats, 
&-c.  The  hall  is  adorned  with  gildings,  fine  paint- 
ings, and  Adrian's  statue,  whose  bust,  with  that  of 
Augustus,  is  to  be  seen  on  the  castle  wall. 

The  Mamertine  prisons*  are  supposed  to  be  the 
oldest  monuments  of  antiquity  in  Rome.  Livy  speaks 
of  them  as  the  work  of  Ancus  Martins.  "  The  state 
having  undergone  a  vast  increase,"  says  the  historian, 
"and  secret  villanies  being  perpetrated,  from  the  dis- 
tinction between  right  and  wrong  being  confounded, 
in  so  great  a  multitude  of  men,  a  prison  was  built  in 
the  middle  of  the  city,  overhanging  the  Forum,  as  a 
terror  to  the  increasing  boldness.  These  prisons  are 
supposed  to  be  called  after  their  founder,  Martins. 
They  were  enlarged  by  Servius  Tullus ;  and  the  part 
which  he  added  bore  the  name  of  Tullian.  The  front 
of  this  prison  is  open  to  the  street ;  but  above,  and 
resting  on  it,  is  built  the  church  of  San  Giuseppe  FaJeg- 
nani.  It  has  an  appearance  of  great  solidity,  being 
composed  of  immense  masses  of  stone,  put  together 
without  cement ;  almost  every  one  of  the  blocks  is 
upwards  of  nine  feet  long,  and  in  height  nearly  three 
feet.  The  length  of  the  front  is  forty  -three  feet ;  but 
its  height  does  not  exceed  seventeen  ;  along  the  upper 
part  runs  an  inscription,  intimating,  that  CaiusVibius 
Rufinus  and  Marcus  Cocceius  Nerva  (who  were  con- 
suls in  the  year  23),  by  a  decree  of  the  senate,  repaired, 
enlarged,  or  did  something  to  the  prison.  The  tra- 
veller descends,  by  the  aid  of  stairs,  into  the  upper 
cell.  Nearly  in  the  middle  of  the  vaulted  roof  he 
may  perceive  an  aperture  large  enough  to  admit  the 
passage  of  a  man's  body  ;  and  directly  under  it,  in  the 
*  Chambers. 


floor  of  the  cell,  he  will  see  another  opening  of  a 
similar  character.  This  affords  a  direct  communica- 
tion with  the  lower  prison  ;  but  he  descends  at  ano- 
ther point  by  a  second  flight  of  steps,  modern  like  the 
former.  The  second  cell  is  of  much  smaller  dimen- 
sions than  the  other,  being  only  nineteen  feet  in  length, 
by  nine  in  breadth,  and  about  six  in  height.  "  It  is 
faced,"  says  the  Rev.  Mr.  Burgess,  "  with  the  same 
material  as  the  upper  one ;  and  it  is  worthy  of  re- 
mark, as  a.proof  of  its  high  antiquity,  that  the  stones 
are  no£  disposed  with  that  regularity  which  the 
rules  of  good  masonry  require ;  the  joinings  often 
coincide,  or  nearly  so,  instead  of  reposing  over  the 
middle  of  the  interior  block  respectively." 

Dr.  Burton  says,  "  that  a  more  horrible  place  for 
the  confinement  of  a  human  being  than  these  prisons, 
can  scarcely  be  imagined.  Their  condition  in  an- 
cient times  must  have  been  still  worse  than  it  now  is. 
The  expressions  '  cell  of  groans,'  '  house  of  sadness,' 
'  black  prison,'  '  cave  of  darkness,'  '  place  darkened 
with  perpetual  night ;'  and  many  others,  which  are 
to  be  met  with  in  the  pages  of  the  later  Latin  writers, 
sufficiently  attest  the  character  they  bore  in  ancient 

Quintus  Pleminius,  who  had  done  good  service  to 
the  republic  in  the  second  Punic  war,  but  who  after- 
wards had  been  sent  in  chains  to  Rome,  on  account 
of  the  enormities  which  he  had  practised  in  the 
government  of  the  town  of  Locri,  was  incarcerated  in 
this  prison.  In  the  year  194  B.C.  certain  games 
were  being  performed  in  the  city;  and  while  the 
minds  of  all  were  taken  up  with  the  sight  of  them, 
Quintus  Pleminius  procured  persons  to  agree  to  set 
the  city  on  fire,  at  night,  in  several  places  at  once, 
so  that  in  the  consternation  of  a  nocturnal  tumult, 
the  prison  might  be  broken  open.  The  matter,  how- 
ever, was  disclosed  by  persons  privy  thereto,  and 


communicated  to  the  senate ;  and  Pleminius  was  im- 
mediately put  to  death  in  the  lower  cell.  The  accom- 
plices of  Catiline,  too,  expiated  their  guilt  in  this 
prison.  The  celebrated  African  king,  Jugurtha,  also, 
in  the  same  place  closed  his  last  days.  His  melan- 
choly end  is  thus  described  by  Plutarch  : — 

"  Marius,  bringing  back  his  army  from  Africa  into 
Italy,  took  possession  of  the  consulship  the  first  day 
of  January,  aud  also  entered  Rome  in  triumph, 
showing  the  Romans  what  they  had  never  expected 
to  see ;  this  was  the  king  Jugurtha  prisoner,  who 
was  a  man  so  wary,  and  who  knew  so  well  to  accom- 
modate himself  to  fortune,  and  who  united  so  much 
courage  to  his  craft  and  cunning,  that  none  of  his 
enemies  ever  thought  that  they  would  have  him 
alive.  When  he  had  been  led  in  the  procession  he 
became  deranged,  as  they  say,  in  his  understanding  ; 
and,  after  the  triumph,  he  was  thrown  into  prison  ; 
when,  as  they  were  stripping  him  of  his  tunic  by 
force,  and  striving  in  eager  haste  to  take  from  him 
his  golden  ear-ring,  they  tore  it  off,  together  with 
the  lower  part  of  his  ear.  Being  then  thrust  naked 
into  the  deep  cavern,  he  said,  full  of  trouble,  and 
smiling  bitterly,  '  Hercules  !  how  cold  is  this  bath  of 
yours ! '  Having  struggled,  however,  for  six  days, 
with  hunger,  waiting  in  suspense  till  the  last  hour, 
from  his  passionate  desire  to  live,  he  met  with  the 
just  rewards  of  his  wicked  deeds."  In  this  prison, 
also,  Perseus,  the  captive  king  of  Macedonia,  lingered 
many  years  in  hopeless  misery ;  and  in  one  of  its 
cells,  also,  St.  Peter  was  imprisoned  nine  years. 

Next  to  the  Mamertine  prisons,  in  point  of  anti- 
quity, but  greatly  above  them  as  a  work  of  labour 
and  art,  was  the  CLOACA  MAXIMA.  The  first  sewers 
in  Rome  were  constructed  by  Tarquinius  Priscus. 
The  Cloaca  Maxima  was  the  work  of  Tarquin  the 


Pliny  says  that  Agrippa,  in  his  aedileship,  made 
no  less  than  seven  streams  meet  together  under- 
ground in  one  main  channel,  with  such  a  rapid  cur- 
rent as  to  carry  all  before  them  that  they  met  with 
in  their  passage.  Sometimes  when  they  are  violently 
swoln  with  immoderate  rains,  they  beat  with  exces- 
sive fury  against  the  paving  at  the  bottom  and  the 
sides.  Sometimes  in  a  flood  the  Tiber  waters  oppose 
them  in  their  course ;  and  then  the  two  streams 
encounter  with  great  fury  ;  and  yet  the  works  pre- 
serve their  ancient  strength,  without  any  sensible 
damage.  Sometimes  huge  pieces  of  stone  and  timber, 
or  such-like  materials,  are  carried  down  the  channel  ; 
and  yet  the  fabric  receives  no  detriment.  Sometimes 
the  ruin  of  whole  buildings,  destroyed  by  fire  or  other 
casualties,  presses  heavily  upon  the  frame.  Some- 
times terrible  earthquakes  shake  the  very  founda- 
tions, and  yet  they  still  continue  impregnable.  Such 
is  the  testimony  of  Pliny  the  Elder. 

The  Cloaca  Maxima  still  exist.  At  its  outlet  in 
the  Tiber,  it  is  said  to  be  thirteen  feet  high,  and  as 
many  in  breadth.  The  ancients  always  regarded  this 
work  as  a  great  wonder.  Livy  speaks  of  it  in  terms 
of  admiration  ;  and  Pliny  equally  so  ;  and  Dionysius 
says  that  the  sewers  having  been  once  so  greatly 
neglected  that  sufficient  passage  was  not  afforded  for 
the  waters,  it  cost  no  less  a  sum  than  225,000/.  to 
put  them  in  repair. 

The  Pyramid  of  Cestius,  one  of  the  most  ancient 
remains,  is  the  only  sp'ecimen  of  a  pyramid 'in  Rome. 
It  was  erected  during  the  republic,  to  the  memory  of 
Caius  Cestius,  one  of  the  priests  that  provided  feasts 
for  the  gods.  It  is  of  great  size,  being  ninety- seven 
feet  in  the  base,  and  one  hundred  and  twenty-four  in 
height;  and  was  erected,  according  to  the  inscription, 
in  three  hundred  and  thirty  days. 

This  ancient  monument  remains   entire*.     It  is 

*  Eustace. 


formed,  externally,  of  white  marble.  At  each  corner  on 
the  outside  was  a  pillar,  once  surmounted  with  a  statue. 
Its  form  is  graceful,  and  its  appearance  very  pictu- 
resque; supported  on  either  side  by  the  ancient  wall  of 
Rome,  with  their  towers  and  galleries  venerable  in  de- 
cay, half  shaded  by  a  few  scattered  trees ;  and,  looking 
down  upon  a  hundred  humble  tents  interspersed  in  the 
neighbouring  groves,  it  rises  in  lonely  pomp,  and  seems 
to  preside  over  these  fields  of  silence  and  mortality. 

This  structure  was  repaired  by  order  of  Pope 
Alexander  VII.  in  1663  ;  it  having  been  greatly  dila- 
pidated ;  no  less  than  fifteen  feet  of  rubbish  have 
accumulated  above  the  base.  "  It  is  curious,"  says 
Simond,  "  to  see  how  Nature,  disappointed  of  her 
usual  means  of  destruction  by  the  pyramidal  shape, 
goes  to  work  another  way.  That  very  shape  afford- 
ing a  better  hold  for  plants,  their  roots  have  pene- 
trated between  the  stones,  and  acting  like  wedges, 
have  lifted  and  thrown  wide  large  blocks,  in  such  a 
manner,  as  to  threaten  the  disjoined  assemblage  with 
entire  destruction.  In  Egypt,  the  extreme  heat  and 
want  of  moisture,  during  a  certain  part  of  the  year, 
hinder  the  growth  of  plants  in  such  situations ;  and 
in  Africa  alone  are  pyramids  eternal." — Close  to  this 
is  the  Protestant  burial-ground.  "  When  I  am  in- 
clined to  be  serious,"  says  Mr.  Rogers,  "  I  love  to 
wander  up  and  down  before  the  tomb  of  Caius 
Cestius.  The  Protestant  burial-ground  is  there ;  and 
most  of  the  little  monuments  are  erected  to  the 
young ;  young  men  of  promise,  cut  off  when  on  their 
travels,  full  of  enthusiasm,  full  of  enjoyment ;  brides 
in  the  bloom  of  their  beauty,  on  their  first  journey ; 
or  children  borne  from  home  in  search  of  health. 
This  stone  was  placed  by  his  fellow-travellers,  young 
as  himself,  who  will  return  to  the  house  of  his 
parents  without  him  ;  that  by  a  husband  or  a  father, 
now  in  his  native  country.  His  heart  is  buried 


in  that  grave.  It  is  a  quiet  and  sheltered  nook, 
covered  in  the  winter  with  violets  ;  and  the  pyramid 
that  overshadows  it  gives  a  classical  and  singularly 
solemn  air.  You  feel  an  interest  there,  a  sympathy 
you  were  not  prepared  for.  You  are  yourself  in  a 
foreign  land ;  and  they  are  for  the  most  part  your 
countrymen.  They  call  upon  you  in  your  mother 
tongue — in  English — in  words  unknown  to  a  native ; 
known  only  to  yourselves  :  and  the  tomb  of  Cestius, 
that  old  majestic  pile  has  this  also  in  common  with 
them, — it  is  itself  a  stranger  among  strangers.  It 
has  stood  there  till  the  language,  spoken  round  about 
it,  has  changed;  and  the  shepherd,  born  at  the  foot, 
can  read  its  inscription  no  longer." 

There  is  a  stem,  round  tower  of  other  days, 
Firm  as  a  fortress,  with  its  fence  of  stone, 
Such  as  an  army's  buffled  strength  decays, 
Standing  with  half  its  battlements  alone. 
And  with  two  thousand  years  of  ivy  grown, 
The  garland  of  eternity,  where  wave 
The  green  leaves  over  all  by  Time  o'erthroivn  ; 
What  was  this  tower  of  strength  ?  within  its  cave 
What  treasure  lay  so  hid  ? — a  Woman's  grave. 

A  little  beyond  the  Circus  of  Caracalla*  rises  the 
mausoleum  of  Cecilia  Metella,  a  beautiful  edifice, 
built  by  Crassus,  in  honour  of  his  wife.  It  is  of 
considerable  height  and  great  thickness  :  in  the  cen- 
tre is  a  hollow  space  reaching  from  the  pavement  to 
the  top  of  the  building.  In  the  concavity  was  depo  - 
sited  the  body  in  a  marble  sarcophagus,  which  in  the 
time  of  Paul  III.  was  removed  to  the  court  of  the 
Farnesian  palace.  The  solidity  and  simplicity  of  this 
monument  are  worthy  of  the  republican  era  in  which 
itwas  erected,  and  have  enabled  it  to  resist  the  inci- 
dents and  survive  the  lapse  of  two  thousand  years. 

"  At  the  end  of  the  Velabrum,"  says  Dupaty,  "  I 
found  myself  on  the  Appian  way,  and  walked  along 
it  for  some  time.  I  there  found  the  tomb  of  Cecilia 

*  Eustace. 


Metella,  the  daughter  of  that  Crassus  whose  wealth 
was  a  counterpoise  to  the  name  of  Ponipey  and  the 
fortune  of  Caesar.  I  entered  the  tomb,  and  set  my- 
self down  on  the  grass.  The  flowers  which  dis- 
played their  brilliant  colours  in  the  corner  of  the 
tomb,  and  as  I  may  say  amid  the  shades  of  death  ; 
the  noise  of  a  swarm  of  bees  who  were  depositing 
their  honey  between  two  rows  of  bricks,  while  the 
surrounding  silence  rendered  their  pleasing  humming 
more  audible ;  the  azure  of  the  sky  forming  over  my 
head  a  magnificent  dome,  decorated  alternately  by 
flying  clouds  of  silver  and  of  purple  ;  the  name  Ce- 
cilia Metella,  who  perhaps  was  beautiful,  and  pos- 
sessed of  tfce  tenderest  sensibility,  and  who  most  cer- 
tainly was  unfortunate  ;  the  memory  of  Crassus  ;  the 
image  of  a  distracted  father  who  strives  by  piling  up 
stones  to  immortalize  his  sorrow  ;  the  soldiers,  whom 
my  imagination  still  behold  combating  from  the 
height  of  this  tower  ; — all  these  and  a  thousand  other 
impressions  gradually  plunged  my  soul  into  a  deli- 
cious reverie,  and  it  was  with  difficulty  I  could  leave 
the  place." 

The  portico  of  Octavia  stood  upon  the  Flaminian 
Circus  and  the  theatre  of  Marcellus ;  it  was  erected 
by  Augustus,  in  honour  of  his  sister  Octavia.  This 
portico  formed  a  parallelogram,  composed  of  a  double 
row  of  two  hundred  and  seventy  Corinthian  columns 
of  white  marble,  adorned  with  statues,  enclosing  a 
court,  in  which  were  two  temples,  dedicated  to 
Jupiter  and  Juno,  a  library,  and  a  large  hall  for  the 
exhibition  of  paintings.  A  small  portion  of  the 
portico,  being  one  of  the  'entrances,  is  all  that  now 
remains.  Many  of  the  pillars  are,  however,  supposed 
to  be  built  up  in  the  neighbouring  houses. 

The  general  use,  porticoes  were  put  to,  was  the 
pleasure  of  walking  or  riding  in  them  ;  in  the  shade 
in  summer,  and  in  winter  in  the  day  ;  like  the  present 


piazzas  in  Italy.  Velleius  Paterculus,  when  he  de- 
plores the  extreme  corruption  of  manners  that  had 
crept  into  Rome  upon  the  conclusion  of  the  Carthagi- 
nian war,  mentions  particularly  the  vanity  of  the 
noblemen,  in  endeavouring  to  outshine  one  another  in 
the  magnificence  of  their  porticoes,  as  a  great  instance 
of  their  extraordinary  luxury.  Juvenal  thus  alludes 
to  them : — 

On  sumptuous  baths  the  rich  tlieir  wealth  bestow, 
Or  some  expensive  airy  portico  ; 

Where  safe  from  showers  they  may  be  borne  in  state  ; 
And,  free  from  tempests,  for  fair  weather  wait : 
Or  rather  not  expect  the  clearing  sun  ; 
Through  thick  and  thin  their  equipage  must  run  : 
Or  staying,  'tis  not  for  their  servants'  s;ike, 
But  that  their  mules  no  prejudice  may  take. 

The  Naumackice,  or  places  for  the  shows  of  sea 
engagements*,  are  nowhere  particularly  described  ; 
but  we  may  suppose  them  to  be  very  little  different 
from  the  circus  or  amphitheatres  ;  since  those  sort  of 
shows,  for  which  they  were  designed,  were  often  ex- 
hibited. The  Nanmachice  owed  their  original  to  the 
time  of  the  first  Punic  war,  when  the  Romans  first 
initiated  their  men  in  the  knowledge  of  sea-affairs. 
After  the  improvement  of  many  years,  they  were 
designed  as  well  for  the  gratifying  the  sight,  as  for 
increasing  their  naval  experience  and  discipline  ;  and 
therefore  composed  one  of  the  solemn  shows  by  which 
the  magistrates  or  emperors,  or  any  affecters  of  popu- 
larity, so  often  made  their  court  to  the  people. 

The  usual  accounts  we  have  of  these  exercises  seem 
to  represent  them  as  nothing  else  but  the  image  of  a 
naval  fight.  But  it  is  probable  that  sometimes  they 
did  not  engage  in  any  hostile  manner,  but  only  rowed 
fairly  for  the  victory.  This  conjecture  may  be  con- 
firmed by  the  authority  of  Virgil,  who  is  acknow- 
ledged by  all  the  critics,  in  his  descriptions  of  the 
*  Kennett. 


games  and  exercises  to  have  had  an  eye  always  to 
His  own  country,  and  to  have  drawn  them  after  the 
manner  of  the  Roman  sports.  Xow  the  sea  conten- 
tion, which  he  presents  us  with,  is  barely  a  trial  of 
swiftness  in  the  vessels,  and  of  skill  in  managing  the 
oars,  as  is  most  admirably  delivered  in  his  fifth 

Warm  baths  were  first  introduced  into  Rome  by 
Maecenas.  There  cannot  be  a  greater  instance  of  the 
magnificence  of  the  Romans  than  their  bagnios. 
Ammianus  Marcellinus  observes,  that  they  were 
built  "in  modum  pro  vinciamm,"  as  large  as  provinces ; 
but  the  great  Yalesius  judges  the  word  provincia- 
rum  to  be  a  corruption  of  piscinarum.  And  though 
this  emendation  does  in  some  measure  extenuate  one 
part  of  the  vanity  which  has  been  so  often  alleged 
against  them,  from  the  authority  of  that  passage  of 
the  historian,  yet  the  prodigious  accounts  we  have 
of  their  ornaments  and  furniture,  will  bring  them, 
perhaps,  under  a  censure  no  more  favourable  than 
the  former.  Seneca,  speaking  of  the  luxury  of  his 
countrymen  in  this  respect,  complains  that  they  were 
arrived  to  such  a  pitch  of  niceness  and  delicacy,  as 
to  scorn  to  set  their  feet  on  any  thing  but  precious 
stones.  And  Pliny  washes  good  old  Fabricius  were 
but  alive  to  see  the  degeneracy  of  his  posterity,  when 
the  very  women  must  have  their  seats  in  the  baths  of 
solid  silver.  Of  the  luxury  and  magnificence  of  the 
Roman  bath,  we  have  an  interesting  account  in 
Seneca ;  we  borrow  the  old  translation,  it  being 
somewhat  of  a  curiosity  : — 

"Of  the  countrie-house  of  Africanus,  and  bath: 
"  Lying  in  the  verie  towne  (villa)  of  Scipio  Afri- 
canus, I  write  these  things  unto  thee,  having  adored 
the  spirit  of  him  and  the  altar,  which  I  suppose  to 
be  the  sepulcher  of  so  great  a  man.     *     *     I  saw 

*  Prima  pares  ineunt  gi-avibus  certamina  rcmis 
Quatuor  ex  omni  delecta  classe  carinx,  &c. 


that  towne  builded  of  four-square  stone,  a  wall  com- 
passing about  a  wood,  towers  also  set  under  both 
sides  of  the  towne  for  a  defence.  A  cisterne  laid 
under  the  buildings,  and  green  places,  which  was 
able  to  serve  even  an  armie  of  men.  A  little  narrow 
bathe,  somewhat  darke,  as  the  olde  fashion  was. 
None  seemed  warme  for  our  ancestors  except  it  were 
obscure.  Great  pleasure  entered  into  me,  beholding 
the  manners  of  Scipio  and  of  us.  In  this  corner  that 
horrour  of  Carthage,  to  whom  Rome  is  in  debt  that 
it  was  taken  but  once,  washed  his  bodie,  wearied 
with  the  labours  of  the  countrie  :  for  he  exercised 
himselfe  in  worke,  and  he  himself  tilled  the  earth, 
as  the  fashion  of  the  ancients  was.  He  stood  upon 
this  so  base  a  roofe, — this  so  mean  a  floore  sustained 
him.  But  now  who  is  he  that  can  sustaine  to  be 
bathed  thus  ?  Poore  and  base  seemeth  he  to  him- 
self, except  the  walls  have  shined  with  great  and 
precious  rounds,  except  Alexandrian  marbles  be 
distinguished  with  Numidian  roofe-caste,  except  the 
chamber  -be  covered  over  with  glasse,  except  stone 
of  the  lie  Thassus,  once  a  rare  gazing-stocke  in  some 
church  (temple),  have  compassed  about  our  ponds 
into  which  we  let  down  our  bodies  exhausted  by 
much  labour;  except  silver  cocks  have  poured  out 
water  unto  us.  And  as  yet  I  speake  of  the  con- 
duits of  the  common  sort ;  what  when  I  shall  come  to 
the  bathes  of  freedmen  ?  What  profusion  of  statues 
is  there ;  what  profusion  of  columns  holding  nothing 
up,  but  placed  for  ornament,  merely  on  account  of 
the  expense?  What  quantity  of  waters  sliding  downe 
upon  staires  with  a  great  noise  ?  To  that  delicacie 
are  we  come,  that  men  will  not  tread  but  upon 
precious  stones.  In  this  bathe  of  Scipio,  there  be 
verie  small  chinckes,  rather  than  windowes,  cut  out 
in  the  stone  wall,  that  without  hurt  of  the  fense 
they  should  let  the  light  in.  But  now  they  are 


called  the  bathes  of  moths,  if  any  be  not  framed  so 
as  to  receive,  with  most  large  windows,  the  sunne 
all  the  day  long,  except  they  be  bathed  and  coloured 
(sunburnt)  at  the  same  time,  except  from  the  bathing 
vessel  they  look  upon  both  land  and  sea.  But  in  old 
time  there  were  few  bathes,  neither  were  they  adorned 
with  any  trimming  up.  For  why  should  a  thing  of 
a  farthing  worth  be  adorned,  and  which  is  invented 
for  use,  and  not  for  delight  ?  Water  was  not  poured 
in,  neither  did  it  alwaies,  as  from  a  warm  fountain, 
runne  fresh.  But,  O  the  good  gods  !  how  delightful 
it  was  to  enter  into  those  bathes,  somewhat  darke 
and  covered  with  plaster  of  the  common  sort,  which 
thou  diddest  know  that  Cato,  the  overseer  of  the 
buildings  (aedile),  or  Fabius  Maximus,  or  some  one 
of  the  Cornelii,  had  tempered  for  you  with  his  own 
hand !  For  the  most  noble  asdiles  performed  this 
duty  also  of  going  into  those  places  which  received 
the  people,  and  of  exacting  cleanliness,  and  an  use- 
ful and  healthie  temperature ;  not  this  which  is 
lately  found  out,  like  unto  a  setting  on  fire,  so  that 
it  is  meet  indeed  to  be  washed  alive,  as  a  slave  con- 
victed of  some  crime.  It  seemeth  to  me  now  to  be 
of  no  difference,  whether  the  bathe  be  scalding  hot 
or  be  but  warme.  Of  how  great  rusticity  do  some 
now  condemn  Scipio,  because  into  his  warm  bathe 
he  did  not  with  large  windowes  (of  transparent  stone) 
let  in  the  light  ?  O  miserable  man  !  He  knew  not 
how  to  live ;  he  was  not  washed  in  strained  water, 
but  oftentimes  in  turbid,  and,  when  more  vehemently 
it  did  rain,  in  almost  muddy  water." 

The  more  extensive  and  best-preserved  baths  now 
remaining  in  Rome  are  those  of  Titus,  Antoninus, 
Caracalla,  and  Dioclesian.  In  the  time  of  Ammianus 
Marcellinus  there  were  sixteen  public  baths.  These 
were  surrounded  by  extensive  gardens  ;  and  the  main 
buildings  were  used,  some  for  bathing  and  swim- 

VOL.  II.  S 


ming ;  some  for  athletic  exercises ;  and  others  for 
lectures,  recitation,  and  conversation.  They  were 
splendidly  fitted  up,  and  furnished  with  considerable 

The  ruins  of  what  are  called  the  baths  of  Titus 
extend  to  a  great  area.  The  site  is,  to  a  considerable 
extent,  occupied  by  gardens ;  in  various  parts  of" 
which  are  to  be  seen  fragments,  all  once  belonging  to 
the  same  edifice.  This  building  seems  to  have  con- 
sisted of  two  stories.  Of  the  upper  one  little  re- 
mains ;  but  of  the  lower  there  are  more  than  thirty 
rooms  accessible. 

"  We  passed,"  says  the  author  of  '  Rome  in  the 
Nineteenth  Century,'  describing  a  visit  to  the  baths, 
"  the  mouths  of  nine  long  corridors,  converging  toge- 
ther like  the  radii  of  the  segment  of  a  circle,  divided 
from  each  other  by  dead  walls,  covered  at  the  top, 
and  closed  at  the  end.  They  must  always  have  been 
dark.  Having  passed  these  corridors,  we  entered 
the  portal  of  what  is  called  the  house  of  Maecenas. 
It  is  known  that  the  house  and  gardens  of  Maecenas 
stood  in  this  part  of  the  Esquiline-hill,  which,  before 
it  was  given  him  by  Augustus,  was  the  charnel- 
ground  of  the  common  people.  The  conflagration  in 
Nero's  reign  did  not  reach  to  them  ;  and  it  is  believed, 
that  a  part  of  them  was  taken  by  Nero  into  his 
buildings,  and  by  Titus  into  his  baths.  Antiquaries 
"  think  they  can  trace  a  difference  in  the  brick- work 
and  style  of  building,  between  what  they  consider  as 
the  erection  of  Augustus's  and  that  of  Titus's  age ; 
and  on  these  grounds,  the  parts  they  point  out  as 
vestiges  of  the  house  of  Maecenas,  are  the  entrance, 
which  leads  into  a  range  of  square  and  roofless  cham- 
bers (called,  on  supposition,  the  public  baths),  and 
the  wall  on  the  right  in  passing  through  them,  which 
is  partially  formed  of  reticulated  building  in  patches. 
From  these  real  or  imaginary  classic  remains,  we 


entered  a  damp  and  dark  corridor,  the  ceiling  of 
which  is  still  adorned  with  some  of  the  most  beau- 
tiful specimens,  that  now  remain,  of  the  paintings  of 
antiquity.  Their  colouring  is  fast  fading  away,  and 
their  very  outline,  I  should  fear,  must  be  obliterated 
at  no  very  distant  period  ;  so  extreme  is  the  humid- 
ity of  the  place,  and  so  incessantly  does  the  water- 
drop  fall.  By  the  light  of  a  few  trembling  tapers 
elevated  on  the  top  of  a  long  bending  cane,  we  saw, 
at  least  twenty  feet  above  our  heads,  paintings  in 
arabesque,  executed  with  a  grace,  a  freedom,  a  cor- 
rectness of  design,  and  a  masterly  command  of  pencil, 
that  awakened  our  highest  admiration,  in  spite  of  all 
the  disadvantages  under  which  they  were  viewed. 
*  Leaving  the  painted  corridor,  which  is 

adorned  with  these  beautiful  specimens  of  ancient 
art,  we  entered  halls,  which,  like  it,  must  always 
have  been  dark,  but  are  still  magnificent.  The  bright 
colouring  of  the  crimson  stucco,  the  alcove  still 
adorned  with  gilding,  and  the  ceilings  beautifully 
painted  with  fantastic  designs,  still  remain  in  many 
parts  of  them  ;  but  how  chill,  how  damp,  how  deso- 
late are  now  these  gloomy  halls  of  imperial  .luxury ! 
No  sound  is  to  be  heard  through  them,  but  that  of 
the  slow  water-drop.  In  one  of  these  splendid  dun- 
geons, we  saw  the  remains  of  a  bath,  supposed  to 
have  been  for  the  private  use  of  the  emperor.  In 
another  we  were  shown  the  crimson-painted  alcove, 
where  the  Laocb'on  was  found  in  the  reign  of  Leo 
the  Tenth.  The  French,  who  cleared  out  a  great 
mauy  of  these  chambers,  found  nothing  but  the  Pluto 
and  Cerberus,  now  in  the  Capitol,  a  work  of  very 
indifferent  sculpture." 

Another  critic  (Knight)  has  estimated  these  paint- 
ings rather  differently.    "The  paintings  on  the  walls/' 
says  he,  "  consist  chiefly  of  what  we  now  call  ara- 
besques ;  the  figures  are  all  very  small,  and  arranged  in 


patterns  and  borders.  They  consist  of  birds  and  beasts  ; 
among  which  some  green  parrots  may  be  seen  very  dis- 
tinctly ;  the  ground  is  generally  a  rich  dark  red.  At 
the  end  of  one  of  these  rooms  is  a  large  painting  of 
some  building,  in  which  the  perspective  is  said  to  be 
correctly  given.  This  seems  to  disprove  the  charge 
which  has  been  brought  against  the  ancient  painters, 
of  not  understanding  the  rules  of  perspective  ;  none 
of  these  paintings  can,  however,  be  justly  regarded 
as  specimens  of  ancient  art ;  they  were  intended 
solely  as  decorations  to  the  apartments,  and  were 
doubtless  the  work  of  ordinary  house-painters.  To 
judge  of  the  proficiency  of  the  ancient  painters  from 
such  remains  as  these  would  be  as  unfair,  to  use  Dr. 
Burton's  remark,  as  to  estimate  the  state  of  the  arts 
in  England  from  the  sign-posts.  Where  the  walls  of 
the  rooms  are  bare,  the  brick -work  has  a  most  sin- 
gular appearance  of  freshness ;  the  stucco  also  is  very 
perfect  in  many  parts ;  but  the  marble,  of  which 
there  are  evident  traces  on  the  walls  of  the  floors,  is 

The  ruins  of  the  baths  of  Caracalla  are  so  extensive, 
that  they  occupy  a  surface  equal  to  one-sixteenth  of 
a  square  mile.  Next  to  the  Coliseum,  they  present 
the  greatest  mass  of  ancient  building  in  Rome.  "  At 
each  end,"  says  Mr.  Eustace,  "were  two  temples; 
one  dedicated  to  Apollo,  and  the  other  to  jEsculapius, 
as  the  tutelary  deities  of  the  place,  sacred  to  the  im- 
provement of  the  mind,  and  the  care  of  the  body:  the 
two  other  temples  were  dedicated  to  the  two  pro- 
tecting divinities  of  the  Antonine  family  ;  Hercules 
and  Bacchus.  In  the  principal  building  were,  in 
the  first  place,  a  grand  circular  vestibule,  with  four 
baths  on  each  side,  for  cold,  tepid,  warm,  and  sea 
baths ;  in  the  centre  was  an  immense  square  for 
exercise,  when  the  weather  was  unfavourable  for 
it  in  the  open  air  :  beyond  it  is  a  marble  hall,  where 


sixteen  hundred  marble  seats  were  placed  for  the 
convenience  of  the  bathers ;  at  each  end  of  this  hall 
were  libraries.  This  building  terminated  on  both 
sides  with  a  court,  surrounded  with  porticoes,  with 
an  odeum  for  music,  and  in  the  middle  a  spacious 
basin  for  swimming.  Round  this  edifice  were  walks 
shaded  by  rows  of  trees,  particularly  the  plane ;  and 
in  its  front  extended  a  gymnasium,  for  running, 
wrestling,  &c.,  in  fine  weather.  The  whole  was 
surrounded  by  a  vast  portico,  opening  into  spacious 
halls,  where  the  poets  declaimed,  and  philosophers 
gave  lectures  to  their  auditors." 

The  following  account  is  from  the  author  of  Rome 
in  the  Nineteenth  Century.  "  We  passed  through  a 
long  succession  of  immense  halls,  open  to  the  sky, 
whose  pavements  of  costly  marbles,  and  rich  mosaics, 
long  since  torn  away,  have  been  supplied  by  the  soft 
green  turf,  that  forms  a  carpet  more  in  unison  with 
their  deserted  state.  The  wind  sighing  through  the 
branches  of  the  aged  trees,  that  have  taken  root  in 
them,  without  rivalling  their  loftiness,  was  the  only 
sound  we  heard ;  and  the  bird  of  prey,  which  burst 
through  the  thick  ivy  of  the  broken  wall  far  above 
us,  was  the  only  living  object  we  beheld.  These 
immense  halls  formed  part  of  the  internal  division  of 
the  Thermae,  which  was  entirely  devoted  to  purposes 
of  amusement.  The  first  of  the  halls,  or  walled 
enclosures,  that  you  enter,  and  several  of  the  others, 
have  been  open  in  the  centre.  These  were  surround- 
ed by  covered  porticos,  supported  by  immense 
columns  of  granite,  which  have  long  since  been 
carried  away ;  chiefly  by  the  popes,  and  princes  of 
the  Farnese  family.  In  consequence  of  their  loss  the 
roofs  fell  with  a  concussion  so  tremendous,  that  it  is 
said  to  have  been  felt  even  in  Rome,  like  the  distant 
shock  of  an  earthquake.  Fragments  of  this  vaulted 
roof  are  still  lying  at  the  corners  of  the  porticoes. 


The  open  part,  in  the  centre,  was  probably  designed 
for  athletic  sports.  Many  have  been  the  doubts  and 
disputes  among  the  antiquaries,  which  of  these  halls 
have  the  best  claims  to  be  considered  as  the  once 
wonderful  Cella  Solearis.  All  are  roofless  now ; 
but  the  most  eastern  of  them,  that  which  is  farthest 
to  the  left  on  entering,  and  which  evidently  had 
windows,  seems  generally  to  enjoy  the  reputation. 
Besides  these  enormous  halls,  there  are,  on  the 
western  side  of  these  ruins,  the  remains  of  a  large 
circular  building,  and  a  great  number  of  small  divi- 
sions, of  all  sizes  and  forms,  in  their  purpose  wholly 
incomprehensible ;  except  that  they  belonged  to  that 
part  of  the  Thermae  destined  for  purposes  of  amuse- 
ment. Nothing  can  now  be  known  ;  and  though 
the  immense  extent  of  the  baths  may  be  traced, 
far  from  hence,  by  the  wide-spreading  ruins,  it  is 
equally  difficult  and  unprofitable  to  explore  them 
any  further." 

In  these  baths  were  discovered  (A.  D.  1540),  the 
celebrated  Farnese  Hercules ;  also  the  famous  Flora 
(1540)  ;  and  the  Farncee  Bull,  in  1544.  In  those 
of  Titus,  the  Belvidere  Meleager ;  and  the  wonderful 
group,  entitled  the  Laocoon ;  and  not  far  from  them 
the  exquisite  figure  of  Antinous. 

Columns,  or  pillars,*  were  none  of  the  meanest 
beauties  of  the  city.  They  were  at  least  converted 
to  the  same  design  as  the  arches ;  for  the  honourable 
memorial  of  some  noble  victory  or  exploit ;  after 
they  had  been  a  long  time  in  use  for  the  chief  orna- 
ment of  the  sepulchres  of  great  men. 

There  are  three  columns  more  celebrated  than  the 
•  rest.  These  are,  the  pillars  of  Trajan,  of  Antoninus, 
and  of  Phocas.  The  first  of  these  was  set  up  in 
the  middle  of  Trajan's  Forum ;  being  composed  of 
twenty- four  great  stones  of  marble  ;t  bxit  so  curiously 
*  Knight.  f  Kennet. 


cemented,  as  to  seem  one  entire  natural  stone.  The 
height  was  one  hundred  and  forty-four  feet,  accord- 
ing to  Eutropius ;  though  Marlian  seems  to  make 
them  but  one  hundred  and  twenty- eight :  yet  they 
are  easily  reconciled,  if  we  suppose  one  of  them  to 
have  begun  the  measure  from  the  pillar  itself,  and 
the  other  from  the  basis.  It  is  ascertained  on  the 
inside  by  one  hundred  and  eighty-five  winding  stairs, 
and  has  forty  little  windows  for  the  admission  of 
light.  The  noblest  ornament  of  this  pillar  was  the 
statue  of  Trajan  at  the  top,  of  a  gigantic  height ; 
being  no  less  than  twenty-five  feet  high.  He  was 
represented  in  a  coat  of  armour,  proper  to  the  ge- 
neral, holding  in  his  left  hand  a  sceptre ;  in  his  right 
a  hollow  globe  of  gold,  in  which  his  ashes  were  de- 
posited after  his  death. 

The  subjects  of  the  bas-reliefs,  as  we  have  already 
stated,  are  the  victories  of  Trajan,  in  his  Dacian 
campaign  *.  The  whole  number  of  figures  sculptured 
is  about  2,500  ;  and  the  figure  of  Trajan  himself  is 
repeated  more  than  fifty  times.  At  the  lower  part 
of  the  column,  the  human  figures  are  about  two  feet 
high ;  as  they  ascend,  and  thus  become  further  re- 
moved from  the  eye,  their  size  is  increased,  till,  at  the 
top  of  the  column,  they  have  nearly  double  the  height 
that  they  have  below.  These  bas-reliefs  are  executed 
with  great  delicacy  and  spirit ;  but  they  possess  a 
higher  value  of  a  different  kind.  "  The  Roman  dress 
and  manners,"  says  Dr.  Burton,  "  may  receive  a  con- 
siderable light  from  them.  We  find  the  soldiers  con- 
stantly carrying  their  swords  on  the  right  side.  On 
a  march  they  are  generally  bare-headed  ;  some  have 
no  helmets  at  all ;  others  wear  them  suspended  to 
their  right  shoulder  ;  each  of  them  carries  a  stick  over 
the  left  shoulder,  which  seems  to  have  been  for  the 
«  Parker. 


purpose  of  carrying  their  provisions.  We  may  ob- 
serve also  a  wallet,  a  vessel  for  wine,  and  a  machine 
for  dressing  meat." 

Their  shields  *  were  oblong,  with  different  devices 
upon  them  ;  their  standards  of  various  kinds ;  pic- 
tures also  were  used ;  which  were  portraits  of  gods, 
or  heroes.  The  soldiers  wear  upon  their  legs  a  kind 
of  light  pantaloons,  reaching  a  little  below  the  knee, 
and  not  buttoned.  The  Dacians  have  loose  panta- 
loons, reaching  to  the  ankle,  and  shoes ;  they  also 
earry  curved  swords.  The  Sarmatian  cavalry,  allies 
of  Decabalus  (the  Dacian  king)  wear  plated  ar- 
mour, covering  the  men  and  horses.  Their  armour 
was  a  covering  of  thin  circular  plates,  which  were 
adapted  to  the  movements  of  the  body,  and  drawn 
over  all  their  limbs ;  so  that  in  whatever  direction 
they  wished  to  move,  their  clothing  allowed  them 
free  play,  by  the  close  fitting  of  its  joints.  Some 
Roman  soldiers  have  also  plate-armour ;  but  they 
are  archers.  The  horses  have  saddles,  or  rather 
cloths,  which  are  fastened  by  cords  round  the  breast, 
and  under  the  tail.  The  Dacian.  horses  are  without 
this  covering  ;  and  the  Germans,  or  some  other  allies, 
have  neither  saddles  nor  bridles  to  their  horses.  We 
might  observe  several  other  particulars,  such  as  a 
bridge  of  boats  over  a  river,  and  that  the  boats  every- 
where are  without  a  rudder,  but  are  guided  by  an 
oar,  fastened  with  a  thong  on  one  side  of  the  stern. 
The  wall  of  the  camp  has  battlements,  and  the  heads 
of  the  Dacians  are  stuck  to  it.  The  Dacian  women 
are  represented  burning  the  Roman  prisoners.  We 
may  also  see  the  testudo,  formed  by  soldiers  putting 
their  shields  together  in  a  compact  mass  over  their 
backs.  Yictory  is  represented  as  writing  with  a 
pen  on  a  shield  t. 

«  Paiker.  tTtmH 


The  column  of  Antoninus  was  raised  in  imitation 
of  this,  which  it  exceeded  in  one  respect ;  that  it  was 
one  hundred  and  seventy-six  feet  high.  The  work 
was  much  inferior  to  that  of  Trajan's,  as  being  under- 
taken in  the  declining  age  of  the  empire.  The  ascent 
on  the  inside  was  hy  one  hundred  and  six  stairs,  and 
the  windows  in  the  sides  fifty- six.  The  sculpture 
and  the  other  monuments  were  of  the  same  nature 
as  those  of  the  first ;  and  on  the  top  stood  a  colossus 
of  the  emperor,  naked,  as  appears  from  some  of  his 
coins.  Both  these  columns  kare  still  standing ;  the 
former  most  entire.  But  Pope  Sixtus  V.,  instead  of 
the  statues  of  the  emperors,  set  up  St.  Peter's,  on  the 
column  of  Trajan^  and  St.  Paul's,  on  that  of  Anto- 

The  historical  columns  *  are  true  to  no  order  of 
architecture.  Trajan's  has  a  Tuscan  base  and  capi- 
tal, and  a  pedestal  with  Corinthian  mouldings.  That 
of  M.  Aurelius  repeats  the  same  mixture ;  but  its 
pedestal  is  restored :  and  though  higher,  both  in 
proportion  and  in  place,  than  Trajan's,  does  not 
associate  so  well  with  its  shaft.  These  are  the  only 
regular  pedestals  that  are  observed  in  Roman  anti- 

Next  to  these  may  be  classed  the  column  of 
Phocas  t.  So  recently  as  twenty-four  years  ago,  the 
whole  of  its  base,  and  part  of  the  shaft,  were  buried 
in  the  soil ;  and  up  to  that  time,  the  ingenuity  of 
the  learned  was  severely  tried,  in  the  attempt  to  find 
for  it  a  name.  One  thought  it  a  fragment  of  the 
Gr£ecostasis ;  another  adjudged  it  to  a  temple  of 
Jupiter  Gustos ;  and  a  third  urged  the  claim  of  Cali- 
gula's bridge.  At  length,  it  was  thought  that,  pos- 
sibly, the  column  might  originally  have  been  isolated, 
and  thus  in  itself  a  complete  monument ;  that,  con- 
sequently, if  the  earth  at  its  foot  were  removed,  a 
*  Forsyth.  f  Knight. 


pedestal  might  be  uncovered  with  some  inscriptions 
thereon.  The  Duchess  of  Devonshire  had  recourse 
to  this  simple  expedient,  in  the  year  1813;  the  base 
of  the  column  was  laid  open,  and  upon  it  an  inscrip- 
tion was  found,  recording  the  fact,  that  a  gilt  statue 
was  placed  on  the  top  of  it  in  the  year  608,  in  honour 
of  the  emperor  Phocas,  by  Smaragdus,  exarch  of 

The  material  of  the  column  is  Greek  marble,  the 
capital  is  Corinthian,  and  the  shaft  is  fluted.  The 
height  is  forty-six  feet,  but  as  it  stands  upon  a 
pyramid  of  eleven  steps,  its  elevation  is  increased 
about  eleven  feet. 

The  seventh  Basilica  stands  about  two  miles  from 
the  walls;  the  church  itself  is  a  fine  building,  re- 
stored in  1611;  but  the  portico,  of  antique  marble 
columns,  is  of  the  time  of  Constantino.  Under  the 
church  are  the  openings  to  very  extensiye  catacombs, 
originally  formed  no  doubt  by  the  ancient  Romans, 
to  procure  pozzolana  for  their  buildings;  and  enlarged 
by  the  early  Christians,  who  used  them  as  places  of 
refuge  during  their  persecutions,  and  as  cemeteries, 
one  hundred  and  seventy  thousand  of  them  having, 
it  is  said,  been  interred  there.  The  passages  are 
from  two  to  three  feet  in  width,  and  extend  several 
miles  in  different  directions. 

A  hall  of  immense  size*  was  discovered  about  the 
beginning  of  the  last  century,  concealed  under  the 
ruins  of  its  own  massive  roof.  The  pillars  of  verde 
antico  that  supported  its  vaults,  the  statues  that 
ornamented  its  niches,  and  the  rich  marbles  that 
formed  its  pavements,  were  found  buried  in  rubbish, 
and  were  immediately  carried  away  by  the  Farnesian 
family,  the  proprietors  of  the  soil,  to  adorn  their 
palaces  and  furnish  their  galleries.  This  hall  is  now 
cleared  of  its  encumbrances,  and  presents  to  the  eye 
»  Eustace. 


a  vast  length  of  naked  wall,  and  an  area  covered  with 
weeds.  "  As  we  stood  contemplating  its  extent  and 
proportion,"  continues  Mr.  Eustace,  "  a  fox  started 
from  an  aperture,  once  a  window,  at  one  end,  and 
crossing  the  open  space,  scrambled  up  the  ruins  at  the 
other,  and  disappeared  in  the  rubbish.  This  scene 
of  desolation  reminded  me  of  Ossian's  beautiful 
description: — '  The  thistle  shook  there  its  lonely 
head;  the  moss  whistled  to  the  gale;  the  fox  looked 
out  from  the  windows;  the  rank  grass  waved  round 
his  head.' " 

There  are  twelve  Obelisks  at  Rome  still  standing 
erect,  the  oldest  of  which  is  that  brought  by  Augustus, 
which  is  eighty  feet  in  height,'  decorating  the  fine 
square  called  Piazza  del  Popolo. 

Roman  conquerors  had  successively  enriched  the 
capital  of  the  world  with  the  monuments  of  subdued 
nations,  and  with  the  spirit  of  art  from  Sicily, 
Greece,  and  Egypt.  Among  these,  the  emperor 
Augustus  ordered  two  Egyptian  obelisks  to  be  carried 
to  Rome.  To  this  end,  an  immense  vessel  of  a 
peculiar  structure  was  built,  and  when,  after  a 
tedious  and  difficult  voyage,  it  reached  the  Tiber 
with  its  freight,  one  of  the  columns  was  placed  in  the 
Grand  Circus,  and  the  other  in  the  Campus  Martius. 
Caligula  adorned  Rome  with  a  third  Egyptian 
obelisk,  obtained  in  the  like  manner. 

A  fourth  was  added  afterwards.  The  emperor 
Constantine,  equally  ambitious  of  these  costly  foreign 
ornaments,  resolved  to  decorate  his  newly-founded 
capital  of  Constantinople  with  the  largest  of  all  the 
obelisks  that  stood  on  the  ruins  of  Thebes.  He 
succeeded  in  having  it  conveyed  as  far  as  Alexandria, 
but,  dying  at  the  time,  its  destination  was  changed, 
and  an  enormous  raft,  managed  by  three  hundred 
rowers,  transported  the  granite  obelisk  from  Alex- 
.  andria  to  Rome. 


The  Circi  were  places  set  apart  for  the  celebration 
of  several  sorts  of  games.  They  were  generally 
oblong,  or  almost  in  the  shape  of  a  bow,  having  a 
wall  quite  round,  with  ranges  of  seats  for  the  con- 
venience of  the  spectators.  At  the  entrance  of  the 
circus  stood  the  Carceres,  or  lists,  whence  they 
started,  and  just  by  them  one  of  the  Metae,  or 
marks,  the  other  standing  at  the  further  end  to 
conclude  the  race.  "  There  were  several  of  these 
Circi  at  Rome,  as  those  of  Flaminius,  Nero,  Cara- 
calla,  and  Severus;  but  the  most  remarkable,  as  the 
very  name  imports,  was  Circus  Maximus,  first  built 
by  Tarquinius  Priscus.  The  length  of  it  was  four 
furlongs,  the  breadth  the  like  number  of  acres,  with 
a  trench  of  ten  feet  deep,  and  as  many  broad,  to 
receive  the  water;  and  seats  enough  for  one  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  men.  It  was  beautified  and 
adorned  by  succeeding  princes,  particularly  by  Julius 
Caesar,  Augustus,  Caligula,  Domitian,  Trajan,  and 
Heliogabalus ;  and  enlarged  to  such  a  prodigious 
extent  as  to  be  able  to  contain,  in  their  proper  seats, 
two  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  spectators.  In  the 
time  of  Constantine  it  would  hold  three  hundred  and 
eighty-five  thousand  persons  to  view  the  combats, 
chariot  races,  &c.*"  The  Circus  Maximus  stands  on 
the  spot  where  the  games  were  celebrated  when  the 
Romans  seized  the  Sabine  women;  and  it  was  here 
also  that  the  interesting  scene  took  place  between 
Androcles  and  the  lion. 

The  number  of  beasts  exhibited  in  the  circus  is 
wonderful ;  and  were  it  not  well  attested,  would 
be  incredible.  In  the  days  of  imperial  splendour, 
nearly  every  rare  animal  that  Western  Asia  or 
Northern  Africa  could  produce,  was  commonly  ex- 
hibited to  the  Roman  people.  In  the  year  252  B.C. 
one  hundred  and  forty-two  elephants,  brought  from 
*  Keniiet. 


Sicily,  were  exhibited  in  the  circus.  Caesar,  in  his 
third  dictatorship,  showed  a  vast  number  of  wild 
beasts,  among  which  were  four  hundred  lions,  and  a 
camelopard.  The  emperor  Gordian  devised  a  novel 
kind  of  spectacle ;  he  converted  the  Circus  into  a 
temporary  kind  of  wood,  and  turned  into  it  two 
hundred  stags,  thirty  wild  horses,  one  hundred  wild 
sheep,  ten  elks,  one  hundred  Cyprian  bulls,  three 
hundred  ostriches,  thirty  wild  asses,  one  hundred 
and  fifty  wild  boars,  two  hundred  ibices,  and  two 
hundred  deer.  He  then  allowed  the  people  to  enter 
the  wood,  and  to  take  what  they  pleased.  Forty 
years  afterwards  the  emperor  Probus*  imitated  his 
example.  "  Large  trees  were  pulled  up  by  the 
roots,"  says  an  ancient  writer,  "  and  fastened  to 
beams,  which  were  laid  down  crossing  each  other. 
Soil  was  then  thrown  upon  them,  and  the  whole 
Circus  planted  like  a  wood.  One  thousand  ostriches, 
one  thousand  stags,  one  thousand  ibices,  wild  sheep, 
and  other  grazing  animals,  as  many  as  could  be  fed 
or  found,  were  turned  in,  and  the  people  admitted  as 

Of  the  trouble  which  was  taken  in  the  republican 
times  to  procure  rare  animals  for  exhibition  in  Rome, 
we  have  a  curious  illustration  in  the  letters  of  Cicero. 
The  orator  went  out  in  the  year  52  B.  c.,  as  go- 
vernor of  a  province  of  Asia  Minor  ;  and  while  there, 
he  was  thus  addressed  by  his  friend  Ccelius : — "  I 
have  spoken  to  you,  in  almost  all  my  letters, 
ibout  the  panthers.  It  will  be  disgraceful  to  you, 
that  Patiscus  has  sent  ten  panthers  to  Curio,  while 
you  have  scarcely  sent  a  greater  number  to  me. 
Curio  has  made  me  a  present  of  these,  and  ten 
others  from  Africa.  If  you  will  only  keep  it  in 
mind,  and  employ  the  people  of  Cybira,  and  also 
send  letters  into  Pamphylia  (for  I  understand  that 

*  Parker. 


the  greatest  number  are  taken  there),  you  will  gain 
your  object."  To  this  the  proconsul  replies : — 
"  I  have  given  particular  orders  about  the  panthers 
to  those  who  are  in  the  habit  of  hunting  them  ;  but 
they  are  surprisingly  scarce;  and  it  is  said,  that 
those  which  are  there,  make  a  great  complaint  that 
there  are  no  snares  laid  against  any  one  in  my  pro- 
vince but  themselves.  It  is  accordingly  supposed, 
that  they  are  determined  to  quit  my  province.  I 
go  into  Caria.  However,  I  shall  use  all  diligence." 

The  avidity*  with  which  the  amusements  of  the 
Circus  were  sought,  increased  with  the  decline  of  the 
empire  and  the  corruption  of  morals.  Ammianus 
Marcellinus,  who  wrote  in  the  fourth  century  of  the 
Christian  era,  gives  us  the  following  description  : — 
"  The  people  spend  all  their  evenings  in  drinking  and 
gaming,  in  spectacles,  amusements,  and  shows.  The 
Circus  Maximus  is  their  temple,  their  dwelling- 
house,  their  public  meeting,  and  all  their  hopes.  In 
the  Forum,  the  streets,  and  squares,  multitudes  as- 
semble together,  and  dispute,  some  defending  one 
thing,  and  some  another.  The  oldest  take  the  pri- 
vilege of  age,  and  cry  out  in  the  temples  and  Forum, 
that  the  republic  must  fall,  if  in  the  approaching 
games  the  person  whom  they  support  does  not  win 
the  prize  and  first  pass  the  goal.  AVhen  the  wished- 
for  day  of  the  equestrian  games  arrives,  before  sun- 
rise all  run  headlong  to  the  spot,  passing  in  swiftness 
the  chariots  that  are  to  run ;  upon  the  success  of 
which  their  wishes  are  so  divided,  that  many  pass 
the  night  without  sleep."  Lactantius  confirms  this 
account,  and  says  that  the  people,  from  their  great 
eagerness,  often  quarrelled  and  fought. 

Fortunately  there  still  exists,  about  two  miles 
from  the  walls  of  Rome,  an  ancient  circus  in  a  high 
state  of  preservation  ;  and  from  this  we  are  enabled 
*  Parker. 


to  acquire  a  very  good  notion  of  the  form  and 
arrangement  of  such  structures.  The  chief  entrance 
was  an  opening  at  the  straight  end ;  and  on  each  side 
of  it  were  six  carceres,  or  starting-places.  At  the 
rounded  end,  or  that  opposite  to  the  carceres,  was 
the  Porta  Triumphalis,  or  Triumphal  Gate,  by 
which  the  victor  left  the  circus ;  the  rest  of  the  en- 
closed space  were  the  seats  for  the  spectators,  raised 
in  rows  one  above  the  other.  Down  the  middle  of 
the  area,  or  more  properly  speaking,  rather  nearer 
to  one  side  than  the  other,  ran  a  raised  division, — 
a  sort  of  thick  dwarf  wall,  called  the  Spina ;  equal 
in  length  to  about  two-thirds  of  the  area  itself.  At 
each  end  of  this  spina  was  a  small  meta,  or  goal, 
formed  of  three  cones.  The  meta  which  approached 
the  triumphal  gate  was  much  nearer  to  it  than  the 
other  meta  was  to  the  carceres.  The  course  which 
the  chariots  ran  was  by  the  side  of  the  spina,  and 
round  the  mette.  All  these  different  parts  of  the 
circus  were  variously  ornamented  ;  the  spina  espe- 
cially was  highly  decorated,  having  sometimes  in  the 
middle  one  of  those  lofty  Egyptian  obelisks,  of  which 
there  are  more  to  be  seen  at  this  day  in  Rome,  than 
are  assembled  anywhere  else*. 

Besides  the  Mamertine  prisons  and  the  CloacaMaxi- 
ma,  there  are  other  antiquities  at  Rome  which  belong 
to  the  early  period.  Among  these  are  the  founda- 
tions and  great  fragments  of  the  ancient  buildings  of 
the  CAPJTOL.  The  Capitol-hill  is  said  to  form  a  link 
between  the  ancient  city  and  the  modern  one. — 
"  From  an  elevated  station,  about  two  hundred  and 
fifty  feet  above  the  Forum,"  says  Simond,  "  the  voice 
of  Cicero  might  have  been  heard,  revealing  to  the 
people,  assembled  before  the  Temple  of  Concord,  (to 
which  the  ruins  nearest  to  us  probably  belonged,) 
Catiline's  conspiracy.  He  might  even  have  been  heard 

*  Knigbt. 


in  the  Tribune  of  Harangues,  situated  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Forum,  and  next  to  the  Temple  of  Jupiter 
Stator, — of  which  there  are  three  columns  still  stand- 
ing,— taking  the  oath  that  he,  had  saved  his  country, 
and  all  the  people  taking  the  same  oath  after  him. 
But  the  gory  head  and  hand  of  this  saviour  of  his 
country  might  have  been  seen  from  our  station  soon 
after,  nailed  to  the  side  of  this  same  tribune,  and  the 
same  people  tamely  looking  on  !  Instead  of  the  con- 
tending crowds  of  patriots,  conspirators,  orators,  he- 
roes, and  fools,  each  acting  his  part,  we  now  saw  only 
a  few  cows  quietly  picking  up  blades  of  grass  among 
the  ruins ;  beggars,  and  monks,  and  asses  loaded  with 
bags  of  puzzolana,  and  a  gang  of  galley-slaves  lazily 
digging  away  for  antiquities,  under  the  lash  of  their 

The  hill  of  the  Capitol  derived  its  name  from  the 
head  of  Tolus*,  and  the  prediction  of  universal  em- 
pire to  those  who  held  it.  It  was  famous  for  a  tem- 
ple of  Jupiter  Capitolinus,  which  was  the  effect  of  a 
vow  made  by  Tarquinius  Priscus  in  the  Sabine  war. 
But  he  had  scarcely  laid  the  foundations  before  his 
death.  His  nephew,  Tarquinius  the  Proud,  finished 
it  with  the  spoils  taken  from  the  neighbouring  na- 
tions. But  upon  the  expulsion  of  the  kings,  the 
consecration  was  performed  by  Horatius  the  consul. 
The  structure  stood  on  a  high  ridge,  taking  in  four 
acres  of  ground.  The  front  was  adorned  with  three 
rows  of  pillars,  the  other  side  with  two.  Its  ascent 
from  the  ground  was  by  one  hundred  steps.  The  pro  - 
digious  gifts  and  ornaments,  with  which  it  was  several 
times  endowed,  almost  exceed  belief.  Suetonius  tells 
us  that  AugTistus  gave  at  one  time  two  thousand 
pounds  weight  of  gold ;  and  a  precious  stone  to  the 
value  of  five  hundred  sestertia.  Livy  and  Pliny 
surprise  us  with  accounts  of  the  brazen  thresholds,  the 
*  Kennet. 


noble  pillars,  that  Sylla  removed  hither  from 
Athens  out  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Olympius ;  the 
gilded  roof,  the  gilded  shields,  and  those  of  solid  sil- 
ver ;  the  huge  vessels  of  silver,  holding  three  mea- 
sures ;  the  golden  chariot,  &c.  This  temple  was 
first  consumed  by  fire  in  the  Marian  war,  and  then 
rebuilt  by  Sylla,  who,  dying  before  the  dedication, 
left  that  honour  to  Quintus  Catulus.  This  too  was 
demolished  in  the  Vitellian  sedition.  Vespasian  un- 
dertook a  third,  which  was  burnt  down  about  the 
time  of  his  death.  Domitian  raised  the  last  and  most 
glorious  of  all  ;  in  which  the  very  gilding  amounted 
to  twelve  thousand  talents  (£2,250,000).  He 
adorned  it  with  some  columns  of  Pentelic  marble 
brought  from  Athens.  Indeed,  his  extravagance  in 
this  and  other  public  works  led  to  that  exceeding 
severity  which  accompanied  the  exaction  of  the  capi- 
tation tax  from  the  Jewish  people.  It  was  the  opi- 
nion of  contemporaries  of  the  emperor,  that  if  he 
were  to  reclaim  from  the  gods  the  sums  which  he 
now  expended  upon  them,  even  Jupiter  himself, 
though  he  were  to  hold  a  general  auction  in  Olympus, 
would  be  unable  to  pay  a  twelfth  of  his  debts,  or,  as  we 
should  say,  one  shilling  and  eightpence  in  the  pound. 

If,  Caesar,  all  thou  to  the  powers  hast  lent, 
Thou  should'st  reclaim,  a  creditor  content, 
Should  a  fair  auction  vend  Olympus'  hall, 
And  the  just  gods  he  fain  to  sell  their  all ; 
The  bankrupt  Atlas  not  a  twelfth  could  sound  : — 
Who  bade  the  Sire  of  Gods  with  man  compound  ? 
For  Capitolian  fanes  what  to  the  chief? 
What  can  he  pay  for  the  Tarpeian  leaf? 
What  for  her  double  towers  the  Thunderer's  queen  ? 
Pallas  I  pass,  thy  manager  serene. 
Alcides  why,  or  Phcebus,  should  I  name, 
Or  the  twin  Lacons,  of  fraterual  fame  ? 
Or  the  substructure  (who  can  sum  the  whole?) 
Of  Flavian  temples  to  the  Latian  pole? 
Augustus,  pious,  then,  and  patient  stny: 
The  chest  of  Jove  possesses  not  to  pay. 
VOL.  II.  T 

274      .  RUINS    OP    ANCIENT    CITIES. 

Of  all  the  ancient  glory  of  the  Capitol,*  nothing 
now  remains  but  the  solid  foundation  and  vast  sub- 
structions raised  on  the  rock.  Not  only  is  tho 
Capitol  fallen,  but  its  very  name,  expressive  of  do- 
minion, and  once  fondly  considered  as  an  omen  of 
empire,  is  now  almost  lost  in  the  semi-barbarous 
appellation  of  Campi-doglio.  "  This  place,"  says  a 
celebrated  French  traveller,  "  which  gave  law  to 
the  universe,  where  Jupiter  had  his  temple  and 
Rome  her  senate ;  from  whence  of  old  the  Roman 
eagles  were  continually  flying  into  every  quarter  of 
the  globe,  and  from  every  quarter  of  the  globe  con- 
tinually winging  their  way  back  with  victories ; 
whence  a  single  word  from  the  mouth  of  Scipio,  of 
Pompey,  or  of  Caesar,  quickly  reached  the  most  dis- 
tant nations,  menacing  their  liberty,  and  deciding  on 
the  fate  of  kings ;  where  the  greatest  men  of  the  re- 
public, in  short,  still  continued  to  live  after  their 
death  in  statues,  and  still  to  govern  the  world  with 
the  authority  of  Romans:  this  place  so  renowned  has 
lost  its  statues,  its  senate,  its  citadel,  its  temples ;  it 
has  retained  nothing  but  its  name,  so  cemented  by 
the  blood  and  tears  of  nations,  that  time  has  not  yet 
been  able  to  disjoin  the  immortal  syllables  of  which 
it  is  composed.  It  is  still  called  the  Capitol.  At 
the  Capitol  we  perceive,  in  the  strongest  light,  the 
insignificance  of  all  human  things,  and  the  power 
of  fortune." 

The  Pantheon  is  the  most  perfect  of  all  the  remains 
of  ancient  Rome,  and  the  only  one  of  the  Pagan  tem- 
ples that  retains  any  thing  of  its  original  appearance. 
It  was  dedicatedt  either  to  Jupiter  Ultor,  or  to  Mars 
and  Venus,  or,  more  probably,  to  all  the  gods  in 
general.  The  structure,  according  to  Fabricius,  is 
one  hundred  and  forty  feet  high,  and  about  the  same 
in  breadth  ;  but  a  later  author  has  increased  the 

*  Eustace.  -f-  Kennet. 


number  to  one  hundred  and  fifty-eight.  The  roof 
is  curiously  vaulted,  void  places  being  left  here  and 
there  for  the  greater  strength. 

The  statues  of  all  the  gods  were  in  this  temple ; 
and  these,  according  to  their  degrees,  were  of  gold, 
silver,  bronze,  or  marble.  The  portico  is  one  hun- 
dred and  ten  feet  long*,  by  forty-four  in  depth,  and  is 
supported  by  sixteen  columns  of  the  Corinthian  order. 
Each  of  the  shafts  of  these  columns  is  of  one  piece  of 
oriental  granite,  and  forty-two  feet  in  height ;  the 
bases  and  capitals  are  of  white  marble.  The  whole 
height  of  the  columns  is  forty-six  feet  five  inches  ; 
the  diameter,  just  above  the  base,  is  four  feet  ten 
inches  ;  and,  just  beneath  the  capital,  four  feet  three 
inches.  The  interior  of  the  rotunda  has  a  diameter 
of  nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet. 

This  building  has  been  generally  attributed  wholly 
to  Agrippa ;  but  from  careful  research,  Desgodetz 
asserts  that  the  body  of  the  edifice  is  of  much  earlier 
origin ;  and  that  Agrippa  only  newly  modelled  and 
embellished  the  inside,  and  added  the  magnificent 
portico.  The  building  is  circular,  with  a  noble  dome, 
and  a  fine  portico  of  sixteen  pillars  of  oriental  granite. 
There  are  no  windows,  the  light  being  admitted  by  a 
circular  aperture  in  the  dome.  The  fine  marble  with 
which  the  walls  were  encrusted,  and  the  brass  which 
covered  the  roof,  have  long  since  disappeared ;  the 
bare  bricks  alone  are  left. 

As  St.  Peter's  affords  the  best  sample  of  modern 
art  in  Romet,  so  does  the  Pantheon  exhibit  the  most 
satisfactory  and  best-preserved  specimen  of  ancient 
art ;  for,  notwithstanding  the  injuries  it  has  sustained 
by  the  hands  of  barbarians  of  all  ages,  no  signs  of 
natural  decay  are  yet  visible;  and  with  this  magni- 
ficent model  before  their  eyes,  it  appears  strange,  that 
the  architects  of  St.  Peter's  should  not  have  accom- 

*  .Parker.  f  Siuiond. 

T  2 


plished  their  task  more  worthily.  The  Pantheon 
seems  to  be  the  hemispherical  summit  of  a  modern 
temple,  taken  off  and  placed  on  the  ground ;  so  it 
appears  to  us,  at  least,  accustomed  to  see  cupolas  in 
the  former  situation  only. 

"  Jt  is  built  in  the  dirtiest  part  of  modern  Rome," 
says  the  author  of  Rome  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  ; 
"  and  the  unfortunate  spectator,  who  comes  with  a 
mind  filled  with  enthusiasm,  to  gaze  upon  this  monu- 
ment of  the  taste  and  magnificence  of  antiquity,  finds 
himself  surrounded  by  all  that  is  most  revolting  to 
the  senses,  distracted  by  incessant  uproar,  pestered 
by  the  crowd  of  clamorous  beggars,  and  stuck  fast  in 
the  congregated  filth  of  every  description  that  covers 
the  slippery  pavement ;  so  that  the  time  he  forces 
himself  to  spend  in  admiring  its  noble  portico,  gene- 
rally proves  a  penance  from  which  he  is  glad  to  be 
liberated,  instead  of  an  enjoyment  he  wishes  to  pro- 
tract. We  escaped  none  of  these  nuisances,  except 
the  mud,  by  sitting  in  an  open  carriage  to  survey  it. 
The  smells  of  the  beggars  were  equally  annoying. 
You  may  perhaps  form  some  idea  of  the  situation 
of  the  Pantheon  at  Rome,  by  imagining  what 
"Westminster  Abbey  would  be  in  Co  vent  Garden 

This  does  not  appear,  however,  to  have  damped  the 
enthusiasm  of  Dupaty  : — "  I  first  directed  my  steps," 
says  he,  "  towards  the  Pantheon,  dedicated  by 
Agrippa  to  all  the  gods,  and  since,  I  know  not  by 
what  pope,  to  all  the  saints*.  This  consecration  has 
preserved  the  Pantheon  from  the  general  pillage  and 
destruction  which  the  other  temples  have  undergone. 
It  has  been  despoiled  of  every  thing  that  made  it 
rich  ;  but  they  have  left  all  that  made  it  great.  It 

*  Pope  Boniface  IV.  dedicated  it  to  the  Virgin  ;  and  removed 
into  it  the  hones  of  various  saints  and  martyrs  from  the  different 
cemeteries,  enough  to  fill  twenty-eight  waggons. 


has  lost  its  marbles,  its  porphyry,  its  alabaster, 
but  it  has  preserved  its  dome,  its  peristyle,  and 
its  columns.  How  magnificent  is  this  peristyle! 
The  eyes  are  just  attracted  by  eight  Corinthian 
columns,  on  which  rests  the  pediment  of  this  immor- 
tal monument.  These  columns  are  beautiful  from  the 
harmony  of  the  most  perfect  workmanship,  and  the 
lapse  of  twenty  centuries,  which  adds  to  their  gran- 
deur, and  the  awe  they  inspire.  The  eye  can  never 
tire  with  mounting  with  them  in  the  air,  and  follow- 
ing their  descent.  They  present  I  know  not  what 
appearance  of  animated  life,  that  creates  a  pleasing 
illusion,  an  elegant  shape,  a  noble  stature,  and  a 
majestic  head,  round  which  the  acanthus,  with  leaves 
at  once  so  flexible  and  so  superb,  forms  a  crown ; 
which,  like  that  of  kings,  serves  the  double  purpose 
of  decorating  the  august  head  to  which  it  gives  a 
splendour,  and  disguising  the  immense  weight  that 
loads  it.  How  richly  does  architecture,  which 
creates  such  monuments,  merit  a  place  among  the  fine 
arts !" 

The  light,  as  we  have  before  observed,  is  admitted 
only  by  a  circular  opening  in  the  dome,  which  is 
twenty-eight  feet  in  diameter  *.  Through  this  aper- 
ture a  flood  of  light  diffuses  itself  over  the  whole 
edifice,  producing  a  sublime  effect,  but  only  showing 
all  its  beauties  by  permitting  every  passing  shower  to 
deluge  its  gorgeous  pavement.  The  rain  is  carried 
off  by  a  drain  to  the  Tiber  ;  but  from  the  low  situa- 
tion of  the  building  in  the  Campus  Martius,  the 
waters  of  the  Tiber,  when  it  is  swollen,  find  their 
way  up  the  drain,  and  flood  the  interior.  Myriads 
of  beetles,  scorpions,  worms,  rats  and  mice,  may  then 
be  seen  retreating  before  the  waters,  as  they  gra- 
dually rise  from  the  circumference  to  the  centre  of 

*  Parker. 


the  area,  which  is  a  little  elevated  above  the  rest  of 
it.  "  A  beautiful  effect,"  says  Dr.  Burton,  "  is  pro- 
duced by  visiting  the  building  on  these  occasions  at 
night,  when  the  moon  is  reflected  upon  the  water, 
through  the  aperture  of  the  dome." 

"  The  Pantheon  retains  its  majestic  portico,"  says 
Mr.  Eustace,  "  and  presents  its  graceful  dome  unin- 
jured ;  the  pavement,  laid  by  Agrippa,  and  trodden 
by  Augustus,  still  forms  its  floor ;  the  compartments 
and  fluted  pillars  of  the  richest  marble,  that  origin- 
ally lined  its  walls,  still  adorn  its  inward  circum- 
ference ;  the  deep  tints  that  age  has  thrown  over  it, 
only  contribute  to  raise  its  dignity,  and  augment 
our  veneration ;  and  the  traveller  enters  its  portal, 
through  which  twice  .twenty  generations  have  flowed 
in  succession,  with  a  mixture  of  awe  and  religious 
veneration.  Yet  the  Pantheon  itself  has  been  'shorn 
of  its  beams,'  and  looks  eclipsed  through  the  *  disas- 
trous twilight  of  eighteen  centuries.'  " 

Augustus  dwelt  at  first  *  near  the  Roman  Forum, 
in  a  house  which  had  belonged  to  the  orator  Calvus; 
afterwards  on  the  Palatine,  but  in  the  moderate  house 
of  Hortensius,  which  was  not  conspicuous,  either  for 
extent  or  ornament ;  it  had  some  porticoes  of  Alban 
columns,  and  rooms  without  any  marble  or  remark- 
able pavement.  For  more  than  forty  years  he  occu- 
pied the  same  chamber,  in  winter  and  in  summer ; 
and  although  he  found  the  city  by  no  means  favour- 
able to  his  health  in  the  winter,  yet  he  constantly 
passed  the  winter  in  it.  After  the  palace  had  been 
accidentally  destroyed  by  fire,  Augustus  had  it  re- 
built, as  we  are  told,  and  ordered  it  to  be  entirely 
opened  to  the  public.  This  edifice  was  called  Pala- 
tium,  from  the  name  of  the  hill  on  which  it  stood ; 
and  that  being  afterwards  applied  to  the  residence 

*  Purker. 


of  the  Roman  emperors,  it  has  passed  into  most  of 
the  languages  of  Europe,  as  the  common  appellation 
of  a  princely  mansion. 

It  was  under  the  immediate  successors  of  Axigus- 
tus  that  the  Palatine  rose  in  splendour,  till  it  eclipsed 
all  that  we  read  of  magnificence  in  the  history  of  the 
ancient  world.  The  imperial  possessors  of  this  proud 
eminence  seem  to  have  regarded  it  as  a  "theatre  for 
their  amusement ;  and  upon  it  their  "  gorgeous  ty- 
ranny "  was  amply  displayed,  in  the  vast  and  costly 
structures  which  they  erected  for  the  gratification  of 
their  personal  pleasure  or  caprice. 

This  palace  received  many  additions  by  Tiberius, 
Caligula,  and  Domitian ;  and,  finally,  by  Nero  ;  from 
whom  it  was  called  "  the  golden  house  of  Nero." 
It  is  thus  described  by  Salmon,  from  Suetonius,  Ta- 
citus, and  other  writers  : — "  From  the  remains  in  the 
back  part  of  the  Palatine-hill,  the  ancient  palace  of 
Nero,  from  its  great  extent  and  vast  size,  was  no  less 
difficult  to  be  inhabited  than  it  is  for  us  to  believe 
its  magnificence.  It  was  built  by  the  famous  archi- 
tects Severus  and  Cererus.  In  the  vestibule  or  prin- 
cipal entrance  was  the  colossal  statue  of  Nero,  of 
bronze.  It  was  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  high, 
of  excellent  workmanship,  by  Zenodorus,  who  was 
sent  for  from  Gaul  for  the  purpose.  It  was  restored 
by  Vespasian,  and  dedicated  to  the  sun.  The  em- 
peror added  the  rays,  which  were  twenty-two  feet 
and  a  half  in  length.  In  the  porticos  were  three 
galleries  supported  by  large  columns,  which  extended 
a  mile  in  length.  This  palace  enclosed  all  the  Pala- 
tine-hill, together  with  the  plain  between  the  Pala- 
tine and  the  Cfelius,  and  part  of  the  Esquiline  mount 
near  to  the  garden  of  Maecenas.  It  was  raised  on 
large  columns  of  marble  carried  on  a  level  from  the 
Palatine  to  the  Esquiline.  The  superb  entrance  was 
facing  the  Via  Sacra.  Nero,  in  order  to  execute  this 


design,  destroyed  the  houses  of  many  of  the  citizens, 
which  occasioned  the  saying,  that  Rome  consisted  of 
one  house.  Tacitus  writes,  that  when  Rome  was  in 
flames  seven  days  and  nights,  it  was  not  to  be  ex- 
tinguished till  all  the  buildings  about  the  Palatine 
were  burnt.  Where  the  amphitheatre  now  stands, 
Nero  formed  a  lake  to  resemble  the  sea,  with  edifices 
around  it  similar  to  a  city,  together  with  extensive 
gardens  and  walks,  and  places  for  wild  beasts,  vine- 
yards, &c.  In  the  palace  were  a  great  number  of 
halls,  and  an  innumerable  quantity  of  rooms,  galle- 
ries, and  statues,  resplendent  in  every  part  with  gold, 
gems,  and  precious  stones  ;  from  which  circumstance 
it  acquired  the  name  of  the  golden  house.  Many 
of  the  rooms  destined  for  public  feasts  were  very 
spacious,  with  most  beautiful  ceilings,  which  turned 
round  in  such  a  manner  that  from  various  parts  there 
fell  flowers  and  exquisite  odours.  The  principal  hall 
where  Nero  supped  was  circular,  and  of  such  art, 
that  the  ceiling  was  ornamented  with  stars  to  re- 
semble the  heavens,  in  conformity  to  which  it  conti- 
nually revolved  night  and  day.  Birds  of  silver  were 
carved  in  the  other  ceilings  with  surprising  art. 
Amulius,  a  celebrated  artist,  was  employed  during 
the  whole  of  his  life  to  paint  this  palace.  The  tables 
were  of  ivory,  the  floors  of  the  rooms  were  inter- 
sected with  works  in  gold  compartments  of  gems  and 
mother-of-pearl:  the  marble,  the  bronze, the  statues, 
and  the  richest  of  the  tapestry,  were  beyond  all  de- 
scription. When  Nero  went  to  inhabit  it,  he  said, 
full  of  pride,  '  I  now  begin  to  be  lodged  like  a  man.' 
Here,  particularly,  was  a  temple  of  Fortune,  conse- 
crated by  Servius  Tullius,  and  constructed  by  Nero, 
of  a  fine  transparent  alabaster,  called  fingites.  This 
stone  was  brought  from  Cappadocia,  and  was  so  clear, 
that  every  object  might  be  seen  when  the  doors  were 
shut,  as  if  it  were  noon- day.  In  the  gardens  were 


delightful  baths,  numerous  fish-ponds  and  pastures, 
with  all  sorts  of  animals.  Here  were  also  baths  of 
fresh  and  sea  water.  To  erect  these  wonderful  edi- 
fices Italy  was  ruined  with  impositions  and  burdens, 
and  its  temples  spoiled  of  their  precious  ornaments, 
statues  of  gold  and  silver,  as  likewise  great  part  of 
the  empire.  Tacitus  writes  in  his  Annals,  that  it  was 
twice  burned  and  rebuilt  ;  that  is,  in  the  fire  Tinder 
Nero,  and  in  the  sixth  year  of -Trajan.  According 
to  Dion,  it  was  burnt  the  third  time  under  the  em- 
peror Commodus  ;  and,  as  he  rebuilt  it,  it  was  called 
from  him  Colonia  Commodiana.  Various  emperors, 
abhorring  the  excess  of  so  much  riches  and  luxury, 
removed  the  most  valuable  part,  and  employed  it  for 
the  greater  ornament  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Capi- 
tolinus.  Antoninus  Pius,  detesting  the  extent  of  the 
palace,  contented  himself  with  the  part  called  Tibe- 
riana,  and  shut  up  the  rest.  All  this  magnificence, 
time,  and  especially  the  malignity  of  man,  have  de- 
stroyed, and  cypresses,  symbols  of  death  and  deso- 
lation, triumph  on  the  ruins." 

Its  present  condition  has  been  thus  described  by 
the  poet  : — 

Cypress  and  ivy,  weed  and  wallflower,  grown 

Matted  and  massed  together  ;  hillocks  heaped 
On  what  were  chambers,  arch  crushed,  column  strown 

In  fragments,  choked-up  vaults,  and  frescoes  steeped 
In  subterranean  damps,  where  the  owl  peeped, 

Deeming  it  midnight :  temples,  baths,  or  halls  ? 
Pronounce  who  can  ;  for  all  that  learning  reaped 

From  her  research  hath  been,  that  these  are  walls. 
Behold  the  Imperial  Mount !  'tis  thus  the  mighty  falls. 

Arches  were  public  buildings,*  designed  for  the 
reward  and  encouragement  of  noble  enterprises, 
erected  generally  to  the  honour  of  such  eminent 
persons  as  had  either  won  a  victory  of  extraordinary 
consequence  abroad,  or  had  rescued  the  common- 

*  Kennel. 


wealth  at  homo  from  considerable  danger.  At  first, 
they  were  plain  and  rude  structures,  by  no  means 
remarkable  for  beauty  or  state.  But  in  later  times 
no  expenses  were  thought  too  great  for  the  rendering 
them  in  the  highest  degree  splendid  and  magnificent; 
nothing  being  more  usual  than  to  have  the  greatest 
actions  of  the  heroes  they  stood  to  honour  curiously 
expressed,  or  the  whole  procession  of  the  triumph 
cut  out  on  the  sides.  The  arches  built  by  Romulu.s 
were  only  of  brick  ;  that  of  Camillus,  of  plain  square 
stone  ;  but  those  of  Caesar,  Drusus,  Titus,  Trajan, 
Gordian,  &c.,  were  entirely  of  marble. 

The  most  distinguished  of  these  arches  are  those 
of  Titus  and  Septfmius  Severus.  That  of  Gallienus 
is  a  mere  gateway,  and  that  of  Drusus  seems  part 
of  an  aqueduct ;  yet,  coarse  as  they  are,  each  has  its 
Corinthian  columns,  and  pediments  on  a  portion  of 
the  fronts.  That  of  Constantino  was  erected  after 
the  defeat  of  Maxentius,  and  was  so  contrived  that 
the  music  for  the  triumph  might  be  placed  in  it. 
When  the  procession  reached  the  arch,  the  band 
began  to  play,  and  continued  till  the  whole  had  passed 

The  arch  of  Titus  is  situate  on  the  eastern  decli- 
vity of  the  Palatine  Mount.  It  is  so  rich,  that 
some  regard  it  not  as  elegant.  The  entablature,  the 
imposts,  the  key-stones,  are  all  crowded  with  sculp- 
ture ;  yet  all,  according  to  the  taste  of  Mr.  Forsyth, 
are  meagre  in  profile.  It  was  erected  by  the  senate, 
in  gratitude  to  Titus  for  having  conquered  Jndea  and 
taken  Jerusalem.  It  is,  therefore,  one  of  the  most 
interesting  monuments  of  ancient  Rome  ;  and  so  sen- 
sibly do  the  Jews  still  feel  the  injury,  done  to  their 
nation,  that  none  of  them  can  be  tempted  to  pass 
tinder  it. 

The  triumph  is  represented  on  each  side  of  the 
arch  in  oblong  spaces,  seven  feet  in  height,  and 


nearly  fourteen  in  length.  The  emperor  appears  in 
a  triumphal  car  drawn  by  four  horses, — Victory 
crowning  him  with  a  laurel.  Rome  is  personified 
as  a  female.  She  conducts  the  horses  ;  lictors,  citi- 
zens, and  soldiers,  attending.  On  the  opposite  side 
is  represented  a  procession,  in  which  are  carried, ' 
by  persons  crowned  with  laurel  and  bearing  the 
Roman  standards,  various  spoils  taken  at  Jerusalem  ; 
such  as  the  silver  trumpets,  the  golden  table,  and 
the  golden  candlestick  with  seven  branches. 

The  arch  of  Severus  was  erected  in  honour  of  the 
emperor  Scptimius,  and  his  two  sons  Caracalla  and 
Geta,  on  account  of  victories  obtained  over  the 
Parthians.  We  know  from  history,  says  Dr. 
Burton,  that  he  made  two  expeditions  into  the 
East ;  the  first  in  19.5,  when  he  conquered  Vologeses  ; 
the  second  in  1 99,  when  he  took  Ctesiphon,  and  tho 
treasures  of  king  Artabanus.  Spartian  tells  us, 
that  he  triumphed  after  the  first  expedition ;  but 
refused  the  honour  the  second  time,  because  he  had 
the  gout.  His  son  triumphed  in  his  stead ;  and  it 
was  upon  this  occasion  that  the  arch  was  erected. 

This  triumphal  arch  consists  of  three ;  that  is,  a 
large  one  in  the  middle,  and  a  smaller  one  on  each 
side.  These  arches*  are  not  in  a  very  pure  style  of 
architecture ;  but  they  are  rich  and  handsome  objects. 
Four  projecting  columns  adorn  each  face,  and  the 
entablature  bricks  around  each  of  them.  Above  the 
columns  are  supposed  to  have  been  statues  ;  while, 
on  the  top,  as  we  learn  from  coins,  was  a  car  drawn 
by  six  horses  abreast,  containing  two  persons  in  it, 
and  having  on  each  side  an  attendant  on  horseback, 
followed  by  one  on  foot.  The  material  of  the  arch  is 
marble ;  and  each  front  is  covered,  between  the 
columns,  with  bas-reliefs.  These  bas-reliefs  illustrate 
the  campaigns  and  victories,  in  commemoration  of 

»  Wood. 


which  the  arch  was  erected.  But  the  whole  series, 
says  Dr.  Burton,  is  in  an  indifferent  style  of  sculpture, 
and  presents  but  a  poor  idea  of  the  state  of  the  arts 
at  that  time.  Mr.  Wood,  however,  regards  them, 
though  bad  in  design  as  well  as  execution,  as  con- 
tributing to  the  magnificence  of  the  edifice.  Mr. 
Forsyth,  however,  is  not  given  to  indulge  in  respect 
to  the  architecture ;  for  he  says,  that  the  composite 
starts  so  often  and  so  "  furiously  "  out,  the  poverty 
of  its  entablature  meets  you  in  so  many  points,  as 
to  leave  no  repose  to  the  eye.  Within  the  arch  is  a 
marble  staircase,  leading  by  fifty  steps  to  the  sum- 
mit. The  arch  itself  was  half  buried  so  late  as  the 
year  1803.  Several  excavations  had  been  made  ; 
but  the  loose  soil  had  slipped  down,  and  quickly 
filled  them  up  again.  Pope  Pius  VII.  was  more 
successful  in  the  attempt  than  his  predecessors  had 
been;  and  by  the  year  1804  the  whole  arch  had  been 
uncovered,  and  laid  open  down  to  the  bottom. 

The  site  of  the  temple  of  Romulus  is  now  occupied 
by  the  church  of  San  Teodoro,  a  small  rotunda. 
The  walls  are  of  great  antiquity,  and  marvellously 
perfect.  In  regard  to  the  temple  of  Romulus 
and  Remus,  few  buildings  have  occasioned  more 
disputes.  It  is  now  the  church  of  S.S.  Cosimo 
e  Damiano ;  the  vestibule,  several  porphyry  co- 
lumns, and  a  bronze  door  of  which  are  exceedingly 

The  temple  of  Vesta,  erected  by  Numa,  now 
forms  part  of  the  church  of  S.  Maria  del  Sola.  It  is 
of  Greek  architecture,  and  surrounded  by  a  portico 
of  nineteen  Corinthian  columns,  on  a  flight  of  steps, 
the  whole  of  Parian  marble.  The  roof  was  originally 
covered  with  bronze,  brought  from  Syracuse  ;  but 
that  has,  long  since,  been  replaced  by  materials 
much  less  costly. 

The  temple  of  Minerva  Medici  stands  in  a  garden 


on  the  Esquiline-hill ;  it  is  round  without,  but  forma 
a  decagon  within,  and  appears  to  have  had  ten  win- 
dows, and  nine  niches  for  statues.  Here  were  found 
statues  of  .ZEsculapius,  Venus,  Hercules,  the  Faun, 
and  that  of  Minerva  with  the  serpent. 

The  church  Sa.  Maria  in  Cosmedin  is  supposed  to 
have  been  the  temple  of  Puditia  Patricia,  or  Chastity, 
which  no  plebeian  was  allowed  to  enter.  Pope 
Adrian  I.  rebuilt  this  edifice  in  728,  retaining  the 
cella,  and  many  portions  of  the  ancient  temple. 

A  mean-looking  church,  called  Sa.  Maria  d'  Ara 
Coeli,  wholly  devoid  of  external  ornament,  is  sup- 
posed to  stand  on  the  site  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter 
Feretrius.  A  flight  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-four 
steps  of  marble,  brought  from  the  temple  of  Jupiter 
Quirinus,  forms  the  ascent  to  it  from  the  Campus 
Martius ;  the  interior  has  twenty-two  ancient  co- 
lumns of  granite,  and  the  whole  appears  to  be  an 
assemblage  of  fragments  of  other  buildings.  It  was 
whilst  musing  in  this  church,  "  whilst  the  friars  were 
singing  vespers  in  the  temple  of  Jupiter,"  that  Gibbon 
says  he  first  conceived  the  idea  of  writing  his  im- 
mortal history. 

The  beautiful  temple  of  Jupiter  Tonans  was  erected 
by  Augustus,  in  gratitude  for  his  escape  from  Hght- 
ning.  Only  three  of  the  thirty  columns  of  the  por- 
tico now  remain,  together  with  a  portion  of  the 
frieze.  They  are  of  Luna  marble,  four  feet  four 
inches  in  diameter,  with  Corinthian  capitals^  and 
appear  originally  to  have  been  tinged  with  Tyrian 

During  the  time  of  Claudius,  the  very  curious 
temple  of  Faunus  was  built  upon  the  Celian  mount. 
It  was  of  circular  form,  and  had  internally  two  rows 
of  Ionic  columns,  with  arches  springing  immediately 
from  the  capitals.  The  upper  windows  had  each  a 


column  in  the  middle,  with  arches  also  springing 
from  the  capitals ;  and  these  two  arches  were  en- 
closed by  a  semicircular  arch,  which  had  its  spring- 
ing upon  the  jambs  of  the  windows ;  and,  rising 
higher,  left  a  considerable  space  between  it  and  the 
two  before-mentioned  small  arches,  in  which  space 
was  a  circular  opening.  This  is  particularly  noticed 
as  an  early  and  distinct  type  of  what  was  afterwards 
named  Saxon,  Norman,  and  Gothic. 

The  temple  of  Concord  was  the  place  in  which  Len- 
tulus  and  other  confederates  of  Catiline  were  brought 
before  the  senate  in  order  to  be  tried,  and  whence  they 
were  taken  to  the  Mameriine  prisons.  "  For  my  own 
part,"  says  Middleton,  "  as  oft  as  I  have  been  wan- 
dering about  in  the  very  rostra  of  old  Rome,  or  in 
that  of  the  temple  of  Concord,  where  Tully  assembled 
the  senate  in  Catiline's  conspiracy,  I  could  not  help 
fancying  myself  much  more  sensible  of  the  force  of 
hia  eloquence ;  whilst  the  impression  of  the  place 
served  .to  warm  my  imagination  to  a  degree  almost 
equal  to  that  of  his  old  audience."  Of  late  years, 
however,  these  ruins  have  been  ascribed  to  the 
temple  of  Fortune,  burnt  in  the  time  of  Maxentius, 
the  competitor  of  Constantine. 

The  temple  of  Fortune  was,  for  a  long  time,  taken 
for  the  temple  of  Concord.  Its  portico  is  nearly 
complete ;  consisting  of  six  granite  columns  in  front, 
and  two  behind,  supporting  an  entablature  and  pedi- 
ment. The  columns  all  vary  in  diameter,  and  have 
bases  and  capitals  of  white  marble.  From  this  cir- 
cumstance it  is  conjectured  that  it  was  erected  with 
the  spoils  of  other  buildings ;  their  original  temple, 
burnt  in  the  time  of  Maxentius,  having  been  rebuilt 
by  Constantine. 

The  temple  of  Nerva  was  erected  by  Trajan.  It 
was  one  of  the  finest  edifices  of  ancient  Rome  ;  but 


all  that  now  remains  of  it  is  a  cella,  and  three  fine 
columns  of  Parian  marble,  fifty  feet  in  height,  sup- 
porting an  architrave. 

The  temple  of  Peace*,  erected  by  Vespasian,  was 
enriched  with  spoils  from  Jerusalem.  This  temple 
is  related  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  magnificent 
in  Rome:  it  was  encircled  with  a  coating  of  gilt 
bronze,  and  adorned  with  stupendous  columns  of 
white  marble;  it  was  also  enriched  with  some  of  the 
finest  sculptures  and  paintings  of  which  the  ancient 
world  could  boastt.  Among  the  former  was  a 
colossal  statue  of  the  Nile,  surrounded  by  sixteen 
children,  cut  out  of  one  block  of  basalt;  among  the 
latter  was  the  famous  picture  of  Jalysus,  painted  by 
Protogenes  of  Rhodes.  Here,  too,  were  deposited 
the  candlesticks,  and  some  other  of  the  spoils,  which 
Titus  brought  from  Jerusalem.  There  was  also  a 
curious  library  attached  to  the  edifice. 

Three  immense  arches,  which  rank  amongst  th« 
most  remarkable  remains  in  Rome,  are  all  that  are 
left  of  this  once  stupendous  structure,  which,  until 
lately,  was  supposed  to  be  the  temple  of  Peace, 
erected  by  Yespasian  at  the  close  of  the  Judean  war. 
But  the  great  degeneracy  of  the  workmanship,  and 
its  being  wholly  unlike  all  erections  of  that  nature, 
has  led  to  the  opinion  that  the  remains  are  neither 
of  the  time  of  Vespasian,  nor  those  of  the  temple, 
which,  with  all  the  immense  treasures  it  contained, 
was  destroyed  by  fire,  about  one  hundred  years  after 
its  erection;  but  of  a  Basilica;}:,  erected  by  Maxentius 

*   Anon.  f  Burford. 

J  The  Basilicse  were  very  spacious  and  beautiful  edifices,  de- 
signed chiefly  for  the  centumviri,  or  the  judges  to  sit  in  and  hear 
causes,  and  for  the  counsellors  to  receive  clients.  The  bankers, 
too,  had  one  part  of  it  allotted  for  their  residence.  Vossius  has 
observed,  that  these  Basilicas  were  exactly  in  the  shape  of  our 
churches,  oblong  almost  like  a  ship;  which  was  the  reason  that  upon 
iL«  ruin  of  §o  many  of  them  Christian  churches  weie  several  tiu;es 


on  the  ruins  of  the  temple,  and  converted  by  Con- 
stantine  into  a  Christian  church.  The  stupendous 
proportions  of  this  structure  are  shown  by  the  three 
vaulted  roofs,  each  seventy-five  feet  across,  which 
rise  above  the  surrounding  buildings  in  huge  but  not 
ungainly  masses.  The  vault  of  the  middle  arch,  which 
is  placed  further  back,  forms  part  of  a  sphere;  the 
side  ones  are  cylindrical;  all  are  ornamented  with 
sunk  panels  of  stucco-work.  The  church  appears  to 
have  consisted  of  a  nave  and  two  aisles,  divided  by 
enormous  pillars  of  marble,  one  of  which  now  stands 
in  front  of  the  church  of  La  Maria  Maggiore.  It  is 
of  a  single  block,  of  forty-eight  feet  in  height,  and 
sixteen  and  a  half  in  circumference. 

Of  the  fine  temple,  di  Venere  e  Roma,*  the  cella 
of  each  deity  remains,  with  the  niches,  in  which 
were  their  statues,  and  a  portion  of  one  of  the  side 
walls,  which  prove  it  to  have  been  of  vast  size,  great 
magnificence,  and  a  chef-d'oeuvre  of  architecture. 
The  emperor  Adrian  himself  drew  the  plans,  which 
he  submitted  to  Apollodorus,  whose  opinion  respect- 
ing them  is  said  to  have  been  the  cause  of  his 
untimely  death.  The  temples,  although  they  had 
each  a  separate  entrance  and  cella,  formed  but  one 
edifice ;  the  substructure  of  which,  having  been 
recently  excavated,  is  found  to  have  been  three 
hundred  and  thirty  by  one  hundred  and  sixty  feet. 
A  noble  flight  of  steps,  discovered  at  the  same  time, 
between  the  arch  of  Titus  and  the  church  of  St. 
Francesco,  formed  the  approach  of  the  Forum,  which 
front,  as  well  as  that  towards  the  Coliseum,  was 
adorned  with  columns  of  Parian  marble,  six  feet  in 
diameter ;  and  the  whole  was  surrounded  by  a  por- 

raised   on   the  old   foundations,   and  very   often    a  whole   Basilica 
converted  to  such  a  pious   use  ;  ami   hence,  perhaps,  all  our  great 
doraos  or  cathedrals  are  still  called  Basilica;. 
*  Burford. 

OP    ANCIENT    CITIES.  289 

tico,  with  a  double  row  of  columns  of  grey  granite. 
The  walls  and  pavement  of  the  interior  were  incrusted 
with  fine  marble,  and  the  roof  richly  gilt. 

The  Temple  of  Antoninus  was  erected  by  Marcus 
Aurelius  in  178,  in  memory  of  Antoninus  and 
his  consort  Faustina.  The  original  portico,  con- 
sisting of  ten  Corinthian  columns  of  Cippolino 
marble,  and  a  portion  of  the  temple  itself,  now  form 
the  church  of  S.  Lorenzo  in  Miranda. 

The  column  of  Marcus  Aurelius  Antoninus  was 
erected  by  the  senate  in  honour  of  that  illustrious 
emperor.  Bassi-rilievi  run  spirally  from  the  bottom 
to  the  top,  representing  the  Marcomannian  war.  It 
is  composed  of  twenty-six  blocks  of  Parian  marble, 
and  is  one  hundred  and  twenty -three  feet  in  height. 
The  statue  of  the  emperor  once  stood  on  its  summit, 
but  it  has  been  replaced  by  that  of  St.  Paul. 

This  leads  us  to  speak  of  the  great  statue  of  the 
same  emperor.  The  horse  was  so  greatly  admired 
by  Michael  Angelo,  that  when  he  first  saw  it,  he 
looked  at  it  in  silence  for  some  time,  and  then  said, 
"  Go  on!"  "  This  great  statue  of  Marcus  Aurelius," 
says  Mr.  Forsyth,  "  or  rather  of  his  horse,  which 
was  once  the  idol  of  Rome,  is  now  a  subject  of  con- 
tention. Some  critics  find  the  proportions  of  the 
animal  false,  and  his  attitude  impossible.  One  com- 
pares his  head  to  an  owl,  another  his  belly  to  a  cow's, 
but  the  well-known  apostrophe  of  a  third  (Michael 
Angelo)  will  ever  prevail  in  your  first  impressions. 
The  spirit  and  fire  of  the  general  figure  will  seduce 
the  most  practised  eye.  Ancient  sculptors,  intent 
only  on  man,  are  supposed  to  have  neglected  the 
study  of  animals;  and  we  certainly  find  very  rude 
accessories  affixed  to  some  exquisite  antiques.  Per- 
haps they  affected  such  contrasts  as  strike  us  in  the 
work  of  the  Faun  and  his  panther,  the  Meleager  and 
his  dogs,  the  Apollo  and  his  swans,  where  tho 

VOL.  II.  U 


accessory  serves  as  a  foil.  The  horse,  however, 
comes  so  frequently  into  heroic  subjects,  that  the 
greatest  artists  of  antiquity  must  have  made  him 
their  particular  study,  and  we  are  told  that  they  did 
so;  but  it  were  unfair  to  judge  of  their  excellence 
from  this  bruised  and  unfortunate  animal." 

This  celebrated  statue  is  the  only  one  of  bronze  of 
all  that  adorned  the  city  in  ancient  times.  It  has 
been  called,  at  different  periods,  by  the  names  of 
Lucius  Verus,  Septimius  Severus,  and  Constantino. 
It  was  placed  in  its  present  position  by  Paul  III.  in 
1538,  being  then  removed  from  before  the  church  of 
St.  John  Lateran.  A  bunch  of  flowers  is  said  to 
be  presented  every  year  to  the  chapter  of  St.  John, 
as  an  acknowledgment,  that  the  statue  belongs  to 
them ;  but  this  Sir  John  Hobhouse  denies.  The 
statue  was  originally  gilt ;  the  coating  laid  on,  ac- 
cording to  the  practice  of  the  ancients,  in  very  thick 
leaves;  and  some  traces  of  it  may  still  be  observed. 

We  now  turn  to  the  Coliseum.  The  shows  of  wild 
beasts  were  in  general  designed  for  the  honour  of 
Diana,  the  patroness  of  hunting.  For  this  purpose, 
no  cost  was  spared  to  fetch  the  different  creatures 
•from  the  farthest  parts  of  the  world. 

Part  in  laden  vessels  came, 
Borne  on  the  rougher  waves,  or  gentler  stream  ; 
The  fainting  man  let  fall  his  trembling  oar, 
And  the  pale  master  feared  the  freight  he  bore. 

And  shortly  after, 

All  that  with  potent  teeth  command  the  plain, 
All  tliat  run  horrid  with  erected  mane, 
Or  proud  of  stately  horns,  or  bristling  hair, 
At  once  the  forest's  ornament  and  fear ; 
Torn  from  their  deserts  by  the  Roman  power, 
Nor  strength  can  save,  nor  craggy  dens  secure". 

Some  creatures  were  presented  merely  as  str.tnge 
sights  and  rarities ;  as  crocodiles,  and  several  out- 


landish  birds  and  beasts :  others  for  the  combat,  as 
lions,  tigers,  leopards,  &c.  We  may  reckon  up  three 
sorts  of  diversions  with  the  beasts,  which  all  went 
under  the  common  name  of  Venatio  : — The  first, 
when  the  people  were  permitted  to  run  after  the 
beasts,  and  catch  what  they  could  for  their  own 
use$  the  second,  when  the  beasts  fought  with  one 
another ;  and  the  last,  when  they  were  brought  out 
to  engage  with  men.* 

The  fights  between  beasts  were  exhibited  with 
great  variety ;  sometimes  a  tiger  was  matched  with 
a  lion  ;  sometimes  a  lion  with  a  bull ;  a  bull  with  an 
elephant ;  a  rhinoceros  with  a  bear,  &c.  But  the 
most  wonderful  sight  was,  when  by  bringing  water 
into  the  amphitheatre,  huge  sea-monsters  were  in- 
troduced to  combat  with  wild  beasts  :  — 

No  sylvan  monsters  we  alone  have  view'd, 
But  huge  sea  calves,  dyed  red  with  hostile  hlood 
Of  bears,  lie  floundering  in  the  wondrous  flood. 

CALPHURN.  Eclog.  vii. 

The  men,  that  engaged  with  wild  beasts,  had  the 
common  name  of  Bestiarii.  Some  of  these  were 
condemned  persons ;  others  hired  themselves  at  a 
set  pay,  like  the  Gladiators ;  and  like  them,  too, 
had  their  schools  where  they  were  instructed  and 
initiated  in  such  combats.  We  find  several  of  the 
nobility  and  gentry  many  times  voluntarily  under- 
taking a  part  in  these  encounters ;  and  Juvenal 
acquaints  us,  that  the  very  women  were  ambitious 
of  showing  their  courage  on  the  like  occasions, 
though  with  the  forfeiture  of  their  modesty. 

One  of  the  best  accounts  of  this  wonderful  edifice,  is 
that  given  in  Buiford's  account  of  the  Panorama 
painted  by  himself,  and  now  (1839,)  exhibiting  in  Lei- 
cester Square,  London.  "  The  far-famed  amphithe- 
atre of  Vespasian,  or,  as  it  is  more  generally  called, 

*   Kcnnet. 


the  Coliseum,  is  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  and 
massive  works,  that  Rome,  or  any  other  country, 
ever  produced ;  and  forms  one  of  the  most  surpris- 
ing, and  intensely  interesting,  objects  of  attraction 
amongst  the  many  gigantic  remains  of  that  ancient 
city.  In  whatever  way  it  is  viewed,  whether  as 
regards  its  immense  size,  the  solidity  of  its  structure, 
the  simplicity  and  harmony  of  its  architecture,  the 
grace  and  beauty  of  its  proportions,  or  its  internal 
arrangement  and  convenience,  it  equally  strikes  the 
mind  with  wonder  and  admiration ;  and  is  univer- 
sally admitted  to  be  one  of  the  noblest  remains  of 
antiquity  in  the  world.  Placed  at  some  distance 
from  the  gorgeous  churches,  extensive  palaces,  and 
busy  streets  of  modern  Rome,  it  stands  alone  in 
solitary  dignity  and  gloomy  contrast ;  elevating  its 
stupendous  masses  from  above  the  surrounding  ruins 
of  the  imperial  city;  a  striking  image  of  Rome  itself 
in  its  present  state,  erect  on  the  one  side,  fallen  on 
the  other ;  half  grey,  half  green,  deserted  and  decay- 
ing :  a  splendid  and  melancholy  monument  of  past 
greatness;  and  no  monument  of  human  power,  no  me- 
morial of  departed  ages,  ever  spoke  more  forcibly  to 
the  heart,  or  awakened  feelings  so  powerful,  and  un- 
utterable. The  Coliseum  was  commenced  by  Fla- 
vius  Vespasian,  in  the  year  72,  as  a  triumphal 
memorial  of  his  victories  in  Judea ;  and  it  also 
served  to  perpetuate  the  recollection  of  the  many 
horrid  cruelties,  committed  by  the  conquering  Ro- 
mans during  that  war.  It  was  erected,  according 
to  Martial  and  Pliny,  on  the  spot  formerly  occupied 
by  a  lake  or  fish-pond,  in  the  gardens  of  Nero's 
golden  house,  then  nearly  the  centre  of  the  city. 
Twelve  thousand  Jewish  prisoners,  reduced  to  sla- 
very, were  employed  on  the  work ;  and  when  it  is 
considered,  that  so  large  and  solid  an  edifice  was 
completed  in  little  more  than  four  years,  it  becomes 


clearly  evident,  that  the  utmost  cruelty  and  oppres- 
sion must  have  be^n  resorted  to,  to  compel  these 
unfortunates  to  complete  the  task.  Titus,  the  son  of 
Vespasian,  finished  the  building ;  and  on  its  dedica- 
tion exhibited  shows  and  games  for  one  hundred 
days,  during  which  numbers  of  gladiators  were 
killed,  and  five  thousand  wild  beasts  were  torn  to 
pieces  in  the  arena." 

This  vast  amphitheatre  is  of  an  elliptical  shape, 
which  gives  it  great  powers  of  resistance.  Accord- 
ing to  the  best  and  most  recent  measurement,  it 
must  be  about  one  thousand  one  hundred  and  eighty 
eight  feet  in  external  circumference,  the  long  axis 
being  six  hundred  and  twenty-eight,  the  short  five 
hundred  and  forty,  and  the  total  height  one  hundred 
and  sixty  feet.*  The  whole  is  a  vast  mixed  mass  of 
enormous  blocks  of  stone  and  bricks,  (probably  por- 
tions of  the  golden  palace),  metal  and  cement,  which 
have  become  so  hardened  by  time,  as  to  be  like  solid 
rock.  The  exterior  was  entirely  of  calcareous  tufa  of 
Tivoli,  called  travertine,  a  fine  hard  and  white  stone. 
It  presents  a  series  of  three  ranges  of  open  arcades, 
so  airy  and  correct  in  their  proportions,  that  the 
building  does  not  appear  so  large  as  it  really  is. 
Each  tier  consisted  of  thirty  arches ;  the  columns 
between  which,  together  with  the  entablatures,  dis- 
playing different  orders  of  architecture,  the  lowest 
being  Doric,  the  second  Ionic,  and  the  third  Corin- 
thian, surmounted  by  an  attic  story,  with  Composite 
pilasters,  and  forty  windows.  The  two  upper  tiers 
of  arches,  which  have  the  remains  of  pedestals  for 
statues  in  them,  admitted  light  to  the  various  ambu- 
lacra or  corridors,  which  were  quadrangular  at  the 

*  Some  give  the  dimensions  thus: — Greatest  length  six  hun- 
dred and  twenty-one  feet ;  greatest  breadth  five  hundred  and  thir- 
teen ;  outer  wall  one  hundred  and  fifty-seven  feet  h'gh  in  its  whole 


base,  diminishing  in  number  and  size  as  they  ascended, 
and  terminating  in  a  single  passage  at  the  top.  The 
lowest  tier  of  arches  were  the  entrances,  seventy-six 
of  which  were  for  the  emperor,  finely  ornamented ; 
one  for  the  spectators,  of  various  denominations ; 
and  one  for  the  consuls,  senators,  &c.  ;  and  two 
for  the  gladiators,  animals,  &c.  ,  These  entrances 
led  to  the  various  staircases  by  which  the  populace 
gained  the  different  dormitories,  and  descended  by 
narrow  flights  of  steps,  to  the  graduated  ranges  of 
seats.  Altogether  there  were  one  hundred  and  sixty 
staircases  :  that  is, — to  the  first  floor,  sixty-four ;  to 
the  second,  fifty-two ;  to  the  third,  sixteen ;  to  the 
fourth,  twenty-four ;  and  four  to  the  extreme  top,  for 
the  workmen.  In  the  four  ambulacra  on  the  ground 
floor,  were  shops,  taverns,  stables,  and  rooms  for 
refreshments,  and  places  where  perfumes  were  burned. 
There  was  also  a  fifth,  or  private  passage,  under  the 
pulvinar,  for  the  use  of  the  emperor,  which  communi- 
cated subterraneously  with  the  palace.  In  the  tier 
above  were  twenty -two  small  vaulted  chambers, 
called  fornices,  devoted  to  the  sensual  pleasures  of 
the  privileged  classes. 

It  is  impossible  to  say  at  what  period  the  amphi- 
theatre was  first  suffered  to  decay.  The  sanguinary 
exhibitions  of  the  gladiators  were  abolished  in  the 
reign  of  Honorius,  at  the  commencement  of  the  fifth 
century  ;  yet  so  late  as  1632,  it  must  have  been  per- 
fect, as  bull-fights,  and  other  games,  were  at  that  time 
exhibited.  A  great  portion  of  the  southern  side  was 
demolished  by  order  of  Paul  III.  it  is  said  at  the 
recommendation  of  Michael  Angelo,  to  furnish  mate- 
rials for  the  Farnese  palace  for  his  nephew,  and  the 
complaints  of  the  populace  alone  saved  it  from  total 
demolition.  It  has  however  since  suffered  frequently 
from  similar  depredations  of  worse  than  Goths  and 
Vandals,  so  that 


"  From  its  mass, 
Walls,  palaces,  half 'cities  have  been  rear'd." 

Those  robberies  have  now  ceased  ;  Benedict  XIV. 
having,  by  the  erection  of  a  series  of  altars  in  the 
arena,  made  the  whole  consecrated  ground ;  a  most 
efficient  protection  against  the  ravages  of  modern 
barbarism.  Pius  has  also  erected  a  massive  buttress 
against  the  weakest  end,  and  repaired  some  parts  of 
the  interior.  Thus,  after  a  lapse  of  nearly  eighteen 
centuries,  having  frequently  suffered  from  earth  quakes, 
storms,  and  fire ;  having  been  several  times  battered 
as  a  fortress,  during  the  civil  contentions  of  the  mid- 
dle ages  ;  defaced  as  a  quarter  for  soldiers  ;  used  as  a 
manufactory,  and  worked  as  a  quarry,  it  still  remains 
a  miracle  of  human  labour  and  ingenuity,  and  is,  even 
in  its  present  state,  one  of  the  noblest  remains  of  anti- 
quity, and  the  most  wonderful  monument  of  Roman 
magnificence.  Solitary  and  desolated,  it  is  still  grand 
and  imposing ;  the  rich  hues  which  time  has  over- 
spread its  venerable  fragments  with,  the  luxuriant 
clusters  of  vegetation,  and  the  graceful  drapery  of 
numerous  beautiful  creepers,  festooning  from  the 
rifted  arches,  and  broken  arcades,  whilst  assimilating 
with  the  general  character,  add  an  indescribable  rich- 
ness and  variety  to  the  whole,  that  has  a  powerful 
effect  on  the  mind  of  the  spectator. 

When  the  whole  amphitheatre  was  entire*,  a  child 
might  comprehend  its  design  in  a  moment,  and  go 
direct  to  his  place  without  straying  in  the  porticoes  ; 
for  each  arcade  bears  its  number  engraved,  and  oppo- 
site each  arcade  was  a  staircase.  This  multiplicity  of 
wide,  straight,  and  separate  passages,  proves  the  at- 
tention which  the  ancients  paid  to  the  safe  discharge 
of  a  crowd.  t  As  it  now  stands,  the  Coliseum  is  a 
striking  image  of  Home  itself ; — decayed,  vacant,  se- 
rious ;  yet  grand  : — half  grey,  and  half  green  ;  erect 

*  Forsytb.  f  Ibid. 


on  one  side  and  fallen  on  the  other,  with  consecrated 
ground  in  its  bosom,  inhabited  by  a  herdsman  ;  visit- 
ed by  every  caste :  for  moralists,  antiquaries,  painters, 
architects,  devotees,  all  meet  here  to  meditate,  to  ex- 
amine, to  draw,  to  measure,  and  to  copy. 

The  figure  of  the  Coliseum  was  an  ellipse,  whose 
longer  diameter  was  about  six  hundred  and  fifteen 
English  feet,  and  the  shorter  five  hundred  and  ten  feet. 
The  longer  diameter  of  the  arena,  or  space  within, 
was  about  two  hundred  and  eighty-one  feet,  and 
the  shorter  one  hundred  and  seventy-six  feet,  leav- 
ing the  circuit  for  seats  and  galleries,  of  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty-seven  feet  in  breadth.  The  out- 
ward circumference  when  complete  was  about  seven- 
teen hundred  and  seventy-two  feet,  covering  a  surface 
of  about  two  hundred  and  forty-six  thousand,  six  hun- 
dred and  sixty-one  feet,  or  something  more  than  five 
acres  and  a  half.  When  some  pilgrims*  who  journeyed 
to  Rome  beheld  this  vast  amphitheatre,  they  are  said  to 
have  exclaimed,  "  As  long  as  the  Coliseum  stands, 
Rome  shall  stand ;  when  the  Coliseum  falls,  Rome 
will  fall ;  and  when  Rome  falls,  the  world  will  fall.'" 

t  It  is  impossible  to  contemplate  without  horror 
the  dreadful  scenes  of  carnage  which  for  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  years  disgraced  the  amphitheatre,  or 
to  regard  without  utter  detestation  the  character  of 
the  people  who  took  pleasure  in  spectacles  of  such 
monstrous  brutality.  We  may  form  some  idea  of  the 
myriads  of  men  and  animals  destroyed  in  these  houses 
of  slaughter,  from  one  instance  which  is  recorded  by 
Dio.  He  informs  us  that  after  the  triumph  of  Trajan 
over  the  Dacians,  spectacles  were  exhibited  for  one 
hundred  and  twenty-three  days,  in  which  eleven 
thousand  animals  were  killed,  and  one  thousand  gla- 
diators were  matched  against  each  other.  Nor  was 
it  only  malefactors,  captives,  and  slaves,  that  were 
*  Bede.  t  Brewstcr. 


doomed  to  contend  in  these  dreadful  games:  free-born 
citizens  hired  themselves  as  gladiators,  men  of  noble 
birth  sometimes  degraded  themselves  so  far  as  to 
fight  on  the  stage  for  the  amusement  of  their  country- 
men,— even  women,  ladies  too  of  high  rank,  forget- 
ting the  native  delicacy  and  the  feebleness  of  their 
sex,  strove  on  the  arena  for  the  prize  of  valour  for  the 
honour  of  adroitness  in  murder.  A  people  thus  in- 
tred  to  blood,  were  prepared  for  every  villany ;  nor 
ii  it  possible  to  read  of  the  enormities  which  disgraced 
t»e  transactions  of  the  later  Romans,  without  ascrib- 
inj  them  in  a  great  measure  to  the  ferocity  of  temper, 
foiered  by  the  shocking  amusements  of  the  amphi- 

'  The  Coliseo,"   says  Dupaty,  "  is  unquestionably 

the  nost  admirable  monument  of  the  Roman  power 

und<?  theCaesars.   From  itsvast  circuit, from  the  mul- 

titud  of  stones  of  which  it  is  formed,  from  that  union 

of  colmins  of  every  order,  which  rise  up  one  above  the 

other,  in  a  circular"  form,   to   support  three  rows  of 

porticos  ;  from  all  the  dimensions,  in  a  word,  of  this 

prodigius  edifice,  we  instantly  recognise  the  work 

of  a  peule,  sovereigns  of  the  universe,  and  slaves  of 

an  empror.     I  wandered  long  around  the  Coliseo, 

withoutyenturing,  if  I  may  so  say,  to  enter  it :  my 

eyes  sureyed  it  with   admiration  and  awe.     Not 

more  tha  one  half  of  this  vast  edifice  at  present  is 

standing  ;yet  the  imagination  may  still  add  what 

has   been  lestroyed,  and  complete  the  whole.     At 

length    I  ntered    within   its  precincts.     What  an 

astonishingcene  !  What  contrasts  !  What  a  display 

of  ruins,  an  of  all  the  parts  of  the  monument,    of 

every  form,  every   age,   and,  as  I  may  say,  every 

year ;   some  earing  the  marks  of  the  hand  of  time, 

and   others  o  the  hand   of  the    barbarian.      These 

crumbled  do\i  yesterday,  those  a  few  clays  before, 

a  great  numb*  On  the  point  of  falling,  and  some,  in 


short,  which  are  falling  from  one  moment  to  another. 
Here  we  see  a  tottering  portico,  there  a  falling  enta- 
blament,  and  further  on,  a  seat ;  while,  in  the  mean- 
while, the  ivy,  the  bramble,   the  moss,  and  various 
plants,  creep  amongst  these  ruins,  grow,  and  insi- 
nuate themselves;   and,  taking  root  in  the  cement,  are 
continually  detaching,  separating,  and   reducing   to 
powder  these   enormous  masses  ;  the  work  of  ages, 
piled  on  each  other  by  the  will  of  an  emperor,  anl 
the  labour  of  a  hundred  thousand  slaves.       The'e 
was    it  then  that  gladiators,  martyrs,    and    slav»s, 
combated  on  the  Roman  festivals,   only  to  make  ;he 
blood  circulate  a  little  quicker  in  the   veins   o'  a 
hundred  thousand  idle  spectators.     I  thought  I  still 
heard  the  roaring  of  the  lions,  the  sighs  of  the  d'ing, 
the  voice  of  the  executioners,  and  what  would  srike 
my  ear  with  still  greater  horror,   the  applaues  of 
the   Romans.     I  thought  I    heard  them,   by  these 
applauses,  encouraging  and  demanding  carnap ;  the 
men  requiring  still  more  blood  from  the  comhtants; 
and  the  women,  more  mercy  for  the  dying.    I  ima- 

fined   I    beheld    one   of  these   women,  yofig   and 
eautiful,  on  the  fall  of  a  gladiator,  rise  fron'her  seat 
and  with  an  eye  which  had  just  caressec  a  lover, 
welcome,  or  repel,  find  fault  with,  or  applavl,  the  last 
sigh  of  the  vanquished,  as  if  she  had  paid'or  it. 

"  But  what  a  change  has  taken  place  in  iiis  arena  ! 
In  the  middle  stands  a  crucifix,  and  alLround  this 
crucifix,  at  equal  distances,  fourteen  £ars,  conse- 
crated to  different  saints,  are  erected  n  the  dens, 
which  once  contained  the  wild  beasts.  The  Coliseo 
was  daily  hastening  to  destruction ;  th  stones  were 
carried  off,  and  it  was  constantly  ^figured,  and 
made  the  receptacle  of  filth  ;  when  fnedict  XIV. 
conceived  the  idea  of  saving  this  nobl  monument  by 
consecrating  it ;  by  defending  it  with  Itars,  and  pro- 
tecting it  with  indulgences.  THe  walls,  these 


columns,  and  these  porticoes,  have  now  no  other  sup- 
port but  the  names  of  those  very  martyrs  with 
whose  blood  they  were  formerly  stained.  I  walked 
through  every  part  of  the  Coliseo ;  I  ascended  into 
all  its  different  stories ;  and  sat  down  in  the  box  of 
the  emperors.  I  shall  long  remember  the  silence  and 
solitude  that  reigned  through  these  galleries,  along 
these  ranges  of  seats,  and  under  these  vaulted  por- 
ticoes. I  stopped  from  time  to  time  to  listen  to  the 
echo  of  my  feet  in  walking.  I  was  delighted,  too, 
with  attending  to  a  certain  faint  rustling,  more 
sensible  to  the  soul  than  to  the  ear,  occasioned  by 
the  hand  of  time,  which  is  continually  at  work,  and 
undermining  the  Coliseo  on  every  side.  What  plea- 
sure did  I  not  enjoy,  too,  in  observing  how  the  day 
gradually  retired,  and  the  night  as  gradually  ad- 
vanced over  the  arcades,  spreading  her  lengthening 
shadows.  At  length  I  was  obliged  to  retire ;  with 
my  mind, 'however,  filled  with  and  absorbed  in  a 
thousand  ideas,  a  thousand  sensations,  which  can 
only  arise  among  these  ruins,  and  which  these 
ruins  in  some  degree  inspire.  Where  are  the  five 
thousand  wild  beasts  that  tore  each  other  to  pieces,  on 
the  day  on  which  this  mighty  pile  was  opened  ? 
Silent  now  are  those  unnatural  snouts  of  applause, 
called  forth  by  the  murderous  fights  of  the  gladiators : 
— What  a  contrast  to  this  death  of  sound  !  " 

"Ascending  among  the  ruins,"  says  Mr.  Williams, 
"  we  took  our  station  where  the  whole  magnitude 
of  the  Coliseum  was  visible.  What  a  fulness 
of  mind  the  first  glance  excited ;  yet  how  inex- 
pressible, at  the  same  time,  were  our  feelings  !  The 
awful  silence  of  this  dread  ruin  still  appealed  to  our 
hearts.  The  single  sentinel's  tread,  and  the  ticking 
of  our  watches,  were  the  only  sounds  we  heard, 
while  the  moon  was  marching  in  the  vault  of  night, 
and  the  stars  were  peeping  through  the  various 


openings  ;  the  shadows  of  the  flying  clouds  being  all 
that  reminded  us  of  life  and  of  motion." 

The  manner,  in  which  the  traveller  should  survey 
the  curiosities  of  Rome,  must  be  determined  by  the 
length  of  time  which  he  can  afford  for  that  purpose. 
"  There  are  two  modes  of  seeing  Rome,"  says  Mr. 
Mathews ;  "  the  topographical,  followed  by  Vasi, 
who  parcels  out  the  town  into  eight  divisions,  and 
jumbles  every  thing  together, — antiquities,  churches, 
and  palaces,  if  their  situation  be  contiguous ;  and 
the  chronological, — which  would  carry  you  regularly 
from  the  house  of  Romulus  to  the  palace  of  the 
reigning  pontiff.  The  first  mode  is  the  most  expedi- 
tious, and  the  least  expensive  ;  for  even  if  the  tra- 
veller walk  afoot,  the  economy  of  time  is  worth  con- 
sidering ;  and  after  all  that  can  be  urged  in  favour 
of  the  chronological  order,  on  the  score  of  reason, 
Vasi's  plan  is  perhaps  the  best.  For  all  that  is 
worth  seeing  at  all  is  worth  seeing  twice.  Vasi's 
mode  hurries  you  through  every  thing ;  but  it  enables 
you  to  select  and  note  down  those  objects  that  are 
worthy  of  public  examination,  and  these  may  be 
afterwards  studied  at  leisure.  Of  the  great  majority 
of  sights  it  must  be  confessed  that  all  we  obtain  for 
our  labour  is  the  knowledge  that  they  are  not  worth 
seeing ; — but  this  is  a  knowledge,  that  no  one  is 
willing  to  receive  upon  the  authority  of  another,  and 
Vasi's  plan  offers  a  most  expeditious  mode  of  arriving 
at  this  truth  by  one's  own  proper  experience.  His 
plan  is,  however,  too  expeditious  ;  for  he  would  get 
through  the  whole  town,  with  all  its  wonders,  ancient 
and  modern,  in  eight  days  !  " 

Expeditious  as  it  is,  some  of  our  indefatigable 
countrymen  have  contrived  to  hit  upon  one  still 
more  so.  You  may  tell  them  that  the  antiquaries 
allow  eight  days  for  the  tour,  and  they  will  boast 
of  having  beaten  the  antiquaries,  and  "  done  it  in 

OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  301 

six."  This  rapid  system  may  do,  or  rather  must  do, 
for  those  who  have  no  time  for  any  other ;  but-  to 
the  traveller  who  wishes  to  derive  instruction  and 
profit  from  his  visit,  a  more  leisurely  survey  is 
essential.  "  For  my  own  part,"  says  Mr.  Woods, 
"  the  first  eight  days  I  spent  in  Rome  were  all  hurry 
and  confusion,  and  I  could  attend  to  nothing  syste- 
matically, nor  even  examine  any  thing  with  accuracy ; 
a  sort  of  restless  eagerness  to  see  every  thing  and 
know  every  thing,  gave  me  no  power  of  fixing  my 
attention  on  any  one  particular." 

We  must  now  close  our  account :  not  that  we 
have  by  any  means  exhausted  the  subject,  for  it  de- 
mands volumes  and  years ;  whereas  our  space  is 
limited,  and  our  time  is  short.  We  shall,  therefore, 
devote  the  remainder  of  our  space  and  time  to  the 
impressions  with  which  the  ruins  of  this  city  have 
been  viewed  by  several  elegant  and  accomplished 

"  At  length  I  behold  Rome,"  said  Dupaty.  "  I 
behold  that  theatre,  where  human  nature  has  been 
all  that  it  can  ever  be,  has  performed  every  thing  it 
can  perform,  has  displayed  all  the  virtues,  exhibited 
all  the  vices,  brought  forth  the  sublimest  heroes, 
and  the  most  execrable  monsters,  has  been  elevated 
to  a  Brutus,  degraded  to  a  Nero,  and  re-ascended 
to  a  Marcus  Aurelius." 

"  Even  those  who  have  not  read  at  all,"  says  Dr. 
Burton,  "  know,  perhaps,  more  of  the  Romans  than 
of  any  other  nation*  which  has  figured  in  the  world. 
If  we  prefer  modern  history  to  ancient,  we  still  find 
Rome  in  every  page  ;  and  if  we  look  with  composure 
upon  an  event  so  antiquated  as  the  fall  of  the  Roman 
empire,  we  cannot,  as  Englishmen,  or  as  protestants, 
contemplate  with  indifference  the  sacred  empire  which 
Rome  erected  over  the  minds  and  consciences  of  men. 
AVithout  making  any  invidious  allusion,  it  may  be 

*  Except  that  of  lh^  Jews. 


said  that  this  second  empire  has  nearly  passed  away; 
so  that,  in  both  points  of  view,  we  have  former  re- 
collections to  excite  our  curiosity." 

"Neither  the  superb  structures,"  says  Sir  John 
Hobhouse,  "nor  the  happy  climate,  have  made  Rome 
the  country  of  every  man,  and  '  the  city  of  the  soul.' 
The  education,  wlvch  has  qualified  the  traveller  of 
every  nation  for  that  citizenship,  prepares  enjoyments 
for  him  at  Rome,  independent  of  the  city  and  inhabi- 
tants about  him,  and  of  all  the  allurements  of  site  and 
climate.  He  will  already  people  the  banks  of  the 
Tiber  with  the  shades  of  Pompey,  Constantine,  and 
Belisarius,  and  other  heroes.  The  first  footsteps  within 
the  venerable  walls  will  have  shown  him  thename  and 
magnificence  of  Augustus,  and  the  three  long  narrow 
streets,  branching  from  the  obelisk  in  the  centre  of 
the  Piazza  del  Popolo,  like  the  theatre  of  Palladio, 
will  have  imposed  upon  his  fancy  with  an  air  of 
antiquity  congenial  to  the  soil.  Even  the  mendicants 
of  the  country  asking  alms  in  Latin  prayers,  and  the 
vineyard  gates  of  the  suburbs,  inscribed  with  the 
ancient  language,  may  be  allowed  to  contribute  to 
the  agreeable  delusion." 

"  What,"  says  Chateaubriand,  gazing  on  the  ruins 
of  Rome  by  moonlight,  "  what  was  doing  here  eigh- 
teen centuries  ago,  at  a  like  hour  of  night  ?  'Not  only 
has  ancient  Italy  vanished,  but  the  Italy  of  the  middle 
ages  is  also  gone.  Nevertheless,  the  traces  of  both 
are  plainly  marked  at  Rome.  If  this  modern  city 
vaunts  her  St.  Peter's,  ancient  Rome  opposes  her 
Pantheon  and  all  her  ruins  ;  if  the  one  marshals  from 
the  Capitol  her  consuls  and  emperors,  the  other 
arrays  her  long  succession  of  pontiffs.  The  Tiber 
divides  the  rival  glories  ;  seated  in  the  same  dust, 
pagan  Rome  sinks  faster  and  faster  into  decay,  and 
Christian  Rome  is  gradually  re-descending  into  the 
catacombs  whence  she  issued." 

"What  says  Lord  Byron  in  regard  to  this  celebrated 


city  ? — "  I  am  delighted  with  Rome.  As  a  whole — 
ancient  and  modern  --it  beats  Greece,  Constantinople, 
every  thing, — at  least  that  I  have  seen.  As  for  the 
Coliseum,  Pantheon,  St.  Peter's,  the  Vatican,  &c.  &c., 
they  are  quite  inconceivable,  and  must  be  seen" 

We  close  this  article  with  a  fine  passage  from 
Middleton's  Life  of  Cicero  : — "One  cannot  help  re- 
flecting on  the  surprising  fate  and  revolutions  of 
kingdoms;  how  Rome,  once  the  mistress  of  the  world, 
the  seat  of  arts,  empire,  and  glory,  now  lies  sunken 
sloth,  ignorance,  and  poverty,  enslaved  to  the  most 
cruel,  as  well  as  the  most  contemptible  of  tyrants, 
superstition  and  religious  imposture ;  while  this 
remote  country,  anciently  the  jest  and  contempt  of 
the  polite  Romans,  is  become  the  happy  seat  of 
liberty,  plenty,  and  letters ;  flourishing  in  all  the 
arts  and  refinements  of  civil  life ;  yet  running,  per- 
haps, the  same  course  which  Rome  itself  had  run 
before,  —  from  virtuous  industry  to  wealth ;  from 
wealth  to  luxury  ;  from  luxury  to  an  impatience  of 
discipline  and  corruption  of  morals ;  till,  by  a  total 
degeneracy  and  loss  of  virtue,  being  grown  ripe  for 
destruction,  it  falls  a  prey  at  last  to  some  hardy 
oppressor  ;  and,  with  the  loss  of  liberty,  losing  every 
thing  that  is  valuable,  sinks  gradually  again  into 
original  barbarism." 

Sec  the  wild  waste  of  all-devouring  years  : 
How  Rome  her  own  sad  sepulchre  appears  ! 
With  nodding  arches,  broken  temples  spread  ! 
The  very  tomhs  now  vanish'd  like  their  dead  ! 
Jinpeiial  wonders  raised  on  nations  spoil'd, 
"\Vhcre  mix'd  with  slaves  the  groaning  martyr  toil'd  : 
Huge  theatres,  that  now  unpeopled  woods, 
Now  drain'd  a  distant  country  of  her  floods  : 
Fanes,  which  admiiing  gods  with  pride"  survey, 
Statues  of  men,  scarce  less  alive  than  they  !* 

POPE'S  Epistle  to  Addison. 

*  Livy  ;  Cicero;  Dionysius  of  Halicarnassus ;  Seneca;  Pliny; 



Proud  and  cruel  nation !  every  thing  must  be 
yours,  and  at  your  disposal !  You  are  to  prescribe 
to  us  with  ichom  we  shall  make  tear  ;  with  whom  we 
shall  make  peace  !  You  are  to  set  bounds  ;  to  shut 
us  up  between  hills  and  rivers:  but  you  — you  are 
not  to  observe  the  limits  which  yourselves  have  fixed. 
Pass  not  the  Iberus.  What  next  ?  Touch  not  the 
Saguntines.  Saguntum  is  upon  the  Iberus ;  move 
not  a  step  toicards  that  city. 


SAGUNTUM  was  a  celebrated  city  of  Hispania 
Taraconensis,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Iberus,  about  a 
mile  from  the  sea-shore.  It  was  founded  by  a  colony 
of  Zacynthians,  and  by  some  of  the  Rutili  of  Ardeat. 

Saguntum,  according  to  Livy,  acquired  immense 
riches,  partly  from  its  commerce  both  by  land  and  sea, 
and  partly  from  its  just  laws  and  excellent  police. 

Saguntum  was  under  the  protection  of  the  Romans, 
if  not  numbered  amongst  its  cities ;  and  when  by  a 
treaty  made  between  that  people  and  the  Carthagi- 
nians, the  latter  were  permitted  to  carry  their  arms 
as  far  as  the  Iberus,  this  city  was  excepted. 

The  moment   Hannibal   was  created  general,  lie 

Tacitus;  Dion  Cassius;  Poggio  Bracciolini ;  Rollin  ;  Taylor; 
Keunct;  Hooke  ;  Gibbon  ;  Middleton;  Dupaty  ;  Vasi ;  Chateau- 
briand ;  Wraxall  ;  Wood  ;  Forsyth  ;  Eustace  ;  Cell ;  Encylop. 
Metropolitans,  Brcwster,  Rees,  Britannica,  Londinensis ;  Parker 
(Sat.  Magazine);  Knight  (Penny  Magazine);  Burford;  Hobliouse  ; 
Simond  ;  Rome  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  ;  Williams ;  Mathewb  ; 

+  Ardea  was  a  city  of  Latitim.  Some  soldiers  having  set  it  on 
fire,  the  inhabitants  propagated  a  report  that  their  town  had  been 
changed  into  a  bird!  It  was  rebuilt,  and  became  a  very  rich  and 
magnificent  town,  whose  enmity  to  Rome  rendered  it  famous. 
Tarquin  was  besieging  this  city  when  his  son  dishonoured  Lucretia. 


lost  no  time,  for  fear  of  being  prevented  by  death,  as 
his  father  had  been.  Though  the  Spaniards  had  so 
much  advantage  over  him,  with  regard  to  the  number 
of  forces,  their  army  amounting  to  upwards  of  one 
hundred  thousand  men,  yet  he  chose  his  time  and 
posts  so  happily,  that  he  entirely  defeated  them. 
After  this  every  thing  submitted  to  his  arms.  But 
he  still  forbore  laying  siege  to  Saguntum,  carefully 
avoiding  every  occasion  of  a  rupture  with  the  Romans, 
till  he  should  be  furnished  with  all  things  necessary 
for  so  important  an  enterprise; — pursuant  to  the  advice 
of  his  father.  He  applied  himself  particularly  to 
engage  the  affections  of  the  citizens  and  allies,  and  to 
gain  their  confidence,  by  allotting  them  a  large  share 
of  the  plunder  taken  from  the  enemy,  and  by  paying 
them  all  their  arrears. 

The  Saguntines,  on  their  side,  sensible  of  the 
danger  with  which  they  were  threatened,  from  the 
continued  successes  of  Hannibal,  advertised  the 
Romans  of  them.  Upon  this,  deputies  were  nomi- 
nated by  the  latter,  and  ordered  to  go  and  take  a 
personal  information  upon  the  spot ;  they  commanded 
them  also  to  lay  their  complaints  before  Hannibal,  if 
it  should  be  thought  proper ;  and  in  case  he  should 
refuse  to  do  justice,  that  then  they  should  go  directly 
to  Carthage,  and  make  the  same  complaints.  In 
the  meantime,  Hannibal  laid  siege  to  Saguntum,  pro- 
mising himself  great  advantages  from  the  taking  of 
this  city.  -He  was  persuaded  that  this  would  de- 
prive the  Romans  of  all  hopes  of  carrying  the  war 
into  Spain;  that  this  new  conquest  would  secure 
the  old  ones ;  and  that  no  enemy  would  be  left  be- 
hind him  ;  that  he  should  find  money  enough  in  it 
for  the  execution  of  his  designs  ;  that  the  plunder  of 
the  city  would  inspire  his  soldiers  with  great  ardour, 
and  make  them  follow  him  with  greater  cheerfulness; 
and  that,  lastly,  the  spoils  which  he  should  send  to 

VOL.  II.  X 


Carthage  would  gain  him  the  favour  of  the  citizens. 
Animated  by  these  motives,  he  carried  on  the  siege 
with  the  utmost  vigour. 

News  was  soon  carried  to  Rome,  that  Saguntum 
was  besieged.  But  the  Romans,  instead  of  flying 
to  its  relief,  lost  their  time  in  fruitless  debates,  and 
equally  insignificant  disputations.  The  Saguntines 
were  now  reduced  to  the  last  extremity,  and  in  want 
of  all  things.  An  accommodation  was  thereupon  pro- 
posed ;  but  the  conditions  on  which  it  was  offered, 
appeared  so  harsh,  that  the  Saguntines  could  not  so 
much  as  think  of  accepting  them.  Before  they  gave 
their  final  answer,  the  principal  senators,  bringing 
their  gold  and  silver,  and  that  of  the  public  treasury, 
into  the  market-place,  threw  both  into  a  fire,  lighted 
for  that  purpose,  and  afterwards  themselves  !  At  the 
same  time,  a  tower  which  had  been  long  assaulted 
by  the  battering-rams,  falling  with  a  dreadful  noise, 
the  Carthaginians  entered  the  city  by  the  breach, 
and  soon  made  themselves  masters  of  it,  and  cut  to 
pieces  all  the  inhabitants,  who  were  of  sufficient  age 
to  bear  arms. 

"  Words,"  says  Polybius,  "  could  never  express  the 
grief  and  consternation  with  which  the  news  of  the 
taking,  and  cruel  fute  of  Saguntum,  was  received 
at  Rome.  Compassion  for  an  unfortunate  city,  shame 
for  their  having  failed  to  succour  such  faithful  allies, 
a,  just  indignation  against  the  Carthaginians,  the 
authors  of  all  these  calamities;  the  string  alarms, 
raised  by  the  successes  of  Hannibal,  whom  the 
Romans  fancied  they  saw  already  at  their  gates ;  all 
these  sentiments  were  so  violent,  that,  during  the 
first  moments  of  them,  the  Romans  were  unable  to 
come  to  any  resolution,  or  do  any  thing,  but  give 
way  to  the  torrent  of  their  passion,  and  sacrifice 
floods  of  tears  to  the  memory  of  a  city,  which  lay  in 
ruins  because  of  its  inviolable  fidelity  to  the  Romans, 


and  had  been  betrayed  by  their  imprudent  delays^ 
aiid  unaccountable  indolence.  When  they  were  a 
little  recovered,  an  assembly  of  the  people  was  called, 
and  war  unanimously  declared  against  the  people  of 

The  conqueror  afterwards  rebuilt  it,  and  placed  a 
garrison  there,  with  all  the  noblemen  whom  he  had 
detained  as  hostages,  from  the  several  neighbouring- 
nations  of  Spain  *. 

The  city  remained  in  a  deplorable  state  of  distress 
under  the  Carthaginians,  till  the  year  of  Rome  538, 
when  Scipio,  having  humbled  the  power  of  Carthage 
in  Spain,  in  process  of  time  recovered  Saguntum, 
and  made  it,  as  Pliny  says,  "  a  new  city."  By  the 
Romans  it  was  treated  with  every  kind  of  distinction; 
but  at  some  period,  not  ascertained  by  historians,  it 
was  reduced  to  ruins. 

The  city  of  Morviedro  is  supposed  to  be  situated 
on  the  ruins  of  Saguntum  ;  the  name  of  which  being 
derived  from  Muri  veteres,  Muros  riejos,  "  old  walls." 
It  abounds  with  vestiges  of  antiquity.  Several  Celt- 
iberian  and  Roman  inscriptions  are  seen  ;  but  of  all 
the  numerous  statues  that  the  temples,  and  other 
public  edifices  of  Saguntum  once  had,  only  one  re- 
mains, of  white  marble,  without  a  head ;  besides  the 
fragment  of  another. 

The  traces  of  the  walls  of  its  circus  are,  never- 
theless, still  discernible  ;  though  its  mosaic  pavement 
is  destroyed.  A  greater  portion  of  the  theatre  re- 
mains than  of  any  other  Roman  monument. 

A  writer  on  Spanish  antiquities  in  1 684,  gives  the 
following  account  of  this  city,  whereby  we  may  learn 
that  at  that  time  th^re  were  many  moi'e  remains  of 
antiquity  then  there  are  at  present.  "  The  Roman 
inscriptions,"  says  he,  "  that  are  scattered  up  and 
down  in  the  public  and  private  buildings,  and  the 

*  Snme  suppose  that  lie  then  cave  it  the  name  of  Sparjetone. 



medals  and  other  monuments  of  antiquity,  that  have 
been  found  there,  being  endless,  I  shall  only  present 
my  reader  with  that  which  is  over  one  of  the  gates  of 
the  town,  in  honour  of  the  emperor  Claudius  : — 


i  i.vvnio. 

INVICTO.    MO.    FEL.    IMP. 

CAES.    PONT.    MAX. 

TRIB.    POT.     P.P. 


"  And  upon  another  gate,  near  the  cathedral,  is  a 
head  of  Hannibal,  cut  in  stone.  From  hence,  if  you 
mount  still  higher  up  the  rock,  you  come  to  an  am- 
phitheatre, which  has  twenty-six  rows  of  seats  one 
above  another,  all  cut  in  the  rock  ;  and  in  the  other 
parts  the  arches  are  so  thick  and  strong,  that  they 
are  little  inferior  to  the  rock  itself.  There  are  remains 
of  prodigious  aqueducts,  and  numbers  of  vast  cisterns 
under  ground.  As  this  country  has  been  celebrated 
by  Titus  Livius,  and  Polybius,  for  its  fertility,  I 
shall  take  notice  of  one  or  two  of  its  productions, 
which  are  peculiar  to  it.  First  then,  the  winter  figs, 
which  Pliny  speaks  of,  are  to  be  met  with  in  great 
perfection  at  this  day  ;  and  are  almost  as  remarkable 
for  their  flavour  and  sweetness,  as  for  their  hanging 
upon  the  trees  in  the  middle  of  the  winter.  Their 
pears  also  have  a  higher  reputation  than  any  others. 
There  are  cherry-trees  that  are  full  of  fine  fruit  in 
January  :  and  in  a  place  near  Canet,  about  half  a 
league  off,  they  raised  a  melon  that  weighed  thirty 


SAIS  stands  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Nile,  near  the 
place  where  a  canal,  passing  across  the  Delta,  joins 
the  Pelusiac  with  the  Canopic  branch  of  the  Nile. 

*  Polybius;   Livy  ;  Pliny  ;  Rolliu  ;  Keunett  ;  Jose. 


It  was  the  metropolis  of  Lower  Egypt ;  and  its  inha- 
bitants were,  originally,  an  Athenian  colony. 

At  this  place  there  was  a  temple  dedicated  to 
Minerva,  who  is  supposed  to  be  the  same  as  Isis, 
with  the  following  inscription : — "  I  am  whatever 
hath  been,  and  is,  and  shall  be  ;  no  mortal  hath  yet 
pierced  through  the  veil  that  shrouds  me." 

In  this  city  Osiris  is  said  to  have  been  buried. 
"  They  have  a  tomb  at  Sais,"  says  Herodotus,  "  of  a 
certain  personage,  whom  I  do  not  think  myself  per- 
mitted to  specify.  It  is  behind  the  Temple  of  Minerva, 
and  is  continued  by  the  whole  length  of  the  wall  of 
that  building :  around  this  are  many  large  obelisks, 
near  which  is  a  lake,  whose  banks  are  lined  with 
stone.  It  is  of  a  circular  form,  and,  I  should  think, 
as  large  as  that  of  Delos,  which  is  called  Tro- 

To  name  this  "  personage"  seems  to  have  been  an 
act  carefully  to  be  avoided.  How  very  sacred  the 
ancients  deemed  their  mysteries  appears  from  the  fol- 
lowing passage  in  Apolloiiius  Rhodius  : — 

"  To  Samothrace,  Elcctra's  isle,  they  steer: 
That  there,  initiated  in  rights  divine, 
Safe  might  they  sail  the  navigable  hrine. 
But  Muse,  presume  not  of  those  rights  to  tell. 
Farewell,  dread  isle,  dire  deities,  faiewell ! 
Let  not  my  verse  these  mysteries  explain  ; 
To  name  is  impious,  to  reveal  profane." 

In  this  temple  (that  of  Minerva)  Herodotus  in- 
forms us  the  inhabitants  buried  their  princes  ;  and  in 
the  area  before  it  stood  a  large  marble  edifice,  magnifi- 
cently adorned  with  obelisks  in  the  shape  of  ^aim- 
trees,  with  various  other  ornaments.  This  temple 
was  erected  by  Amasis,  who  was  a  native  of  Sais.* 

*  As  he  was  hut  of  mean  extraction,  he  met  with  no  respect, 
but  was  only  contemned  by  his  subjects,  in  the  beginning  of  his 


In  magnitude  and  grandeur  it  surpassed  any  they  had 
before  seen;  of  such  enormous  size  were  the  stones 
employed  in  the  building  and  foundation.  There  was 
a  room  cut  out  of  one  stone,  which  had  been  conveyed 
by  water  from  Elephantis  by  the  labour  of  two 
thousand  men ;  costing  three  years'  labour.  This 
stone  measured  on  the  outside  twenty-one  cubits 
long,  fourteen  broad,  and  eight  high. 

Cambyses  entertained  a  mortal  hatred  to  the 
monarch  just  mentioned.  From  Memphis  he  went  to 
Sais,  where  was  the  burying-placc  of  the  kings  of 
Egypt.  As  soon  as  he  entered  the  palace,  he  caused 
the  body  of  Amasis  to  be  taken  out  of  its  tomb,  and  after 
having  exposed  it  to  a  thousand  indignities  in  his  own 
presence,  he  ordered  it  to  be  cast  into  the  fire  and 
burned;  which  was  a  thing  equally  contrary  to  the  cus- 

rcign.  He  was  not  insensible  of  this;  but  nevertheless  thought  it 
his  interest  to  subdue  their  tempers  by  an  artful  carriage,  and  win 
their  affection  by  gentleness  and  reason.  He  had  a  golden  cistern 
in  which  himself,  and  those  persons  who  were  admitted  to  his  table, 
used  to  wash  their  feet  :  he  melted  it  down,  and  had  it  cast  into  a 
statue,  and  then  exposed  the  new  god  to  public  worship.  The  peo- 
ple hastened  in  crowds  to  pay  their  adoration  to  the  statue.  The 
king,  having  assembled  the  people,  informed  them  of  the  vile  uses 
to  which  this  statue  had  once  been  put,  which  nevertheless  had  now 
their  religious  prostrations.  The  application  was  easy,  and  had  the 
desired  success  ;  the  people  thenceforward  paid  the  king  all  the  re- 
spect that  is  due  to  majesty. 

He  always  used  to  devote  the  whole  morning  to  public  affairs, 
in  order  to  receive  petitions,  give  audience,  pronounce  sentence,  and 
hold  his  councils  :  the  rest  of  the  day  was  given  to  pleasure  ;  and 
as  AmasiK,  in  hours  of  diversion,  was  extremely  gay,  and  seemed 
to  carry  his  mirth  beyond  due  bounds,  his  courtiers  took  the  liberty 
to  represent  to  him  the  unsuitableness  of  such  a  behaviour ;  when 
he  answered,  that  it  was  as  impossible  for  the  mind  to  be  always  seri- 
ous and  Intent  upon  business,  as  for  a  bow  to  continue  always  bent. 

It  was  this  king  who  obliged  the  inhabitants  of  even'  town  to  en- 
ter their  names  in  a  book,  kept  by  the  magistrate  for  that  purpose, 
with  their  professions,  and  manner  of  living.  Solon  inserted  thi» 
custom  among  his  laws. 

RL'INS    OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  311 

toms  of  the  Persians  and  Egyptians.  The  rage,  this 
prince  testified  against  the  dead  body  of  Amasis, 
shows  to  what  a  degree  he  hated  his  person.  What- 
ever was  the  cause  of  this  aversion,  it  seems  to  have 
been  one  of  the  chief  motives,  Cambyses  had  of  carry- 
ing his  arms  into  Egypt. 

The  first  notice  of  the  ruins  of  Sais,  by  Europe- 
ans, occurs  in  the  travels  of  Egmont  and  Heyman, 
two  Dutchmen,  who  found  a  curious  inscription  in 
honour  of  its  "benefactor,"  MarcusAurelius  Antoninus. 
They  saw  also  a  colossal  statue  of  a  female,  with 
hieroglyphics.  Fourteen  camel-loads  of  treasure  are 
said  to  have  been  found  among  the  ruins. 

u  The  village  of  Se  '1  Hajar,"  says  Dr.  Clarke, 
"  seems  in  the  suburban  district  of  the  ancient  city  ; 
for  as  we  proceeded  hence  in  an  eastern  direction  we 
soon  discerned  its  vestiges.  Irregular  heaps,  contain- 
ing ruined  foundations  which  had  defied  the  labours 
of  the  peasants,  appeared  between  the  village,  and 
some  more  considerable  remains  farther  towards  the 
south-cast.  The  earth  was  covered  with  fragments 
of  the  ancient  terra-cotta,  which  the  labourers  had 
cast  out  of  their  sieves.  At  the  distance  of  about 
three  furlongs  we  came  to  an  immense  quadrangular 
inclosure,  nearly  a  mile  wide,  formed  by  high  walls, 
or  rather  mounds  of  earth,  facing  tlie  four  points  of 
the  compass,  and  placed  at  right  angles  to  each  other, 
so  as  to  surround  the  spacious  area.  In  the  centre  of 
this  was  another  conical  heap,  supporting  the  ruins  of 
some  building,  whose  original  form  cannot  be  now 
ascertained.  The  ramparts  of  this  inclosure  are  in- 
deed so  lofty  as  to  be  visible  from  the  river,  although 
at  this  distance,  the  irregularity  of  their  appearance 
might  cause  a  person  ignorant  of  their  real  nature  to 
mistake  them  for  natural  eminences." 

Dr.  Clarke   found    several  things  at    Sais   well 


worthy  attention  ;  among  which  may  be  particularly 
mentioned  several  bronze  relics  ;  an  ara- triform 
sceptre,  a  curious  hieroglyphic  tablet*,  the  torso  of 
an  ancient  statue,  a  triple  hierogram  with  the  symbol 
of  the  cross,  and  several  other  antiquities. 

On  the  east  is  another  fragment  of  a  very  highly 
finished  edifice ;  and  the  hieroglyphics  which  remain 
are  perfectly  well  sculptured. 

Many  fragments  of  these  ruins  have  been,  of  late 
years,  taken  away  by  Mohamed  Bey,  to  build  there- 
with a  miserable  palace  at  E'Sooant. 


SAMARIA  is  never  called  in  Scripture  Sebast, 
though  strangers  know  it  only  by  that  name. 

Obadiah  is  supposed  to  have  been  buried  in  this 
city ;  and  here,  at  one  time,  were  shown  the  tombs 
of  Elisha,  and  of  John  the  Baptist ;  and  many 
ancient  coins  of  this  town  are  still  preserved  in  the 
cabinets  of  the  curious. 

Samaria,  during  a  siege,  was  afflicted  with  a  great 
famine  ;  and  a  very  extraordinary  occurrence  is  re- 
lated with  respect  to  it^. 

24.  "  And  it  came  to   pass  after  this,  that  Ben- 
hadad  king  of  Syria  gathered  all  his  host,  aud  went 
up,  and  besieged  Samaria. 

25.  And  there  was  a  great  famine  in  Samaria ; 
and,  behold,  they  besieged  it,  until  an  ass's  head  was 
sold  for  fourscore  pieces  of  silver,  and  the  fourth  part 
of  a  cab  of  dove's  dung  for  five  pieces  of  silver. 

26.  And  as  the  king  of  Israel  was  passing   by 
upon  the  wall,  there  cried  a  woman  unto  him,  say- 
ing,  Help,  my  lord,  O  king. 

*  Now  in  the  vestibule  of  the  university  library  at  Cambridge, 
f  Herodotus  ;  Apollonius  Rbodius  ;  Rollin  ;  Egmont  and  Hey- 
nian;  Clarke.  J  II.  Chrouicles,  ch.  xi. 


27.  And  he  said,  if  the  Lord  do  not  help  thee, 
whence  shall  I  help  thee  ?    out  of  the  barn-floor,  or 
out  of  the  wine-press  ? 

28.  And  the  king  said  unto   her,    What   aileth 
thee  ?     And  she  answered,   This  woman    said  unto 
me,  Give  thy  son,  that  we  may  eat  him  to-day,  and 
we  will  eat  my  son  to-morrow. 

29.  So  we  boiled  my  son,  and  did  eat  him  :  and  I 
said  unto  her  on  the  next  day,  Give  thy  son,  that  we 
may  eat  him  :  and  she  hath  hid  her  son. 

30.  And  it  came  to  pass,  when  the  king  heard  the 
words  of  the  woman,  that  he  rent  his  clothes;  and 
he  passed  by  upon  the  wall,  and  the  people  looked, 
and,  behold,  he  had  sackcloth  within  upon  his  flesh. 

31.  Then  he  said,  God  do  so  and  more  also  to  me, 
if  the  head  of  Elisha  the  son  of  Shaphat  shall  stand 
on  him  this  day. 

32.  But   Elisha  sat  in  his  house,  and  the  elders 
sat  with  him  ;  and  the  king  sent  a  man  from  before 
him ;  but  ere  the  messenger  came  to  him,  he  said  to 
the  elders,   See  how  this  son  of  a  murderer  hath  sent 
to  take  away  mine  head  !  look,  when  the  messenger 
cometh,  shut   the  door,    and  hold  him    fast   at  the 
door :    is  not  the  sound  of  his  master's  feet  behind 
him  ? 

33.  And  while  he  yet  talked  with  them,  behold, 
the  messenger  came  down  unto  him  :  and  he  said, 
Behold,  this  evil  is  of  the  Lord  ;  what  should  I  wait 
for  the  Lord  any  longer?  " 

This  was  one  of  the  cities  of  Palestine.  The 
country  in  which  it  is  situated  was  at  one  time  greatly 
infested  with  lions.  The  inhabitants  were  always 
at  variance  with  their  neighbours  the  Jews, — who 
detested  them.  The  Samaritans  having  built  a 
temple  on  Mount  Gerizim,  similar  to  that  at  Jerusa- 
lem, insisting  that  Gerizim  was  the  spot  which  God 
had  originally  consecrated,  the  Jews  never  forgave 


them  for  so  doing,  either  in  precept  or  practice. 
Their  malice  pursued  them  everywhere  ;  they  called 
them  rebels  and  apostates ;  and  held  them  in  such  utter 
detestation,  that  to  say, — "  There  goes  a  Samaritan," 
was  a  phrase  equivalent  to  that  of  "  There  goes  a 
serpent."  This  hatred  was  returned  with  nearly 
equal  force  by  the  Samaritans  ;  insomuch,  that  when 
the  Jews  were  building  their  temple,  they  did  all 
they  could  to  prevent  the  execution  of  it. 

When  Alexander  marched  into  Judaea,  and  had 
arrived  at  Jerusalem,  the  Samaritans  sent  a  number 
of  deputies,  with  great  pomp  and  ceremony,  to  re- 
quest that  he  would  visit  the  temple  they  had  erected 
on  Mount  Gerizim.  As  they  had  submitted  to  Alex- 
ander, and  assisted  him  with  troops,  they  naturally 
thought  that  they  deserved  as  much  favour  from  him 
as  the  Jews;  and,  indeed,  more.  Alexander,  however, 
does  not  appear  to  have  thought  so  ;  for  when  the  de- 
puties were  introduced,  he  thanked  them,  indeed,  in  a 
courteous  manner,  but  he  declined  visiting  their  tem- 
ple ;  giving  them  to  understand,  that  his  affairs  were 
urgent,  and,  therefore,  that  he  had  not  sufficient  time ; 
but  that  if  he  should  return  that  way  from  Egypt, 
he  would  not  fail  to  do  as  they  desired ;  that  is,  if  he 
had  time.  The  Samaritans  afterwards  mutinied  ;  in 
consequence  of  which  Alexander  drove  them  out  of 
Samaria ;  for  they  had  set  fire  to  the  house  of  the 
governor  he  had  appointed,  and  burned  him  alive. 
He  divided  their  lands  amongst  the  Jews,  and  re- 
peopled  their  city  with  a  colony  of  Macedonians. 

When  Antiochus  afterwards  marched  into  their 
country,  they  had  the  baseness  to  send  a  petition  to 
that  monarch,  in  which  they  declared  themselves  not 
to  be  Jews;  in  confirmation  of  which  they  entreated, 
that  the  temple,  they  had  built  upon  Mount  Gerizim, 
might  be  dedicated  to  the  Jupiter  of  Greece.  This 
petition  was  received  with  favour ;  and  the  temple 

RUIN'S    OF    ANCIENT    CITIES.  315 

•was,   therefore,   dedicated    as   the  Samaritans    had 

This  city  was  afterwards  subject  to  the  vengeance 
of  Hyrcauus,  son  of  Simon,  one  of  the  Maccabees. 
It  stood  a  siege  for  nearly  a  year.  When  the  con- 
queror took  it,  he  ordered  it  to  be  immediately  de- 
molished. The  walls  of  the  city,  and  the  houses  of , 
the  inhabitants,  were  entirely  razed  and  laid  level 
with  the  ground ;  and,  to  prevent  its  ever  being  re- 
built, he  caused  deep  trenches  and  ditches  to  be  cut 
through  the  new  plain,  where  the  city  had  stood, 
into  which  water  was  turned  *. 

Thus  it  remained  till  the  time  of  Herod,  who  re- 
built the  city ;  and,  in  honour  of  Augustus,  gave  it 
the  name  of  Sebastos  +. 


THIS  village  was  once  the  chief  city  and  bulwark 
of  Galilee.  Its  inhabitants  often  revolted  against  the 
Romans ;  but  few  remains  of  its  ancient  greatness 
now  exist.  There  are,  however,  ruins  of  a  stately 
Gothic  edifice,  which  some  travellers  esteem  one  of 
the  finest  structures  in  the  Holy  Land.  "  We  en- 
tered," says  Dr.  Clarke,  "  beneath  lofty  massive 
arches  of  stone.  The  roof  of  the  building  was  of 
the  same  materials.  The  arches  are  placed  in  the 
intersection  of  a  Greek  cross,  and  originally  sup- 
ported a  dome  or  tower  ;  their  appearance  is  highly 
picturesque,  and  they  exhibit  the  grandeur  of  a  noble 
style  of  architecture.  Broken  columns  of  granite 
and  marble  lie  scattered  among  the  walls ;  and  these 
prove  how  richly  it  was  decorated."  In  this  place 
Dr.  Clarke  saw  several  very  curious  paintings. 

This  place  was  visited  in  the  early  part  of  the 
seventeenth  century  by  a  Franciscan  friar  of  Lodi, 

*   Rees  ;  Malte-Brnn  ;  Browne. 

s,  in  Greek,  signifies  Augustus. 


in  Italy,named  Quaresimius,  who  says: — "This  place 
now  exhibits  a  scene  of  ruin  and  desolation,  consist- 
ing only  of  peasants'  habitations,  and  sufficiently 
manifests,  in  its  remains,  the  splendour  of  the  ancient 
city.  Considered  as  the  native  place  of  Joachim 
and  Anna,  the  parents  of  the  Virgin,  it  is  renowned, 
and  worthy  of  being  visited."  "  It  is  not  easy," 
says  Dr.  Clarke,  "  to  account  for  the  disregard  shown 
to  a  monument  of  antiquity,  highly  interesting  from 
its  title  to  consideration  in  the  history  of  ancient 
architecture,  or  to  the  city  of  which  it  was  the  pride, 
once  renowned  as  the  metropolis  of  Galilee." 

The  following  account  is  from  the  pen  of  the  cele- 
brated French  traveller,  M.  La  Martine: — "  A  great 
number  of  blocks  of  stone,  hollowed  out  for  tombs, 
traced  our  route  to  the  summit  of  the  mamelon, 
on  which  Saphora  is  situated.  Arrived  at  the  top, 
we  beheld  an  insulated  column  of  granite  still  standing, 
and  marking  the  site  of  a  temple.  Beautiful  sculp- 
tured capitals  were  lying  on  the  ground  at  the  foot 
of  the  column,  and  immense  fragments  of  hewn  stone, 
removed  from  some  great  Roman  monument,  were 
scattered  everywhere  round,  serving  the  Arabs  as 
boundaries  to  their  property,  and  extending  as  far 
as  a  mile  from  Saphora,  where  we  stopped  to  halt 
in  the  middle  of  the  day." 

This  is  all  that  now  remains  of  this  once  noble 

"  A  fountain  of  excellent  and  inexhaustible 
water,"  continues  La  Martine,  "  flows  herefrom, 
for  the  use  of  the  inhabitants  of  two  or  three 
valleys;  it  is  surrounded  by  some  orchards  of  fig  and 
pomegranate  trees,  under  the  shade  of  which  we 
seated  ourselves;  and  waited  more  than  an  hour  before 
we  could  water  our  caravan,  so  numerous  were  the 
herds  of  cows  and  camels  which  the  Arabian  shep- 
herds brought  from  all  parts  of  the  valley.  Innumc- 


rable  files  of  cattle  and  black  goats  wound  across 
the  plain  and  the  sides  of  the  hill  leading  to  Naza- 


SARDIS  is  thus  alluded  to  in  the  Apocalypse  t : — 

"  1.  And  unto  the  angel  of  the  church  in  Sardis 
write  : — These  things  saith  he  that  hath  the  seven 
spirits  of  God,  and  the  seven  stars;  I  know  thy 
works,  that  thou  hast  a  name,  that  thou  livest,  and 
art  dead. 

"  2.  Be  watchful  and  strengthen  the  things  which 
remain,  that  are  ready  to  die  ;  for  I  have  not  found 
thy  works  perfect  before  God. 

"  3.  Remember  therefore  how  thou  hast  received  and 
heard,  and  hold  fast  and  repent.  If  therefore  thou 
shalt  not  watch,  I  will  come  on  thee  as  a  thief,  and 
thou  shalt  not  know  what  hour  I  will  come  upon  thee. 

"  4.  Thou  hast  a  few  names  even  in  Sardis,  which 
have  not  denied  their  garments  ;  and  they  shall  walk 
with  me  in  white ;  for  they  are  worthy." 

Sardis  was  situated  five  hundred  and  forty  stadia 
from  Ephesus  ;  viz.  seven  miles  and  a  half. 

When  this  city  was  built  is  not,  we  believe,  upon 
record.  It  was  the  capital  of  Lydia,  and  situated  on 
the  banks  of  the  Pactolus,  at  the  foot  of  Mount 
Tmolus;  having  the  Cayster  to  the  south,  and  Her- 
mus  to  the  north. 

During  the  reign  of  Atys,  son  of  Gyges,  the  Cim- 
merians, being  expelled  their  own  country  by  the 
Nomades  of  Scythia,  passed  over  into  Asia,  and 
possessed  themselves  of  Sardis.  Some  time  after 
this,  Croesus  became  king  of  Lydia,  and  a  war  ensued 
between  him  and  Cyrus  the  Great.  At  that  period 
no  nation  of  Asia  was  more  hardy,  or  more  valiant, 
than  the  Lydians.  They  fought  principally  on  horse- 
*  Clarke  ;  La  Martine.  -J-  Chap.  iii.  1 — 4. 


back,  .armed  with  long  spears,  and  were  very  expert 
in  managing  the  horse.  Sardis,  according  to  Herod- 
otus, was  taken  by  storm  ;  according  to  Polyzcnus, 
by  surprise.  Cyrus  availed  himself  of  a  truce,  which 
he  had  concluded  with  Croesus,  (the  richest  of  kings), 
to  advance  his  forces,  and  making  his  approach  by 
night,  took  the  city.  Croesus,  still  remaining  in  pos- 
M-ssion  of  the  citadel,  expected  the  arrival  of  his 
Grecian  succours:  but  Cyrus,  putting  in  irons  the  re- 
latives and  friends  of  those  who  defended  the  citadel, 
showed  them  in  that  state  to  the  besieged.  At  the 
same  time  he  informed  them  by  a  herald,  that,  if 
they  would  give  up  the  place,  he  would  set  their 
friends  at  liberty;  but  that,  if  they  persevered  in 
their  defence,  he  would  put  them  to  death.  Tho  be- 
sieged chose  rather  to  surrender,  than  cause  their 
relations  to  perish.  Such  is  the  relation  of  Polya:mis. 

The  Persians  obtained  possession  of  Sardis,  and 
made  Crresus  captive,  after  a  siege  of  fourteen  days, 
and  a  reign  of  fourteen  years.  Thus  was  a  mighty 
empire  destroyed  in  a  few  days.  Croesus  being 
brought  into  the  presence  of  Cyrus,  that  prince 
ordered  him  to  be  placed  in  chains  upon  the  summit 
of  a  huge  wooden  pile,  with  fourteen  Lydian  youths 
standing  round  him.  Before  this,  however,  Cyrus 
gave  the  citizens  to  understand,  that  if  they  would 
bring  to  him  and  his  army  all  their  silver  and  gold, 
their  city  should  be  spared.  On  learning  this,  they 
brought  to  him  all  their  wealth  ;  but  Croesus  was 
ordered  to  be  burned  alive.  Before  we  give  an  account 
of  this  barbarous  order,  however,  we  must  refer  to  a 
circumstance  which  had  occurred  several  years  before. 

Solon,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  of  legislators, 
having  established  a  new  system  of  laws  at  Athens, 
thought  to  improve  his  knowledge  by  travel.  He 
went,  therefore,  to  Sardis.  The  king  received  him 
very  sumptuously  ; — dressed  in  magnificent  apparel, 


pnriched  with  gold,  and  glittering  with  diamonds. 
Finding  that  the  Grecian  sage  did  not  appear  in  any 
way  moved  by  this  display,  Croesus  ordered,  that  all 
his  treasures,  royal  apartments,  and  costly  furniture, 
should  be  shown  to  him.  When  Solon  had  been 
shown  all  these,  he  was  taken  back  to  the  king,  who 
then  inquired  of  him  : — Which  of  all  the  persons 
he  had  seen  during  his  travels,  he  esteemed  the  most 
happy  ?  "  A  person  named  Tellus,"  answered  Solon, 
"  a  citizen  of  Athens  ;  an  honest  and  good  man  ;  one 
who  had  lived  all  his  days  without  indigence,  and 
always  seen  his  country  flourishing  and  happy;  who 
had  children  that  were  universally  esteemed ;  and 
whose  children  he  had  the  satisfaction,  also,  of  seeing, 
and  who  died  at  last  gloriously  fighting  for  his  coun- 

When  Croesus  heard  this,  thinking  that  if  he 
were  not  esteemed  the  first  in  happiness,  he  would  at 
least  be  thought  the  second,  he  inquired  "  Who,  of 
all  you  have  seen,  was  the  next  in  happiness  to  Tellus?" 
"  Cleobis  and  Biton  of  Argos,"  answered  Solon,  "  two 
brothers  who  left  behind  them  a  perfect  pattern  of 
fraternal  affection,  and  of  the  respect  due  from  chil- 
dren to  their  parents.  Upon  a  solemn  festival  when 
their  mother,  a  priestess  of  Juno,  was  to  go  to  the 
temple,  the  oxen  that  were  to  draw  her  not  being 
ready,  the  two  sons  put  themselves  to  the  yoke,  and 
drew  their  mother's  chariot  thither,  which  was  above 
five  miles  distant.  All  the  mothers,  ravished  with 
admiration,  congratulated  the  priestess  on  the  piety 
of  her  sons.  She,  in  the  transport  of  her  joy  and 
thankfulness,  earnestly  entreated  the  goddess  to 
reward  her  children  with  the  best  thing  that  heaven 
can  give  to  man.  Her  prayers  were  heard.  Whrn 
the  sacrifice  was  over,  her  two  sons  fell  asleep  in 
the  very  temple  to  which  they  had  brought  her, 
and  there  died  in  a  soft  and  peaceful  slumber.  In 


honour  of  their  piety,"  concluded  Solon,  "  the  people 
of  Argos  consecrated  statues  to  them  in  the  temple 
of  Delphos." 

Croesus  was  greatly  mortified  at  this  answer ;  and 
therefore  said  with  some  token  of  discontent,  "  Then 
you  do  not  reckon  me  in  the  number  of  the  happy  at 
all  ?"  "  King  of  Lydia,"  answered  Solon,  "  besides 
many  other  advantages,  the  gods  have  given  to  us 
Grecians  a  spirit  of  moderation  and  reserve,  which 
has  produced  among  us  a  plain,  popular,  kind  of  phi- 
losophy, accompanied  with  a  certain  generous  free- 
dom, void  of  pride  and  ostentation,  and  therefore  not 
well  suited  to  the  courts  of  kings.  This  philosophy, 
considering  what  an  infinite  number  of  vicissitudes 
and  accidents  the  life  of  man  is  liable  to,  does  not  al- 
low us  to  glory  in  any  prospects  we  enjoy  ourselves,  05 
to  admire  happiness  in  others  which  may  prove  only 
superficial  and  transient." 

Having  said  this  much,  Solon  paused  a  little, — then 
proceeded  to  say,  that  "  the  life  of  man  seldom  exceeds 
seventy  years,  which  make  up  in  all  twenty-five 
thousand  five  hundred  and  fifty  days,  of  which  two  are 
not  exactly  alike  ;  so  that  the  time  to  come  is  nothing 
but  a  series  of  various  accidents,  which  cannot  be  fore- 
seen. Therefore,  in  our  opinion,"  continued  Solon,  "  no 
man  can  be  esteemed  happy,  but  he  whose  happi- 
ness God  continues  to  the  end  of  his  life.  As  for 
others,  who  are  perpetually  exposed  to  a  thousand 
dangers,  we  account  their  happiness  as  uncertain,  as 
the  crown  is  to  a  person  that  is  still  engaged  in  bat- 
tle, and  has  not  yet  obtained  the  victory." 

It  was  not  long  before  Croesus  experienced  the 
truth  of  what  Solon  told  him.  Cyrus  made  war 
upon  him,  as  we  have  already  related:  and  he  was  now 
condemned  to  be  burned.  The  funeral  pile  was  pre- 
pared, and  the  unhappy  king  being  laid  thereon,  and 
just  on  the  point  of  execution,  recollecting  the  con- 


versation  he  had  had  with  Solon  some  few  years 
before,  he  cried  aloud  three  times,  "  Solon  !  Solon  ! 
Solon  !"  when  Cyrus  heard  him  exclaim  thus,  he  be- 
came curious  to  know  why  Croesus  pronounced  that 
celebrated  sage's  name  with  so  much  earnestness  in 
the  extremity  to  which  he  was  reduced.  Croesus 
informed  him.  The  conqueror  instantly  paused  in 
the  punishment  designed  ;  and,  reflecting  on  the  un- 
certain state  to  which  all  sublunary  things  are  subject, 
he  caused  him  to  be  taken  from  the  pile,  and  ever 
afterwards  treated  him  with  honour  and  respect. 
This  account  is  from  Rollin,  who  has  it  from  Herodo- 
tus and  other  ancient  writers. 

Croesus  is  honourably  mentioned  by  Pindar,  in  his 
celebrated  contrast  between  a  good  sovereign  and  a 
bad  one  : — 

When  in  the  mouldering  urn  the  monarch  lies, 

His  fame  in  lively  characters  remains, 
Or  graved  in  monumental  histories, 

Or  deck'd  and  painted  in  Aonian  strains. 
Thus  fresh  and  fragrant  and  immortal  blooms 

The  virtue,  Croesus,  of  thy  gentle  mind  ; 
While  fate  to  infamy  and  hatred  dooms 

Sicilia's  tyrant*,  scorn  of  human  kind  ; 
Whose  ruthless  bosom  swelled  with  cruel  pride, 
When  in  his  brazen  bull  the  broiling  wretches  died. 
Him,  therefore,  not  in  sweet  society, 

The  generous  youth,  conversing,  ever  name  ; 
Nor  with  the  harp's  delightful  melody 

Mingle  his  odious,  inharmonious  fame. 
The  first,  the  greatest,  bliss  on  man  conferred, 

Is  in  the  acts  of  virtue  to  excel  ; 
The  second  to  obtain  their  high  reward, 

The  soul-exalting  praise  of  doing  well. 
Who  both  these  lots  attains  is  bless'd  indeed; 
Since  fortune  here  below  can  give  no  higher  meed. 

PINDAR.   Pyth.  i. — WEST. 

On  the  division  of  the  Persian   monarchy  into 

*   Phalaris. 
VOL.  ii.  y 


satrapies,  Sardis  became  the  residence  of  the  satrap 
who  had  the  government  of  the  sea-coast. 

In  the  third  year  of  the  war  arising  from  the 
revolt  of  the  lonians  against  the  Persian  authority, 
the  lonians  having  collected  all  their  forces  together, 
set  sail  for  Ephesus,  whence,  leaving  their  ships, 
they  marched  by  land  to  Sardis.  Finding  that  city 
in  a  defenceless  state,  they  made  themselves  masters 
of  it ;  but  the  citadel,  into  which  the  Persian  go  - 
vernor  Artaphernes  had  retired,  they  were  not  able 
to  force.  Most  of  the  houses  were  roofed  with  reeds. 
An  Ionian  soldier  therefore  having,  whether  with 
intention  or  by  accident  was  never  ascertained,  set 
fire  to  a  house,  the  flames  flew  from  roof  to  roof,  and 
the  whole  city  was  entirely  destroyed,  almost  in  a 
moment.  In  this  destruction  the  Persians  implicated 
the  Athenians ;  for  there  were  many  Athenians 
among  the  lonians.  When  Darius,  therefore,  heard 
of  the  conflagration,  he  immediately  determined  on 
making  war  upon  Greece ;  and  that  he  might  never 
forget  the  resolution,  he  appointed  an  officer  to  the 
duty  of  crying  out  to  him  every  night  at  supper, — 
"  Sir,  remember  the  Athenians."  It  is  here,  also,  to 
be  remembered,  that  the  cause  why  the  Persians 
afterwards  destroyed  all  the  temples  they  came  near 
in  Greece,  was  in  consequence  of  the  temple  of  Cybele, 
the  tutelary  deity  of  Sardis,  having  been,  at  that 
period,  reduced  to  ashes. 

Xerxes,  on  his  celebrated  expedition,  having 
arrived  at  Sardis,  sent  heralds  into  Greece,  demand- 
ing earth  and  water.  He  did  not,  however,  send 
either  to  Athens  or  Lacedasmon.  His  motive  for 
enforcing  his  demand  to  the  other  cities,  was  the 
expectation  that  they,  who  had  before  refused  earth 
and  water  to  Darius,  would,  from  the  alarm  at  his 
approach,  send  it  now.  In  this,  however,  he  was 


for  the  most  part  mistaken.    Xerxes  wintered  at  this 

Alexander  having  conquered  the  Persians  at  the 
battle  of  the  Granicus,  marched  towards  Sardis.  It 
was  the  bulwark  of  the  Persian  empire  on  the  side 
next  the  sea.  The  citizens  surrendered ;  and,  as  a 
reward  for  so  doing,  the  king  gave  them  their  liberties, 
and  permitted  them  to  live  under  their  own  laws. 
He  gave  orders,  also,  to  the  Sardians  to  erect  a 
temple  to  Olympian  Jove. 

After  the  death  of  Alexander,  Seleucus,  carrying 
on  a  war  with  Lysimachus,  took  possession  of  Sardis, 
B.C.  283.  In  214  B.C.  Antiochus  the  Great  made 
himself  master  of  the  citadel  and  city.  He  kept 
possession  of  it  twenty-five  years,  and  it  became  his 
favourite  place  of  retreat  after  having  lost  the  battle 
of  Magnesia.  His  taking  it  is  thus  described  by 
Polybius  : — "  An  officer  had  observed,  that  vultures 
and  birds  of  prey  gathered  round  the  rock  on  which 
the  citadel  was  placed,  about  the  offals  and  dead 
bodies,  thrown  into  a  hollow  by  the  besieged ;  and 
inferred  that  the  wall  standing  on  the  edge  of  the 
precipice  was  neglected,  as  secure  from  attack.  He 
scaled  it  with  a  resolute  party,  while  Antiochus  called 
off  the  attention  both  of  his  own  army  and  of  the 
enemy  by  a  feint,  marching  as  if  he  intended  to 
attack  the  Persian  gate.  Two  thousand  soldiers 
rushed  in  at  the  gate  opened  for  them,  and  took  their 
post  at  the  theatre,  when  the  town  was  plundered 
and  burned." 

Attalus  Philomater,  one  of  the  descendants  of  the 
Antiochus  just  mentioned,  bequeathed  Sardis,  with 
all  his  other  possessions,  to  the  Roman  people  ;  and, 
three  years  after  his  death,  it  was  in  consequence 
reduced  to  a  Roman  province. 

Under  the  reign  of  Tiberius,  Sardis  was  a  very 
large*  city ;  but  it  was  almost  wholly  destroyed  by 


;iu  earthquake.  The  emperor,  however,  had  suffi- 
cient public  virtue  to  order  it  to  be  rebuilt,  and  at  a 
very  great  expense.  In  this  patronage  of  Sardis,  he 
was  imitated  by  Hadrian,  who  was  so  great  a  bene- 
factor, that  he  obtained  the  name  of  Neocorus.  The 
patron  god  was  Jupiter,  who  was  called  by  a  name 
synonymous  with  protector. 

Sardis  was  one  of  the  first  towns  that  embraced 
the  Christian  religion,  having  been  converted  by  St. 
John ;  and  some  have  thought  that  its  first  bishop 
was  Clement,  the  disciple  of  St.  Paul. 

In  the  time  of  Julian  great  efforts  were  made  to  re- 
store the  Pagan  worship,  by  erecting  temporary  altars 
at  Sardis,  where  none  had  been  left,  and  repairing 
those  temples  of  which  vestiges  remained. 

A.  D.  400,  the  city  was  plundered  by  the  Goths, 
under  Tribigildus  and  Cairanas,  officers  in  the  Ro- 
man pay,  who  had  revolted  from  the  emperor  Ar- 

A.D.  1304,  the  Turks,  on  an  insurrection  of  the 
Tartars,  were  permitted  to  occupy  a  portion  of  the 
Acropolis ;  but  the  Sardians,  on  the  same  night, 
murdered  them  in  their  sleep. 

The  town  is  now  called  Sart  or  Serte.  When 
Dr.  Chandler  visited  it  in  1774,  he  found  the  site 
of  it  "  green  and  flowery."  Coming  from  the  east,  he 
found  on  his  left  the  ground-work  of  a  theatre; 
of  which  still  remained  some  pieces  of  the  vault, 
which  supported  the  seats,  and  completed  the  semi- 

Going  on,  he  passed  remnants  of  massy  buildings ; 
marble  piers  sustaining  heavy  fragments  of  arches  of 
brick,  and  more  indistinct  ruins.  These  are  in  the 
plain  before  the  hill  of  the  Acropolis.  On  the  right 
hand,  near  the  road,  was  a  portion  of  a  large  edifice, 
with  a  heap  of  ponderous  materials  before  and  be- 
hind it.  The  walls  also  are  standing  of  two  large, 


long,  and  lofty  rooms,  with  a  space  between  them, 
as  of  a  passage.  This  remnant,  according  to  M.  Pey- 
sonell,  was  the  house  of  Croesus,  once  appropriated 
by  the  Sardians  as  a  place  of  retirement  for  super- 
annuated citizens.  The  walls  in  this  ruin  have 
double  arches  beneath,  and  consist  chiefly  of  brick, 
with  layers  of  stone  :  it  is  called  the  Gerusia.  The 
bricks  are  exceedingly  fine  and  good,  of  various  sizes, 
some  flat  and  broad.  "  We  employed,"  continues 
Dr.  Chandler,  "  a  man  to  procure  one  entire,  but 
the  cement  proved  so  very  hard  and  tenacious,  it 
was  next  to  impossible.  Both  Crcesus  and  Mauso- 
lus,  neither  of  whom  could  be  accused  of  parsimony, 
had  used  this  material  in  the  walls  of  their  palaces. 
It  was  insensible  of  decay ;  and  it  is  asserted,  if  the 
walls  were  erected  true  to  their  perpendicular,  would, 
without  violence,  last  for  ever." 

Our  traveller  was  then  led  toward  the  mountain  ; 
when,  on  a  turning  of  the  road,  he  was  struck  with 
the  view  of  a  ruin  of  a  temple,  in  a  retired  situation 
beyond  the  Pactolus,  and  between  Mount  Tmolus 
and  the  hill  of  the  Acropolis.  Five  columns  were 
standing,  one  without  the  capital,  and  one  with  the 
capital  awry,  to  the  south.  The  architrave  was  of 
two  stones.  A  piece  remains  of  one  column,  to 
the  southward ;  the  other  part,  with  the  column 
which  contributed  to  its  support,  has  fallen  since  the 
year  1699.  One  capital  was  then  distorted,  as  was 
imagined,  by  an  earthquake ;  and  over  the  entrance 
of  the  Naos  was  a  vast  stone,  which  occasioned 
wonder  by  what  art  or  power  it  could  be  raised. 
That  magnificent  portal  has  since  been  destroyed; 
and  in  the  heap  lies  that  huge  and  ponderous  marble. 
The  soil  has  accumulated  round  the  ruin ;  and  the 
bases,  with  a  moiety  of  each  column,  are  concealed. 
This,  in  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Chandler^is'probably  the 
Temple  of  Cybele ;  and  which  was  damaged  in  the 


conflagration  of  Sarclis  by  the  Milesians.  It  was 
of  the  Ionic  order,  and  had  eight  columns  in  front. 
The  shafts  are  fluted,  and  the  capitals  designed  with 
exquisite  taste  and  skill.  "  It  is  impossible,"  con- 
tinues our  traveller,  "  to  behold  without  deep  regret, 
this  imperfect  remnant  of  so  beautiful  and  so  glorioxis 
an  edifice !" 

In  allusion  to  this,  Wheler,  who  visited  Sart  to- 
wards the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
says  : — "  Now  see  how  it  fareth  with  this  miserable 
church,  marked  out  by  God ;  wTho,  being  reduced  to 
a  very  inconsiderable  number,  live  by  the  sweat  of 
their  brows  in  digging  and  planting  the  gardens 
of  the  Turks  they  live  amongst  and  serve ;  having 
neither  church  nor  priest  among  them.  Nor  are  the 
Turks  themselves  there  very  considerable,  either  for 
number  or  riches;  being  only  herdsmen  to  cattle 
feeding  on  those  spacious  plains ;  dwelling  in  a  few 
pitiful  earthen  huts;  having  one  mosque,  perverted 
to  that  use  from  a  Christian  church.  Thus  is  that 
once  glorious  city  of  the  rich  king  Croesus  now 
reduced  to  a  nest  of  worse  than  beggars.  Their 
Pactolus  hath  long  since  ceased  to  yield  them  gold,""" 
and  the  treasures  to  recover  them  their  dying  glories. 
Yet  there  are  some  remains  of  noble  structures,  re- 
membrances of  their  prosperous  state,  long  since 
destroyed.  For  there  are  the  remains  of  an  old 
castle,  of  a  great  church,  palaces,  and  other  proud 
buildings,  humbled  to  the  earth." 

Several  inscriptions  have  been  found  here ;  and, 
amongst  these,  one  recording  the  good  will  of  the 
council  and  senate  of  Sardis  towards  the  emperor 
Antoninus  Pius.  Medals,  too,  have  been  found ; 

*  The  Pactolus  flowed  through  the  centre  of  the  Forum  at  Sardis, 
and  brought,  in  its  descent  from  Tmolus,  a  quantity  of  gold  dust. 
Hence  the  vast  riches  of  Croesus.  It  ceased  to  do  this  in  the  age 
of  Augustus. 


amongst  which,  two  very  rare  ones;  viz.  one  of  the 
Empress  Tranquillina,  and  another  of  Caracalla,  with 
an  urn  on  the  reverse,  containing  a  branch  of  olives; 
under  which  is  an  inscription,  which  translated, 
is,  "  The  sport  Chysanthina  of  the  Sardians  twice 
Nercorus."  Another,  stamped  by  the  common  as- 
sembly of  Asia  there,  in  honour  of  Drusus  and  Ger- 
manicus.  Also  one  with  the  Emperor  Commodus, 
seated  in  the  midst  of  a  zodiac,  with  celestial  signs 
engraved  on  it :  on  the  reverse,  "  Sardis,  the  first 
metropolis  of  Asia,  Greece,  Audia."* 


THERE  were  no  less  than  thirteen  cities,  which 
were  called  Seleucia,  and  which  received  their  name 
from  Seleucus  Nicanor.  These  were  situated  in  Syria, 
in  Cilicia,  and  near  the  Euphrates. 

"  It  must  be  acknowledged,"  says  Dr.  Prideaux, 
"  that  there  is  mention  made  of  Babylon,  as  of  a  city 
standing  long  after  the  time  I  have  placed  its  disso- 
lution, as  in  Lucan  t,  Philostratus  J,  and  others.  But 
in  all  those  authors,  and  wherever  also  we  find  Ba- 
bylon mentioned  as  a  city  in  being,  after  the  time  of 
Seleucus  Nicauor,  it  must  be  understood,  not  of  old 
Babylon,  on  the  Euphrates,  but  of  Seleucia,  on  the 
Tigris.  For  as  that  succeeded  to  the  dignity  and 
grandeur  of  old  Babylon,  so  also  did  it  in  its 

"  Since  the  days  of  Alexander,"  says  Sir  R.  Porter, 
"we  find  four  capitals,  at  least,  built  out  of  the  remains 
of  Babylon  ;  Seleucia  by  the  Greeks ;  Ctesiphon  by 
the  Parthians  ;  Al  Maidan  by  the  Persians ;  Kufa  by 
the  Caliphs ;  with  towns,  villages,  and  caravanserais, 
without  number.  That  the  fragments  of  one  city 

*  Herodotus  ;  Pindar ;  Polyaenus  ;  Plutarch  ;  Arrian  ;  Quintus 
Curtius;  Rollin  ;  Wheler;  Chandler;  Peysonell. 

f  Lib.  i.  v.  10.  J  Lib.  i.  e.  17,  18,  19. 


should  travel  so  far,  to  build  or  repair  the  breaches 
of  another,  appeared,  on  the  first  view  of  the  subject, 
to  be  unlikely  to  myself;  but,  on  traversing  the 
country  between  the  approximating  shores  of  the 
two  rivers,  and  observing  all  the  facilities  of  water- 
carriage  from  one  side  to  the  other,  I  could  no  longer 
be  incredulous  of  what  had  been  told  me  ;  particu- 
larly when  scarce  a  day  passed  without  my  seeing 
people  digging  the  mounds  of  Babylon  for  bricks, 
which  they  carried  to  the  verge  of  the  Euphrates, 
and  thence  conveyed  in  boats  to  wherever  they 
might  be  wanted." 

Seleucus  built  many  cities ;  of  which  far  the 
greater  part  was  raised  from  superstitious  motives; 
many  were  peopled  from  the  ruins  of  places  in 
their  neighbourhood,  whose  sites  were  equally  conve- 
nient ;  and  only  a  very  few  were  erected  in  conformity 
with  those  great  military  and  commercial  views,  by 
which,  in  this  particular,  his  master  (Alexander) 
had  uniformly  been  guided.  He  named  nine  after 
himself;  and  four  in  honour  of  four  of  his  wives; 
three  Apameas  ;  and  one  Stratonice ;  in  all  thirty- 
five.  Sixteen  were  named  Antioch ;  five  Laodicea, 
after  his  mother.  Many  foundations  were  laid  of 
other  cities.  Some,  after  favourite  scenes  in  Greece 
or  Macedon  ;  some  in  memory  of  glorious  exploits ; 
and  not  a  few  after  his  master  Alexander.  . 

This  Seleucia  was  built  of  the  ruins  of  Babylon  ; 
and  Pliny,  the  naturalist,  gives  the  following  account : 
— "  Seleucia  was  built  by  Seleucus  Nicanor,  forty 
miles  from  Babylon,  at  a  point  of  the  confluence  of 
the  Euphrates  with  the  Tigris,  by  a  canal.  There 
were  600,000  citizens  here  at  one  time ;  and  all  the 
commerce  and  wealth  of  Babylon  had  flowed  into  it. 
The  territory  in  which  it  stood  was  called  Baby- 
lonia ;  but  it  was  itself  a  free  state,  and  the  people 
lived  after  the  laws  and  manners  of  the  Macedonians. 


The  form  of  the  walls  resembled  an  eagle  spreading 
her  wings." 

In  a  country,  destitute  of  wood  and  stone,  whose 
edifices  were  hastily  erected  with  bricks  baked 
in  the  sun,  and  cemented  with  the  native  bitumen, 
Seleucia  speedily  eclipsed  the  ancient  capital  of  the 

Many  ages  after  the  fall  of  the  Macedonian  em- 
pire, Seleucia  retained  the  genuine  character  of  a 
Greek  colony ;  arts,  military  virtue,  and  a  love  of 
freedom  :  and  while  the  republic  remained  inde- 
pendent, it  was  governed  by  a  senate  consisting  of 
three  hundred  nobles.  The  walls  were  strong  ;  and 
as  long  as  concord  prevailed  among  the  several  orders 
of  the  state,  the  power  of  the  Parthians  was  regarded 
with  indifference,  if  not  with  contempt.  The  mad- 
ness of  faction,  however,  was  sometimes  so  great, 
that  the  common  enemy  was  occasionally  implored  ; 
and  the  Parthians  *  were,  in  consequence,  beheld 
at  the  gates,  to  assist  sometimes  one  party,  and 
sometimes  the  other.  Ctesiphon  was  then  but  a 
village  t,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Tigris,  in  which 

*  Most  authors  agree  that  the  Parthians  were  Scythians  by 
origin,  who  made  an  invasion  on  the  more  southern  provinces  of 
Asia,  and  at  last  fixed  their  residence  near  Hyrcania.  They  re- 
mained long  unnoticed,  and  even  unknown,  and  became  successively 
tributary  to  the  empire  of  the  Assyrians,  then  of  the  Medes,  and 
thirdly,  of  Persia. 

When  Alexander  invaded  Persia,  the  Parthians  submitted  to  his 
authority,  like  other  cities  of  Asia.  After  his  death,  they  fell  suc- 
cessively under  the  power  of  Eumenes,  Antigonus,  Seleucus  Ni- 
canor,  and  Antiochus.  At  length,  in  consequence  of  the  rapacity 
of  Antiochus's  lieutenant,  whose  name  was  Agathocles,  Arsaces,  a 
man  of  great  military  powers,  raised  a  revolt,  and  subsequently 
founded  the  Parthian  empire,  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  years 
before  the  Christian  era.  Arsaces'  successors  were  called,  after 
him,  the  Arsacidse. 

•f  For  the  precise  situation  of  Seleucia,  Ctesipbon,  Modain,  and 
Bagdad,  cities  often  confounded  with  each  other,  see  an  excellent 


the  Parthian  kings  were  accustomed  to  reside  during 
the  winter,  on  account  of  the  mildness  of  the  climate. 
The  summer  they  passed  at  Ecbatana. 

Trajan  left  Rome  A.  D.  112.  and  after  subduing 
several  cities  in  the  East,  laid  siege  to  Seleucia  and 
Ctesiphon.  Chosroes,  the  king,  being  absent  quelling 
a  revolt  in  some  part  of  his  more  eastern  dominions, 
these  cities  soon  surrendered  to  the  Roman  hero,  and 
all  the  neighbouring  country.  "  The  degenerate 
Parthians,"  says  the  Roman  historian,  "  broken  by 
internal  discord,  fled  before  his  arms.  He  descended 
the  Tigris  in  triumph  from  the  mountains  of  Armenia 
to  the  Persian  gulf.  He  enjoyed  the  honour  of 
being  the  first,  as  he  was  the  last,  of  the  Roman 
generals  who  ever  navigated  that  remote  sea."  At 
his  death,  which  occurred  soon  after  his  return  to 
Rome,  most  of  the  cities  of  Asia,  that  he  had  con- 
quered, threw  off  the  Roman  yoke  ;  and  among  these 
were  Seleucia  and  Ctesiphon. 

Under  the  reign  of  Marcus,  A.  D.  165,  the  Roman 
generals  penetrated  as  far  as  these  celebrated  cities. 
They  were  received  as  friends  by  the  Greek  colony  ; 
they  attacked,  as  enemies,  the  seat  of  the  Parthian 
kings  ;  and  yet  both  experienced  the  same  treatment. 
Seleucia  was  sacked  by  the  friends  they  had  invited — 
though  it  has  been  alleged  in  their  favour,  that  the 
citizens  of  Seleucia  had  first  violated  their  faith. 

More  than  300,000  of  the  inhabitants  were  put  to 
the  sword ;  and  the  city  itself  nearly  destroyed  by 

Seleucia  never  recovered  this  blow  :  but  Ctesiphon, 
in  about  thirty-three  years,  had  sufficiently  recovered 
its  strength  to  maintain  an  obstinate  siege  against  the 
emperor  Severus.  It  was  at  last,  nevertheless,  taken 
by  assault ;  and  the  king,  who  defended  it  in  person, 

geographical  map  of  M,  d'Anville,  in  Mem.  de  1' Academic,  torn. 


escaped   with  precipitation.     The   Romans  netted  a 
rich  booty,  and  took  captive  100,000  persons*. 

"  Below  Bagdad,"  says  a  celebrated  French  writer, 
on  geography,  (Malte-Brun),  "  the  ruins  of  Al- 
Modain,  or  the  two  cities,  have  attracted  the  atten- 
tion of  every  traveller.  One  of  them  is  unquestion- 
ably the  ancient  Ctesiphon;  but  the  other,  which 
lies  on  the  western  bank  of  the  Tigris,  is  not  Seleucia, 
as  all  the  travellers  affirmt  :  it  is  Kochos,  a  fortress 
situated  opposite  to  Seleucia,  and  which,  according  to 
the  positive  testimony  of  Arrian  and  Gregory  of 
Nazianzus,  was  different  from  Seleuciaj."  In  this 
account  Malte-Brun  appears  to  us  to  be  exceedingly 
mistaken  §. 

Of  the  ruins  of  SELEUCIA,  near  ANTIOCH,  Mr. 
Robinson  speaks  thus  : — "  Being  desirous  of  visiting 
the  ruins  of  the  ancient  Seleucia  Pieriaj,  I  rode  over  to 
the  village  of  Kcpse,  occupying  the  site  of  the  ancient 
city.  We  were  apprised  of  our  approach  to  it,  by 
seeing  a  number  of  sepulchral  grots  excavated  in 
the  rock  by  the  road-side,  at  present  tenanted  by 
shepherds  and  their  flocks.  Some  were  arched  like 
those  I  had  seen  at  Delphi ;  others  were  larger,  witb 
apartments,  one  within  the  other.  We  entered  the 
inclosure  of  the  ancient  city  by  the  gate  at  the  south- 
east side ;  probably  the  one  that  led  to  Antioch.  It 
is  defended  by  round  towers,  at  present  in  ruins.  Of 
the  magnificent  temples  and  buildings  mentioned 
by  Polybius,  some  remains  of  pillars  are  alone  stand- 
ing to  gratify  the  curiosity  of  the  antiquarian  tra- 

*  Dion,  1.  Ixxv.  p.  1263  ;  Hcrodian,  1.  iii.  120  ;  Gibbon,  vol. 
i.  335. 

f  Pietro  della  Valle,  Olivier,  Otter,  &c. 

J  Pliny  ;  Prideaux  ;  Gibbon  ;  Gillies  ;  Rees;  Brewster;  Malte- 
Brun  ;  Porter ;  Robinson. 

§  Vid.  Mannert,  Geographic  des  Grecs  et  des  Remains,  t.  T, 
p.  i.  p.  397,  403,  &o. 


veller.  But  recollecting,  as  I  sat  alone  on  a  stone  seat 
at  the  jetty  head,  that  it  was  from  hence  Paul  and 
Barnabas,  the  harbingers  of  Christianity  to  the  West, 
when  sent  forth  from  the  church  at  Antioch,  em- 
barked for  Cyprus  ;  the  place  all  at  once  assumed  an 
interest  that  heathen  relics  were  little  calculated  to 
inspire.  It  came  opportunely,  also,  for  I  felt  particu- 
larly depressed  at  the  sight  of  a  large  maritime  city, 
once  echoing  with  the  voices  of  thousands,  now  with- 
out an  inhabitant ;  a  port  formerly  containing  rich 
laden  galleys,  at  present  choked  up  with  reeds  ;  and 
finally,  a  quay,  on  which  for  centuries  anxious  mari- 
ners paced  up  and  down  throughout  the  day,  at  this 
moment  without  a  living  creature  moving  on  its 
weather-beaten  surface  but  myself." 


THIS  city  was  founded  A.  u.  c.  127,  by  a  colony 
from  Megara.  It  received  its  name  from  a  Greek 
word  meaning  parsley,  which  grew  there  in  great 
profusion ;  and  its  ancient  consequence  may  be 
learned  from  the  ruins  now  remaining.  It  was 
destroyed  by  Hannibal.  The  conduct  of  the  war 
having  been  committed  to  that  general,  he  set  sail 
with  a  very  large  fleet  and  army.  He  landed  at  a 
place  called  the  Well  of  Lilybamm,  which  gave  its 
name  to  a  city  afterwards  built  on  the  same  spot. 

His  first  enterprise  was  the  siege  of  Selinuntum. 
The  attack  and  defence  were  equally  vigorous  ;  the 
very  women  showing  a  resolution  and  bravery  be- 
yond their  sex.  The  city,  after  making  a  long 
resistance,  was  taken  by  storm,  and  the  plunder  of  it 
abandoned  to  the  soldiers.  The  victor  exercised  the 
most  horrid  cruelties,  without  showing  the  least 
regard  td  age  or  sex.  He  permitted,  however,  such 
inhabitants  as  had  fled  to  continue  in  the  city  after  it 
had  been  dismantled,  and  to  till  the  lands,  on  con- 


dition  of  their  paying  a  tribute  to  the  Carthagi- 
nians. The  city  had  then  been  bnilt  242  years. 
It  became  afterwards  an  important  place ;  but  from 
the  manner  in  which  the  columns  and  other  fragments 
of  three  stupendous  temples  lie,  it  is  quite  evident 
they  must  have  been  thrown  down  by  an  earthquake; 
but  the  date  of  that  calamity  is  not  known. 

The  ruins  of  Selinus  are  thus  described  by  Mr.  Swin- 
burne : — "They  lie  in  several  stupendous  heaps,  with 
many  columns  still  erect,  and  at  a  distance  resemble 
a  large  town  with  a  crowd"  of  steeples.  On  the  top 
of  the  hill  is  a  very  extensive  level,  seven  miles  off, 
on  which  lie  the  scattered  members  of  three  Doric 
temples,  thirty  yards  asunder,  in  a  direct  line  from 
north  to  south.  The  most  northerly  temple,  which 
was  pseudodipterous,  exceeded  the  others  very  much 
in  dimensions  and  majesty,  and  now  composes  one 
of  the  most  gigantic  and  sublime  ruins  imaginable. 
They  all  lie  in  great  confusion  and  disorder." 

The  second  temple  is  easily  described.  It  had  six 
columns  in  the  front,  and  eleven  on  each  side ;  in 
all  thirty-four.  Their  diameter  is  five  feet;  they 
were  all  fluted ;  and  most  of  them  now  remain 
standing  as  high  as  the  second  course  of  stones.  The 
pillars  of  the  third  temple  were  also  fluted,  and  have 
fallen  down  so  very  entire,  that  the  five  pieces  which 
composed  them  lie  almost  close  to  each  other,  in  the 
order  they  were  placed  in  when  upright.  These 
temples  are  all  of  the  Doric  order,  without  a  base. 

The  two  lesser  ones  are  more  delicate  in  their  parts 
and  ornaments  than  the  principal  ruins ;  the  stone  of 
which  they  are  composed  is  smooth  and  yellowish,  and 
brought  from  the  quarries  of  Castel- Franco.  There 
are  other  ruins  and  broken  columns  dispersed  over 
the  site  of  the  city,  but  none  equal  to  these."  Such 
is  the  account  given  by  Mr.  Swinburne ;  what  follows 
first  appeared  in  the  Penny  Magazine. 


On  the  southern  coast  of  Sicily,  about  ten  miles 
to  the  east  of  Cape  Granitola,  and  between  the  little 
rivers  of  Maduini  and  Bilici,  (the  Crimisus  and  Hypsa 
of  ancient  times,)  a  tremendous  mass  of  ruins  pre- 
sents itself  in  the  midst  of  a  solitary  and  desolate 
country.  These  are  the  sad  remains  of  the  once  splen- 
did city  of  Selinus,  or  Selinuntum,  which  was  founded 
by  a  Greek  colony  from  Megara,  more  than  two  thou- 
sand four  hundred  years  ago.  When  seen  at  a  distance 
from  the  sea,  they  still  look  like  a  mighty  city ;  but 
on  a  near  approach  nothing  is  seen  but  a  confused 
heap  of  fallen  edifices — a  mixture  of  broken  shafts, 
capitals,  entablatures,  and  metopas,  with  a  few  trun- 
cated columns  erect  among  them.  They  seem  to 
consist  chiefly  of  the  remains  of  three  temples  of  the 
Doric  order.  One  of  these  temples  was  naturally 
devoted  by  a  maritime  and  trading  people  to  Neptune  ; 
a  second  was  dedicated  to  Castor  and  Pollux,  the 
friends  of  navigation  and  the  scourge  of  pirates  :  the 
destination  of  the  third  temple  is  uncertain. 

The  size  of  the  columns  and  the  masses  of  stone  that 
lie  heaped  about  them  is  prodigious.  The  lower  cir- 
cumference of  the  columns  is  thirty-one  feet  and  a  half; 
many  of  the  stone  blocks  measure  twenty- five  feet  in 
length,  eight  in  height,  and  six  in  thickness.  Twelve 
of  the  columns  have  fallen  with  singular  regularity,  the 
disjointed  shaft-pieces  of  each  lying  in  a  straight  line 
with  the  base  from  which  they  fell,  and  having  their 
several  capitals  at  the  other  end  of  the  line.  If  archi-j 
tects  and  antiquaries  have  not  been  mistaken  in  their 
task  of  measuring  among  heaps  of  ruins  that  in  good 
part  cover  and  conceal  the  exterior  lines,  the  largest 
of  the  three  temples  was  three  hundred  and  thirty- 
four  feet  long,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty-four  feet 

These  are  prodigious  and  unusual  dimensions  for 
ancient  edifices  of  this  kind.  That  wonder  of  the 


whole  world,  the  Temple  of  Diana  at  Ephesus,  itself 
did  not  much  exceed  these  admeasurements.  The 
great  Selinuntian  temple  seems  to  have  had  porticoes 
of  four  columns  in  depth,  and  eight  in  width,  with  a 
double  row  of  sixteen  columns  on  the  lateral  sides  of 
the  cella.  It  is  somewhat  singular,  from  having  had 
all  the  columns  of  the  first  row  on  the  east  front  flu- 
ted, while  all  the  rest  of  the  columns  were  quite  plain. 
One  of  these  fluted  columns  is  erect  and  tolerably  en- 
tire, with  the  exception  of  its  capital.  The  fluting, 
moreover,  is  not  in  the  Doric  style ;  for  each  flute  is 
separated  by  a  fillet.  The  material  of  which  this  and 
the  other  edifices  were  formed,  is  a  species  of  fine- 
grained petrifaction,  hard,  and  very  sonorous  on  being 
struck  with  a  hammer.  It  was  hewn  out  of  quarries 
near  at  hand,  at  a  place  called  Campo  Bello,  where 
many  masses,  only  partially  separated  from  the  rock, 
and  looking  as  if  the  excavation  had  been  suddenly 
interrupted,  are  still  seen. 

A  flight  of  ancient  steps,  in  tolerable  preservation, 
leads  from  the  Marinella  to  the  Acropolis,  where  the 
covert- ways,  gates,  and  walls,  built  of  large  squared 
stones,  may  still  be  traced  all  round  the  hill.  A  lit- 
tle to  the  west  of  the  Acropolis  is  the  small  pestiferous 
lake,  Yhalici,  partly  choked  up  with  sand.  In  an- 
cient times  this  was  called  Staynum  Gonusa,  and  it  is 
said  the  great  philosopher  Empedocles  purified  it  and 
made  the  air  around  it  wholesome,  by  clearing  a  mouth 
towards  the  sea,  and  conveying  a  good  stream  of  water 
through  it.  The  Fountain  of  Diana,  at  a  short  dis- 
tance, which  supplied  this  stream,  still  pours  forth  a 
copious  volume  of  excellent  water ;  but  it  is  allowed 
to  run  and  stagnate  over  the  plain,  and  now  adds  to 
the  malaria  created  by  the  stagnant  lake.  The 
surrounding  country  is  wholly  uncultivated,  and, 
where  not  a  morass,  is  covered  with  underwood,  dwarf 
palms,  and  myrtle-bushes  of  a  prodigious  growth. 


For  six  months  in  the  year,  Selinunte  is  a  most  un- 
healthy place ;  and  though  the  stranger  may  visit  it 
by  day-time  without  much  danger  of  catching  the 
infection,  it  seems  scarcely  possible  to  sleep  there  in 
summer  and  escape  the  malaria  fever  in  one  of  its 
worst  forms.  Of  four  English  artists  who  tried  the 
experiment  in  1822,  not  one  escaped;  and  Mr.  Har- 
ris, a  young  architect  of  great  promise,  died  in  Sicily 
from  the  consequences.  These  gentlemen  made  a  dis- 
covery of  some  importance.  They  dug  up  near  ono 
of  the  temples  some  sculptured  metopae  with  figures 
in  rilievo,  of  a  singular  primitive  style,  which  seems 
to  have  more  affinity  with  the  Egyptian  or  the  Etrus- 
can, than  with  the  Greek  style  of  a  later  age.  There 
are  probably  few  Greek  fragments  of  so  ancient  a 
date  in  so  perfect  a  state  of  preservation. 

The  government  claimed  these  treasures,  and  caused 
them  to  be  transported  to  Palermo ;  b«t  Mr.  Samuel 
Angel,  an  architect,  and  one  of  the  party,  took  casts 
from  them,  which  may  now  be  seen  at  the  Britisli 
Museum  ;  and  of  which  we  present  the  reader  with 
an  account,  drawn  up,  we  believe,  by  a  gentleman 
named  Hamilton. — "  Within  a  temporary  building 
opening  from  the  fifth  room,  are  the  casts  from 
the  marble  metopee  of  the  great  temple  of  Jupiter 
Olympius,  at  Selinus,  in  Sicily.  Valuable  as  they 
are,  as  belonging  to  a  school  of  art  prior  to  that 
of  J£g\na,,  and  probably  of  a  date  coeval  with  the 
earliest  Egyptian,  a  short  notice  of  them  may  not 
be  unacceptable,  as  no  account  of  them  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Synopsis,  although  to  the  public  in  general 
subjects  of  great  curiosity  and  inquiry.  The  le- 
gend which  they  tell  and  their  appearance,  are  alto- 
gether as  unaccountable  as  mysterious.  At  Selinus, 
in  Sicily,  there  are  the  remains  of  six  temples  of  the 
earliest  Doric,  within  a  short  distance  of  each  other, 
aud  it  was  during  the  researches  into  the  ruins  of  the 

RUINS   OF    A.NCIK.NT    CITIES.  337 

largest,  called  the  Western,  and  the  one  farthest  from 
it,  named  the  Eastern,  by  Messrs.  Harris  and  Augell, 
in  1 83^,  that  these  ancient  sculptures  were  found : 
among  them  there  were  no  single  and  perfect  statues 
as  in  the  temple  of  ^Egina,  which  probably  arose 
from  the  neighbourhood  being  well  peopled,  and  they 
had  no  doubt  been  repeatedly  ransacked.  These  tem- 
ples may  be  reckoned  among  the  largest  of  antiquity, 
being  equal  in  their  dimensions  to  those  at  Agrigen- 
tum,  in  the  fluting  of  whose  columns  there  is  suffici- 
ent space  for  a  man  to  stand.  Immediately  after  the 
discovery,  application  was  made  to  the  Neapolitan 
Government  to  allow  them  to  be  shipped  for  England  ; 
but  permission  was  refused,  and  they  are  now  in  the 
Royal  Gallery  at  Palermo.  Casts  were,  however, 
allowed  to  be  taken,  and  they  are  these  we  now 

"  They  are  probably  of  as  early  a  date  as  any  that 
have  reached  our  times,  and  are  of  different  styles  of 
art ;  those  which  belonged  to  the  temple  called  East- 
ern, whence  the  sculpture  of  the  head  of  the  dying" 
warrior,  and  the  chariot  drawn  by  horses,  were  taken, 
possess  much  of  the  ^ginitan  character, ;  those  of 
the  Western  are  of  a  ruder  age.  In  most  of  the  figures 
the  anatomy  resembles  that  of  the  earliest  coins,  but 
differs  in  many  respects  from  the  Greek  sculptures  ; 
and  there  is  a  short  and  full  character  in  the  faces  ap- 
proaching the  Egyptian.  From  the  short  proportions, 
the  fleshy  part  of  the  thigh  overcharged,  and  the  pecu- 
liar manner  in  which  the  hair  is  arranged,  the^-  might 
be  taken  for  specimens  of  J2ginitan  art ;  but  on  a 
close  inspection  it  will  be  found,  that  they  are  the 
work  of  artists  educated  on  different  principles.  At 
a  much  later  period  it  is  known  that  the  artists  of 
jEgina  were  employed  by  the  kings  of  Sicily  ;  and 
these,  therefore,  are  not  unlikely  to  have  been  the 
work  of  Carthaginian  sculptors  brought  to  decorate 

VOL.  II. 


a  city  in  alliance  and  newly  founded,  which  will  ac- 
count for  the  Egyptian  character  given  to  the  whole. 
"  The  cast,  which  consists  of  the  body  and  head  of  a 
dying  soldier,  a  part  of  a  female  figure  behind,  formed 
the  third  metope  of  the  Eastern  Temple,  and  is  a  most 
valuable  and  curious  fragment,  and  determines  the 
style  and  character  of  the  sculpture  of  the  temple. 
It  bears  a  marked  resemblance  to  some  of  the  heads 
in  the  vEgina  marbles,  but  it  has  much  more  expres- 
sion ;  the  artist  has  evidently  intended  to  mark  the 
agonies  of  death,  by  the  closed  eyes,  the  mouth 
slightly  opened,-  and  the  tongue  appearing  between 
the  teeth  ;  the  hair  and  beard  are  most  carefully  and 
symmetrically  arranged  and  most  elaborately  finished; 
the  helmet  is  thrown  back,  and  is  of  the  kind  called 
'  yfitrov ' — part  of  the  crest  '  Xo'$os  '  is  visible  under 
the  left  shoulder  of  the  figure.  The  fragment  of  the 
female  is  very  spirited,  and  evidently  in  strong  action. 
Those  metopes,  like  those  of  the  Parthenon,  are  in 
high  relief,  and  in  some  parts  detached.  Thorwald- 
sen  has  pronounced  them  equal  in  execution  to  the 
.^Egina.  The  next,  which  consists  of  three  figures, 
one  of  which  has  a  horse  under  the  arm,  is  particu- 
larly interesting,  from  the  illustration  it  presents  of 
the  death  of  the  Gorgon  Medusa.  Perseus,  embold- 
ened by  the  presence  of  Minerva,  is  represented  in 
the  act  of  slaying  Medusa  ;  his  eyes  are  averted  from 
the  object  of  his  honour,  while  his  right  arm,  guided 
by  the  goddess,  thrusts  his  sword  into  the  throat  of 
the  monster.  Pegasus,  a  winged  foal,  springs  from 
her  blood,  and  Medusa  presses  him  to  her  side  with 
apparent  solicitude.  The  monstrous  face  of  the 
Gorgon  is  finely  represented ;  the  large  round  head 
and  hideous  face  rise  from  the  shoulders  without  the 
intervention  of  a  neck ;  all  the  features  are  fright- 
fully distorted,  the  nose  is  flat  and  spreading,  and 
the  mouth  is  nearly  the  whole  width  of  the  face,  and 


is  armed  on  each  side  with  two  immense  tusks ;  the 
hair  over  the  forehead  is  curiously  shown,  and  al- 
most appears  to  have  represented  the  serpents  to 
which  it  was  changed.  The  figure  of  Minerva  on 
the  right  is  draped  with  the  '  n-«VAoi/,'  and  has  the 
Mteander  ornament  on  the  edge.  The  figure  of 
Perseus  is  in  the  centre ;  he  is  armed  with  the 
harp  of  Mercury  and  the  helmet  of  Pluto,  which 
latter  has  a  pendant  falling  on  each  side;  th« 
'  TTTTJVCL  Tre'StXa,'  or  talaria,  are  represented  as  cover- 
ing the  feet  entirely,  and  bear  some  resemblance 
to  the  ancient  greaves;  the  front  part  is  attached  to 
the  ancle  by  thongs.  The  form  of  the  young  Pegasus 
is  exceedingly  beautiful;  he  seems  bounding  from  the 
earth.  The  metope,  containing  the  figure  bearing 
.two  others  on  its  shoulders,  represents  the  adventure 
of  Hercules,  surnamed  Melampyges,  from  the  black 
and  hairy  appearance  of  his  loins.  The  story  is  as 
follows: — Passalus  and  Achemon,  two  brothers, 
reviled  their  mother,  who  warned  them  to  beware  of 
a  man  whose  loins  were  covered  with  black  hair. 
They  attempted  to  rob  Hercules  while  asleep,  and 
from  that  had  the  name  of  Cercopes;  in  the  attempt 
they  failed  and  awoke  him,  and  he  bound  them  hand 
and  foot  to  his  bow,  with  their  heads  downwards, 
and  carried  them  in  that  manner.  They  began  laugh- 
ing on  the  accomplishment  of  their  mother's  prophecy; 
Hercules  asked  them  why  they  laughed,  and  on  their 
telling  him  the  reason,  he  also  laughed  and  liberated 
them.  The  figure  of  the  god  is  represented  as  strong 
and  muscular,  and  the  two  prisoners  have  a  very 
ludicrous  appearance;  in  the  reversed  position,  the 
hair  falls  in  a  curious  manner;  the  whole  group  lias 
been  painted  in  various  colours,  and  in  the  counte- 
nances much  of  Egyptian  expression  is  to  be  observed. 
The  horses  which  draw  the  chariot  formed  part  of 
the  centre  metope  of  the  Eastern  Temple ;  it  is  very 
z  2 


imperfect,  and  is  supposed  to  represent  the  celebration 
of  the  race  of  Pelops  and  CEnomaus;  they  are  drawn 
full  of  fire  and  courage,  and  are  finely  fore- shortened ; 
they  have  the  cropped  ears  and  manes  which  are 
observable  in  those  of  the  Parthenon. 

"  These  sculptures  are  valuable  as  specimens  of 
the  third  period  of  the  art,  the  earliest  of  which  is 
probably  the  Hindoo;  the  great  resemblance  both 
these  and  the  Egyptian  bear  to  that  style  is  remark- 
able, and  gives  warrant  to  suppose  that  it  was  the 
original  school.  Of  Hebrew  sculpture  there  are  no 
remains  ;  the  command  to  form  no  graven  images  pre- 
vented theart  attaining  the  perfection  which  it  reached 
in  the  neighbouring  country  of  Syria,  and  would  seem 
to  confirm  the  account,  that  within  the  land  of 
Judea  no  statue  bearing  marks  of  great  antiquity  has- 
been  discovered.  The  Egyptian,  the  Etruscan,  the 
Selinuntine,  and  the  JEgina,  schools,  furnished  the 
models  for  the  Grecian ;  and  the  careful  observer  has 
it  in  his  power,  within  the  walls  of  the  Museum,  to 
trace,  step  by  step,  the  progress  of  the  art ;  till  it 
attained  its  meridian  splendour  in  the  production  of 
those  sculptures,  whose  dilapidated  remains  are  there 
preserved,  and  which  the  accumulated  knowledge, 
genius,  labour,  and  talent  of  two  thousand  five  hun- 
dred years  has  never  yet  been  able  to  surpass*." 

*  The  following  observations  are  by  the  same  hand.  They  may 
be  taken  as  a  supplement  to  our  article  entitled  ./EGINA  : — "In  the 
Phigalian  room  of  the  British  Museum,  against  the  southern  wall, 
a  pediment  has  recently  been  erected,  corresponding  with  that 
opposite,  which  contains  eleven  of  the  casts  from  the  jEgina  statues. 
On  this  are  placed  five  more,  which  were  brought  from  the  ruin* 
of  the  same  temple  of  Jupiter  Panhelleneus,  in  the  island  of  ./Egina. 
These  five  statues  were  all  that  were  found  belonging  to  the  eastern 
front" sufficiently  in  a  state  of  preservation  to  assure  of  their  original 
destination  and  design  ;  and  it  is  the  more  to  be  lamented,  as  that 
was  the  principal  facade  of  the  edifice,  and  contained  the  great 
entrance  into  the  soros  of  the  temple.  This  front  was  by  far  the 
most  magnificent  in  its  deorations  ;  the  esplanade  before  it  extend- 


The  neighbouring  country  is  interesting,  as  having 
been  the  scene  of  many  of  the  memorable  events 

ing  one  hundred,  while  that  of  the  western  was  but  fifty  feet ;  the 
statues  also  on  this  tympanum  were  more  numerous,  there  being 
originally  on  this  fourteen  figures,  and  but  eleven  on  the  other; 
they  are  also  both  in  style  and  sculpture  far  superior,  and  appear 
as  the  work  of  the  master,  the  others,  in  comparison,  as  those  of  the 
scholars.  The  superiority  of  conception  and  manner  is  apparent,  the 
forms  are  more  muscular  and  robust,  the  veins  and  muscles  more 
displayed,  an  imitation  of  a  maturer  nature.  At  the  first  opening 
of  the  ruins  twenty-five  statues  were  discovered,  besides  the  four 
female  figures  belonging  to  the  Acroteria.  To  the  artist  the  canon 
of  proportion  and  the  system  of  anatomical  expression  observable 
throughout  the  whole  may  be  regarded  as  the  models  whence  was 
derived  that  still  bolder  style  of  conception  which  afterwards  dis- 
tinguished the  sculptors  and  made  the  perfection  of  the  Athenian 
school;  what  the  works  of  Ghulandia  were  to  Raphael,  these  were 
to  Phidias.  The  surprise  of  the  common  observer  may  be  excited 
when  he  contemplates  these  figures,  however  disadvantageous  the 
circumstances  under  which  he  views  them.  Perhaps  he  cannot  call 
to  mind  in  the  capital  of  his  country,  however  civilisation  and  the 
arts  may  have  advanced,  any  sculptures  of  the  nineteenth  century 
which  appear  equally  imposing;  the  more  so,  when  he  reflects  that 
the  history  of  their  origin  is  buried  in  the  darkness  of  two  thousand 
four  hundred  years.  Long  after  this  period  Lysippus  held  as  a 
principal  of  the  ideal  which  has  in  later  times  been  too  generally 
followed,  to  make  men  as  they  seem  to  be,  not  as  they  really  are. 
In  this  group  there  is  not,  as  seen  in  the  opposite  one,  any  figure 
immediately  under  the  centre  of  the  tympanum  ;  that  of  Minerva, 
which  was  found,  and  which,  no  doubt,  had  occupied  it,  being 
thought  too  much  broken  to  be  placed.  The  one  nearest  is  the 
figure  of  a  warrior,  who  appears  as  having  fallen  wounded  to  the 
ground.  He  is  supporting  himself  on  the  right  arm,  endeavouring 
to  rise.  The  hand  no  doubt  held  a  sword,  as  the  rivets  of  bronze 
still  remaining  indicate.  On  the  left  arm  is  a  shield  held  close  to 
the  body,  the  hand  enclasping  the  rf\a/j.c&v,  or  holder.  The  coun- 
tenance, contrary  to  the  one  in  a  similar  position  on  the  opposite 
pediment,  seems  calmly  to  regard,  and  to  mark  the  moment  to 
resist  with  any  chance  of  success  an  advancing  adversary,  who 
is  rushing  forward  to  seize  his  spoils.  Whether  this  statue  ia 
rightly  placed  we  think  will  admit  of  doubt.  The  figure  rushing 
forward  could  not  have  inflicted  the  wound  by  which  he  has 
been  disabled,  and  it  seems  more  probable  that  an  arrow,  which 
:m  archer  at  the  extreme  of  the  pediment  has  just  discharged, 
has  been  the  cause  of  his  wound,  and  that  it  should,  instead  of 


recorded  by  the  ancient  historians.  A  few  miles  to 
the  west  of  the  ruins,  on  the  banks  of  a  little  river, 

being  on  the  ground,  have  been  placed  as  if  in  the  act  of  fall- 
ing. In  the  attitude  of  the  attacking  warrior,  a  desire  is  shown 
to  give  the  greatest  interest  to  the  action  ;  the  position  of  the 
right  leg  seems  calculated  to  give  movement  to  the  figure  as 
seen  from  below ;  behind  the  fallen  an  unarmed  figure  is  stooping 
forward,  apparently  to  raise  him  ;  but  this  statue  would  seem 
rather  to  belong  to  the  other  pediment,  where  a  hollow  is  found 
in  the  pedestal  on  which  the  Goddess  Minerva  stands,  which  appears 
to  have  been  made  to  allow  room  for  its  advance.  Among  the 
statues  found,  but  broken,  was  one  which  stood  nearly  over  the 
body  of  the  wounded  hero,  to  defend  him  against  the  advancing 
enemy  before  mentioned.  Near  the  archer  is  another  combatant 
on  the  ground ;  the  countenance  of  this  figure  is  aged,  the  beard 
most  minutely  sculptured  ;  it  is  of  a  square  form,  and  descends  to 
the  breast  ;  on  the  lip  are  long  mustachios.  It  is  by  far  the  most 
aged  of  either  group,  and  appears  to  be  a  chief  of  consequence  ;  he 
is  raising  himself  on  his  shield  ;  the  expression  of  the  face  is  very 
fine,  it  has  a  smile  on  it,  though  evidently  in  pain.  The  archer  is 
:i  Phrygian,  and  his  body  is  protected  by  leathern  armour ;  as  he 
has  no  shield  allowed,  he  is  holding  the  bow,  which  is  small  and  of 
the  Indian  shape,  in  the  left  hand,  with  the  arm  outstretched  ;  the 
bow-string  has  been  drawn  to  the  ear,  the  arrow  seems  just  to  have- 
sped,  and  the  exultation  of  the  countenance  shows  it  has  taken 
effect.  Three  of  these  figures  have  that  sort  of  helmet  which  de- 
fends the  face  by  a  guard  descending  over  the  nose,  and  the  back 
by  the  length  of  the  A.o'ipos,  or  crest,  or  horsehair,  crista ;  the  shields 
are  massy  and  large,  they  are  the  Argive  aairls  IWu/cAos,  circular 
shields,  and  the  handles  are  nicely  framed.  The  inside  of  all  of 
them  were  painted  in  red  colour,  and  within  a  circle  of  the  exterior 
a  blue  colour  was  seen,  on  which  was  pictured,  without  doubt,  the 
symbol  adopted  by  the  hero  ;  for  on  a  fragment  of  one  of  those  be- 
longing to  this  front  was  in  relief  a  part  of  a  female  figure.  The 
remaining  figures  belonging  to  this  tympanum,  the  fragments  of 
which  were  found,  were  principally  archers. 

"  These  statues  offer  the  only  illustration  now  extant  of  the 
armour  of  the  heroic  ages.  The  bodies  of  all  the  figures  of  this  pedi- 
ment, with  the  exception  of  the  archer  who  is  encased  in  leathern 
armour,  are  uncovered.  The  great  minuteness  of  execution  in 
the  details  corresponds  with  the  exactness  which  .flSschylus, 
Homer,  and  the  earlier  writers  of  the  heroic  age  have  preserved  iu 
their  descriptions  ;  in  the  whole  of  these  statues  this  is  observable 
in  every  tie  and  fastening.  It  would  appear  that  the  whole  had  un- 


that  now,  unless  when  swelled  by  the  winter  torrents, 
creeps  gently  into  the  sea,  was  fought,  amidst  thun- 
der, lightning,  and  rain,  one  of  the  most  celebrated 
battles  of  ancient  times,  in  which  the  "  Immortal 
Timoleon,"  the  liberator  of  Corinth,  and  the  saviour 
of  Syracuse,  gained  a  glorious  victory  over  the 
Carthaginian  invaders.  The  events  are  preserved 
in  popular  traditions ;  and  the  names  of  Mago, 
Hamilcar,  Hannibal,  Agathocles,  Dionysius,  and 
Timoleon,  are  common  in  the  mouths  of  the  country 
people,  though  not  unfrequently  confused  with  one 
another,  and  subjected  to  the  same  laughable  muti- 
lation as  the  name  of  Castor  and  Selinute*. 

dergone  the  strictest  scrutiny ;  as,  in  each,  those  parts  which,  from 
their  position  on  the  building,  could  not  have  been  seen,  are  found 
equally  exact :  in  every  particular  they  arc  the  same  as  those  which 
are  traced  on  the  vases  of  the  most  Archaic  style,  where  they  are 
delineated  in  black  on  a  red  ground,  as  is  seen  in  the  Museum  col- 
lection. The  two  female  figures  on  the  apex  of  the  pediment  are 
clothed  ;  the  drapery  falls  in  thick  folds  around  the  figjjre";  in  their 
hands  they  hold  the  pomegranate  flower  ;  the  feet  are  on  a  small 
plinth  ;  they  are  the  "EAwi'j  of  the  Greeks,  the  Goddess  of  Hope, 
so  well  known  in  museums  and  on  coins,  and  their  situation  here 
is  peculiarly  appropriate,  as  presiding  over  an  undecided  combat.  It 
does  not  appear  that  any  of  the  figures  on  either  pediment  had  any 
support  to  fix  them  in  position  but  the  cornice  where  they  came  in 
contact  with  it ;  they  must  all  have  been  easily  removable  ;  and 
perhaps  it  may  not  be  unreasonable  to  suppose,  that  on  particular 
festivals  they  were  so  disposed  as  to  represent  the  actions  then  in 
celebration,  to  recall  to  the  imagination  of  the  votaries  the  reason 
for  those  sacrifices  then  offered  to  the  god  who  presided  over  the 
temple.  This  would  account  why  almost  all  the  celebrated  groups  of 
antiquity,  which  have  decorated  the  facades  of  their  sacred  edifices, 
among  which  may  be  reckoned  those  of  the  Parthenon,  the  Sicilian 
Adrimetum,  and  the  JEgina,  are  so  completely  finished,  and  shows 
how  what  would  otherwise  seem  a  waste  both  of  talent  and  labour, 
was  brought  to  account." 

*    Livy ;  Rollin  ;  Swinburne;  Parker;  Knight;  Hamilton. 



THE  most  ancient  kingdom  of  Greece  was  that  of 
Sicyon,  the  beginning  of  which  is  placed  by  Euse- 
bius  1313  years  before  the  first  Olympiad.  Its  du- 
ration is  believed  to  have  been  about  a  thousand 
years ;  during  which  period  it  is  said  to  have  had  a 
succession  of  kings,  whose  reigns  were  so  equitable  that 
nothing  of  importance  is  recorded  of  them.  It  sent, 
however,  3000  troops  to  the  battle  of  Platea,  and  fifteen 
ships  to  that  of  Salamis.  It  is  now  only  a  village. 

Of  these  monarchs  the  most  remarkable  was 
Sicyon,  who  is  supposed  to  have  built,  though  some 
gay  he  only  enlarged,  the  metropolis  of  his  kingdom, 
and  to  have  called  it  by  his  own  name. 

It  became  very  powerful  in  the  time  of  the 
Achaian  league,  which  it  joined,  at  the  persuasion  of 
Aratus,  A.  c.  ^b\.  It  was  destroyed  by  Demetrius, 
son  of  Antigonus,  who  afterwards  rebuilt  it,  and 
endeavoured  to  impose  upon  it  the  name  of  Deme- 
trius ;  but  it  soon  sunk  under  its  ancient  and  more 
memorable  appellation. 

Sicyon  was  in  great  reputation  for  the  arts,  and 
painting  in  particular  ;  the  true  taste  for  which  was 
preserved  there  in  all  its  ancient  purity.  It  is  even 
said,  that  Apelles,  who  was  then  admired  by  all  the 
world,  had  been  at  Sicyon,  where  he  frequented  the 
schools  of  two  painters,  to  whom  he  gave  a  talent ; 
not  for  acquiring  a  perfection  of  the  art  from  them, 
but  in  order  to  obtain  a  share  in  their  great  reputa- 
tion. When  Aratus  had  reinstated  his  city  in  its 
former  liberties,  he  destroyed  all  the  pictures  of  the 
tyrants ;  but  when  he  came  to  that  of  Aristratus, 
who  reigned  in  the  time  of  Philip,  and  whom  the 
painter  had  represented  in  the  attitude  of  standing 
in  a  triumphant  chariot,  he  hesitated  a  long  time 


whether  he  should  deface  it  or  not ;  for  all  the  capital 
disciples  of  Melanthus  had  contributed  to  the  com- 
pletion of  that  piece ;  and  it  had  even  been  touched 
by  the  pencil  of  Apelles.  This  work  was  so  inimi- 
table in  its  kind,  that  Aratus  was  enchanted  with  its 
beauties  ;  but  his  aversion  to  tyrants  prevailed  over 
liis  admiration  of  the  picture,  and  he  accordingly 
ordered  it  to  be  destroyed. 

In  the  time  of  Pausanias,  Sicyon  was  destroyed 
by  an  earthquake.  It  was,  nevertheless,  not  long 
after,  not  only  one  of  the  noblest  cities  of  Greece,  on 
account  of  its  magnificent  edifices,  many  of  which 
were  built  of  marble,  and  ingenious  workmen,  but  it 
was  a  distinguished  place  when  the  Venetians  were 
masters  of  the  Morea.  The  period,  however,  when 
it  fell  from  that  eminence  is  unknown". 

Sicyon*  was  the  school  of  the  most  celebrated 
artists  of  antiquity,  and  Was  sumptuously  decorated 
with  temples  and  statues.  Pausanias  enumerates 
seventeen  temples,  a  stadium,  a  theatre,  two  gym- 
nasia, an  agora,  a  senate- house,  and  a  temenos  for 
the  Roman  emperors,  with  many  altars,  monuments, 
and  numerous  statues  of  ivory  and  gold,  of  marble, 
of  bronze,  and  of  wood. 

Its  present  condition,  in  respect  to  population,  may 
be,  in  a  great  measure,  attributed  to  its  having,  about 
twenty  years  before  Sir  George  "Wheler  visited  it, 
been  afflicted  by  the  plague.  "  This  final  destruc- 
tion," said  one  of  the  inhabitants,  "  is  a  judgment  of 
God  upon  the  Turks  for  turning  one  of  the  Christian 
churches  into  a  mosque.  The  Vaywode  fell  down 
dead  upon  the  place,  the  first  time  he  caused  the  Koran 
to  be  read  in  it.  This  was  followed  by  a  plague,  which, 
in  a  short  time,  utterly  destroyed  the  whole  town  ; 
and  it  could  never  afterwards  be  repeopled." 

So  little  is  known  t  concerning  this  ancient  seat  of 
*  Dodwell.  f  Clarke. 


Grecian  power,  that  it  is  not  possible  to  ascertain  in 
what  period  it  dwindled  from  its  pre-eminence  to 
become,  what  it  is  now,  one  of  the  most  wretched 
villages  of  the  Peloponnesus.  The  remains  of  its 
former  magnificence  are,  however,  still  considerable, 
and  in  some  instances  they  exist  in  such  a  state  of 
preservation,  that  it  is  evident  the  buildings  of  the 
city  either  survived  the  earthquakes  said  to  have  over- 
whelmed them,  or  they  must  have  been  constructed 
at  some  later  period. 

"  The  ruins  of  Sicyon,"  says  Mr.  Dodwell,  "  still 
retain  some  vestiges  of  ancient  magnificence.  Among 
these  a  fine  theatre,  situate  at  the  north-east  foot  of 
the  Acropolis  ;  having  seats  in  a  perfect  state.  Near 
it  are  some  large  masses  of  Roman  brick  walls,  and 
the  remains  of  the  gymnasium,  supported  by  strong 
walls  of  polygonal  construction.  There  are  several 
dilapidated  churches  which,  composed  of  ancient  frag- 
ments, are  supposed  to  occupy  the  site  of  the  temples. 
Several  fragments  of  the  Doric  order  are  observable 
among  them  ;  also  several  inscriptions." 

"  In  respect  to  the  temple  of  Bacchus,"  says  Dr. 
Clarke,  "  we  can  be  at  no  loss  for  its  name,  although 
nothing  but  the  ground-plot  now  remains.  It  is  dis- 
tinctly stated  by  Pausanias  to  have  been  the  temple 
of  Bacchus,  which  was  placed  beyond  the  theatre  to  a 
person  coming  from  the  citadel,  and  to  this  temple 
were  made  those  annual  processions  which  took 
place  at  night,  and  by  the  light  of  the  torches,  when 
the  Sicyonians  brought  hither  the  mystic  images,  called 
Bacchus  and  Lysius,  chanting  their  ancient  hymns." 
The  theatre  is  almost  in  its  entire  state;  and  al- 
though the  notes  were  made  upon  the  spot,  did  not 
enable  Dr.  Clarke  to  afford  a  description  of  its  form 
and  dimensions  equally  copious  Avith  that  already  given 
of  the  famous  theatre  of  Polycletus  in  Eidausia ;  yet 
this  of  Sicyon  may  be  considered  as  surpassing  every 


other  in  Greece,  in  the  harmony  of  its  proportions, 
the  costliness  of  the  workmanship,  the  grandeur  of 
the  coilon,  and  the  stupendous  nature  of  the  prospect 
presented  to  all  those  who  were  seated  upon  its 
benches.  If  it  were  cleared  of  the  rubbish  about  it, 
and  laid  open  to  view,  it  would  afford  an  astonishing 
idea  of  the  magnificence  of  a  city,  whose  treasures 
were  so  great,  that  its  inhabitants  ranked  amongst 
the  most  voluptuous  and  effeminate  people  of  all 
Greece.  The  stone-work  is  entirely  of  that  massive 
kind,  which  denotes  a  very  high  degree  of  antiquity. 
The  stadium*  is  on  the  right  hand  of  a  person 
facing  the  theatre,  and  it  is  undoubtedly  the  oldest 
work  remaining  of  all  that  belonged  to  the  ancient 
city.  The  walls  exactly  resemble  those  of  Mycenae 
and  Tiryns ;  we  may,  therefore,  class  it  among  the 
examples  of  the  Cyclopean  masonry.  It  is,  in  other 
respects,  the  most  remarkable  structure  of  the  kind 
existing  :  combining  at  once  a  natural  and  artificial 

O  '  O 

character.  The  persons  by  whom  it  was  formed, 
finding  that  the  mountain  whereon  the  coilon  of  the 
theatre  has  been  constructed,  would  not  allow  a  suf- 
ficient space  for  another  oblong  cavea  of  the  length 
requisite  to  complete  a  stadium,  built  upon  an  artifi- 
cial rampart  reaching  out  into  the  plain,  from  the 
mountain  toward  the  sea ;  so  that  this  front- work 
resembles  half  a  stadium  thrust  into  the  semi-circular 
cavity  of  a  theatre  ;  the  entrance  to  the  area,  included 
between  both,  being  formed  with  great  taste  and 
effect  at  the  two  sides  or  extremities  of  the  semi- 
circle. The  ancient  masonry  appears  in  the  front- 
work  so  placed.  The  length  of  the  whole  area  equals 
two  hundred  and  sixty-seven  paces ;  the  width  of 
the  advanced  bastion  thirty-six  paces ;  and  its  height 
twenty -two  feet  six  inches. 

*  A  stadium  was  a  place  in  the  form  of  a  circus,  for  the  running 
of  men  and  horses. 


Besides  these  there  are  some  few  other  antiquities, 
but  of  too  minute  a  kind  to  merit  description. 

Even  her  ruins*  speak  less  emphatically  of  the 
melancholy  fate  of  Greece  than  her  extensive  soli- 
tudes. Oppression  has  degraded  her  children,  and 
broken  her  spirit.  Hence  those  prodigious  plains, 
which  God  hath  given  for  their  good,  are  neglected  ; 
hence,  too,  the  beauteous  seas  are  without  a  sail ;  the 
lands  of  ancient  Sicyon  so  thinly  peopled  ! 

'Tis  Greece,  but  living  Greece  no  more  ! 

So  coldly  sweet,  so  deadly  fair, 

We  start — for  soul  is  wanting  there  ! 

Hers  is  the  loveliness  in  death, 

That  parts  not  quite  with  parting  breath  ; 

But  beauty  with  that  fearful  bloom, 

That  hue  which  haunts  it  to  the  tomb — 

Expression's  last  receding  ray, 

A  gilded  halo,  hovering  round  decay, 

The  farewell  beam  of  feeling  past  away ; 

Spark  of  that  flame,  perchance  of  heavenly  birth, 

Which  gleams,  but  warms  no  more  its  cherished  earth  !  f 

NO.  XXX.  —  SIDON. 

PHOENICIA  comprised  Sidon,  Tyre,  Ptolemais,  and 
Berytus.  Its  mountains  were  Libanus  and  Anti- 
Libanus.  Its  most  ancient  city  was  Sidon ;  which 
was  an  opulent  city  even  at  so  early  a  period  as  that 
in  which  the  Greeks  are  said  to  have  lived  upon 
acorns.  It  is  situated  on  the  shores  of  the  Medi- 
terranean, at  a  distance  of  about  twenty  miles  from 
Tyre,  and  fifty  from  Damascus. 

Sidon  is  supposed  to  have  been  built  by  Canaan's 
first- born,  whose  name  was  Sidon:}:.  It  is,- therefore, 
celebrated  as  the  most  ancient  of  the  cities  of  Phoe- 
nicia. It  is  frequently  mentioned  in  holy  writ.  It 
is  named  by  Jacob§,  in  his  prophetic  speech  concerning 

*   Williams.  -f-  Pansanias;    Barthelemy  ;    Rollin  ; 

Wheler  ;  Clarke  ;  Dodwell ;  Williams  ;  Byron. 

+  Gen.  x.  ver.  15.  §  Gen.  xlix.  ver.  13. 


the  country  which  his  sons  were  to  inhabit ;  and  it 
is  stated  as  a  place  for  some  of  the  kings  who  were 
driven  out  by  Joshua.  Its  remote  origin,  however, 
is  perhaps  still  uncertain,  though  Justin  speaks  of  it 
in  the  following  manner  :  — "  The  nation  of  the 
Tyrians,  descended  from  the  Phoenicians,  being  shaken 
by  an  earthquake,  and  having  abandoned  their  coun- 
try, did  first  inhabit  the  Assyrian  marsh;  and,  not 
long  afterwards,  the  shore  next  unto  the  sea,  where 
they  built  a  city,  and  called  it  Sidon,  from  the  abund- 
ance of  fishes  that  were  there  :  for  the  Phoenicians 
call  a  fish  sidon.  After  the  process  of  many  years, 
being  overcome  by  king  Ascalou,  they  took  shipping 
again,  and  built  Tyre  in  the  year  before  the  destruc- 
tion of  Troy." 

"  I  cannot  help  thinking,"  says  Mr.  Drummond, 
"  that  the  city,  called  Tsidon  by  the  Hebrews ; 
Tsaid  or  Tsaida,  by  the  Syrians  ;  and  Said  or  Saida, 
by  the  Arabians  ;  originally  received  its  name  from 
the  language  of  the  last.  The  Tsidonians  were 
celebrated  for  their  skill  in  metallurgy,  and  for  the 
art  with  which  they  worked  in  gold,  silver,  and 
brass.  Much  iron  and  brass  existed  in  Phoenicia, 
and  the  possession  of  this  country  having  been  once 
intended  for  the  tribe  of  Ashur,  Moses  said  to  that 
tribe,  '  under  thy  shoes  shall  be  iron  and  brass : ' 
(Deut.  xxxiii.  25.)  :  that  is,  the  soil  under  thy  feet 
shall  abound  with  iron  and  brass.  Now  I  consider 
Sidon,  or  rather  Saida,  to  have  been  so  called  from 
its  abounding  with  saidi  or  saidan,  viz.  brass."* 

During  the  administration  of  Joshua,  and  after- 
wards, Sidon  was  governed  by  kings.  He  calls  it 
"  Zidon  the  great."  t  In  the  division  of  Palestine 

*  Drutnmond's  Origines,  vol.  iii.  p.  97.  Homer  makes  the 
Phrenician  woman  speak,  of  whom  mention  is  made  in  the  Odyssey 
b.  xv. — *  1  glory  to  be  of  Sidon  abounding  in  brass,  and  tint 
the  daughter  of  the  wealthy  Arybas." 

t  Zidon-rabbab. :  ch.  xi.  v.  8. 


it  was  allotted  to  Ashur ;  but  this  tribe  could  never 
get  possession  of  it.* 

The  inhabitants  are  said  to  have  assisted  Solomon, 
in  his  preparations  for  the  building  of  the  temple ; 
their  skill  in  hewing  timber  being  superior  to  that 
of  all  other  nations.t 

That  Sidon  was  celebrated  for  its  women  being 
skilled  in  embroidery,  we  learn,  in  the  first  instance, 
from  several  passages  in  Scripture;  and  secondly, 
from  a  curious  passage  in  Homer  : 

The  Phrygian  queen  to  her  rid)  wardrobe  •went, 
Where  treasured  odours  breathed  a  costly  scent. 
There  lay  the  vestures  of  no  vulgnr  art, 
Sidonian  maids  embroider' d  every  part, 
Whom  from  soft  Sidon  youthful  Paris  bore, 
With  Helen  touching  on  the  Tynan  shore. 
Here  as  the  queen  revolved  with  careful  eyes 
The  various  textures  and  the  various  dyes, 
She  chose  a  veil  that  shone  supciior  far, 
And  glow'd  refulgent  as  the  morning  star.J 

To  the  Sidonians,  also,  are  attributed  the  inven- 
tions of  glass,  §  linen,  and  purple  dye.  They  were 

*  ''  Neither  did  Ashur  drive  out  the  inhabitants  of  Accho,  nor  the 
inhabitants  of  Zidon." — Judges  i.  31. 

•f  "  Now,  therefore,  command  thou  that  they  hew  me  cedar  trees 
out  of  Lebanon  ;  and  my  servants  shall  be  with  thy  servants  ;  and 
unto  thee  I  will  give  hire  for  thy  servants,  according  to  all  that  they 
shall  appoint ;  for  thou  knowest  that  there  is  not  amongst  us  any 
that  has  skill  to  hew  timber  like  unto  the  Sidonians." — 1  Kings, 
ch.  x.  v.  6. 

J  Dictys  Cretensis  acquaints  us  that  Paris  returned  not  directly 
to  Troy  after  the  rape  of  Helen,  but  fetched  a  compass,  probably  to 
avoid  pursuit.  He  touched  at  Sidon,  where  he  surprised  the  king 
of  Phoenicia  by  night,  and  carried  off  many  of  his  treasures  and 
captives,  among  which  probably  were  these  Sidonian  women. — 

§  "  The  common  voyce  and  fame  runneth,  that  there  arrived 
certain  merchants,  in  a  ship  laden  with  nitre,  in  the  mouth  of  the 
river ;  and  beeing  landed,  minded  to  seath  their  victuals  upon  the 
shore,  and  the  very  eands :  but  that  they  wanted  other  stones,  to 


also  greatly  celebrated  for  their  industry.  They 
were  highly  commercial,  and  were  famous  for  the 
many  voyages  some  of  their  fellow-citizens  under- 
took. It  was  the  most  ancient  of  maritime  cities : 
illustrious  for  its  wealth,  for  the  sobriety  and  in- 
dustry of  its  inhabitants ;  for  the  wisdom  of  its 
councils,  and  for  its  skill,  not  only  in  commerce  and 
geography,  but  in  astronomy. 

The  Sidonians  were  often  engaged  in  war;  but 
we  can  afford  space  only  to  a  few  instances.  The 
origin  of  that  with  .Artaxerxes  Oclms,  is  thus  re- 
lated by  Diodorus  :* — "  The  king's  lieutenants  and 
generals  then  in  Sidon,  carrying  themselves,  by  their 
severe  edicts,  rigorously  and  haughtily  towards  the 
Sidonians,  the  citizens,  being  so  abused,  and  not 
being  able  longer  to  brook  it,  studied  how  to  revolt 
from  the  Persians.  Upon  which,  the  rest  of  the 
Phoenicians,  being  wrought  upon  by  the  others  to 
vindicate  their  liberty,  sent  messengers  to  Necta- 
netus,  the  king  of  Egypt,  then  at  war  with  the 
Persians,  to  receive  them  as  confederates,  and  so  the 
whole  nation  (Phoenicia,)  prepared  for  war.  And 
being  that  Sidon  exceeded  all  the  rest  of  the  cities 
in  wealth,  and  even  private  men,  by  the  advantage 
of  trade,  were  grown  very  rich,  they  built  a  great 
number  of  ships,  and  raised  a  potent  army  of  mer- 
cenaries; and  both  arms,  and  darts,  and  provisions, 
and  all  other  things  necessary  for  war  were  prepared ; 
and  that  they  might  appear  first  in  the  war,  they 
spoiled  and  ruined  the  king's  garden,  cutting  down 

serve  as  trivets,  to  beare  up  their  pans  and  cauldrons  over  the  fire, 
they  made  shift  with  certaine  pieces  of  sal-nitre  out  of  the  ship,  to 
support  the  said  pans,  and  so  made  fire  underneath  ;  which  being 
once  afire  among  the  sand  and  gravell  of  the  shore,  they  might 
perceive  a  certaine  cleare  liquor  run  from  under  the  fire,  in  very 
streams,  and  hereupon  they  say  came  the  first  invention  of  making 
glass." — Philemon  Howard,  Pliny,  xxxvi.  c.  26. 
*  Book  viii.  ch.  U. 


all  the  trees,  where  the  Persian  kings  used  to  recreate1 
and  divert  themselves.  Then  they  burned  all  the  hay, 
which  the  lieutenants  had  laid  up  for  the  horses.  At 
last  they  seized  upon  the  Persians,  who  had  so  in- 
sulted them,  and  led  them  to  punishment,  and  in 
this  manner  began  the  war  of  the  Persians  with  the 

Ochus  Artaxerxes  acted  in  a  manner  so  contrary  to 
all  the  best  notions  of  government,  that  some  historians 
have  not  hesitated  to  regard  him  as  the  most  cruel  and 
wicked  of  all  the  princes  of  his  race.  Not  only  tin- 
palace,  but  the  empire  was  filled  with  his  murderers. 
Several  nations,  over  whom  he  exercised  sway,  in  con- 
sequence revolted.  Amongst  these,  Sidon  and  the 
other  Phoenician  cities.  Ochus  hearing  of  this,  re- 
solved to  go  in  person  to  reduce  the  rebels.  He  repaired 
to  Phoenicia  with  an  army  of  300,000  foot,  and  30,000 
horse.  Mentor  was  at  this  time  in  Sidon  with  some 
troops  from  Greece.  He  had  come  thither  to  assist  the 
rebels.  When  he  learned  how  great  a  force  the  Per- 
sian king  had,  he  was  so  alarmed,  that  he  sent 
secretly  to  the  king  to  offer  to  deliver  up  Sidon.  This 
offer  Ochus  accepted  ;  and  the  king  of  Sidon  having 
come  into  the  treason,  the  city  was  surrendered  into 
his  hands. 

When  the  Sidonians  saw  themselves  betrayed,  and 
that  the  enemy  had  got  entire  possession  of  their 
city,  they  gave  themselves  up  to  despair,  shut  them- 
selves up  in  their  houses,  and  set  them  on  fire.  In 
this  manner  40,000  men,  besides  women  and  children, 
perished  in  the  flames  !  At  this  time,  Sidon  was  so 
immensely  rich,  that  the  cinders,  among  which  a  vast 
quantity  of  gold  and  silver  had  melted,  were  sold  by 
the  conqueror  for  a  large  sum  of  money. 

This  judgment  had  been  prophesied  by  Ezekiel". 

*  Chap,  xxviii.  ver.  20,  21,  &c. 


"  20.  Again  the  word  of  the  Lord  came  unto  me, 

2 1 .  Son  of  man,  set  thy  face  against  Zidon,  and  pro- 
phesy against  it. 

22.  And  say,  Thus  saith  the  Lord  God  ;  Behold  I 
am  against  thee,  O  Zidon  ;  and  I  will  be  glorified  in 
the  midst  of  thee :  and  they  shall  know  that  I  am 
the  Lord,  when  I  shall  have  executed  judgments  in 
her,  and  shall  be  sanctified  in  her. 

23.  For  I  will  send  into  her  pestilence,  and  blood 
into  her  streets  ;  and  the  wounded  shall  be  judged  in 
the  midst  of  her  by  the  sword  upon  her  on  every 
side ;  and  they  shall  know  that  I  am  the  Lord." 

Eighteen  years  after  this  misfortune,  Alexander  of 
Macedon  marched  into  Phoenicia.  All  submitted  to 
him  as  he  advanced  ;  nor  did  any  people  do  this  with 
greater  alacrity  than  the  Sidonians  :  who,  having 
suffered  so  largely  from  the  Persian  king,  held  the 
Persians  in  very  great  detestation.  Strato,  their  king, 
however,  having  declared  for  Darius,  Alexander  de- 
sired Hephaestion  to  place  in  his  stead  any  one  of  the 
Sidonians  that  he  should  judge  worthy  of  so  exalted 
a  station.  Being  quartered  at  the  house  of  two  bro- 
thers, of  whom  he  had  reason  to  entertain  the  highest 
opinion,  Hepha?stion  offered  the  crown  to  them  ; 
but  these  brothers  had  the  virtue  to  refuse  it,  telling 
him,  that,  by  the  laws  of  the  country,  no  one  could 
ascend  the  throne  but  those  who  were  of  the  blood- 
royal.  Hepha>st5on,  greatly  moved  at  seeing  the 
greatness  of  those  who  could  refuse  what  so  many 
others  had  striven  to  obtain  by  fire  and  sword,  ex- 
pressed his  admiration  of  their  magnanimity ;  and 
desired  them  to  name  any  person  of  the  royal  family 
who  would,  on  being  placed  upon  the  throne,  remem- 
ber who  it  was  that  put  him  there.  On  this  the 
brothers  'answered,  that  they  knew  of  no  one  more 

VOL.  II.  A  A 


worthy  of  a  diadem  than  a  person,  named  Abdolon- 
ymus.  He  was,  they  said,  of  the  royal  family,  though 
at  a  great  distance  from  the  succession  ;  but  so  poor 
that  he  was  compelled  to  earn  his  bread  by  working 
in  one  of  the  gardens  outside  the  city.  He  was  not 
only  poor,  they  continued,  but  of  so  contented  a 
spirit,  of  so  exalted  a  mind,  and  of  such  deep  engage- 
ment of  purpose,  that  the  wars,  which  were  then 
shaking  Asia,  were  altogether  unknown  to  him. 

The  two  brothers  immediately  repaired  to  the 
place  where  they  knew  this  person  was  to  be  found. 
They  took  royal  garments  with  them  ;  and  after  no 
great  search  found  him  employed  in  weeding  his 
garden.  They  immediately  saluted  him  as  King  of 
JSidon.  "  You  must  change  your  tatters,"  said  one 
of  the  brothers,  "  for  the  royal  garments  we  have 
brought  with  us.  Put  off  that  mean  and  contempt- 
ible habit,  in  which  you  have  grown  old.  Assume 
the  style  and  sentiments  of  a  prince.  When,  however, 
you  are  seated  on  the  throne,  continue  to  preserve  the 
virtues  which  have  made  you  worthy  of  it."  When 
Abdolonymus  heard  this,  he  was  amazed.  He  looked 
upon  the  whole  as  a  dream.  When,  however,  he 
perceived  that  the  two  brothers  were  standing  before 
him  in  actual  presence,  he  inquired  of  them  if  they 
did  not  feel  some  shame  in  ridiculing  him  in  that 
manner  ?  They  replied,  that  no  ridicule  was  intended ; 
but  that  all  was  in  the  spirit  of  honour.  They  threw 
over  his  shoulders  a  purple  raiment,  richly  embroi- 
dered with  gold ;  repeated  to  him  oaths  of  earnest- 
ness, and  led  him  to  the  palace. 

The  news  of  this  astonishing  circumstance  soon 
spread  over  the  whole  city.  Most  of  the  richer  sort 
were  indignant.  Alexander,  however,  commanded 
that  the  newly  elected  prince  should  be  brought  into 
his  presence.  When  he  was  presented,  Alexander 


measured  him  with  his  eye  from  head  to  foot,  and 
gazed  upon  Ins  countenance  for  some  time.  At  length 
he  addressed  him  afterthefollowing  manner: — "Thine 
air  and  thy  mien  by  no  means  contradict  what  I  have 
heard,  in  regard  to  thy  extraction ;  and  I  therefore  de- 
sire to  know  in  what  spirit  thou  hast  borne  the  abject 
condition  to  which  thou  wert  reduced."  "  Would  to 
the  gods,"  answered  Abdolonymus,  "  that  I  may 
bear  this  crown  with  equal  patience!  These  hands 
have  procured  to  me  all  I  have  enjoyed  ;  for  whilst 
I  had  nothing,  I  wanted  nothing." 

When  Alexander  heard  this,  he  was  so  struck 
with  admiration,  that  he  not  only  presented  him  with 
all  the  furniture  that  had  belonged  to  Strato,  and 
part  of  the  riches  he  had  himself  acquired  in  Persia, 
but  he  annexed  to  his  dominions  one  of  the  neighbour- 
ing provinces. 

At  this  period,  Quintus  Curtius  says*,  Sidon  was 
a  city  greatly  celebrated  on  account  of  its  antiquity 
and  its  founder. 

Upon  an  elevation,  on  the  south  side  of  the  city, 
stood  a  fine  old  castle,  now  in  ruins.  It  was  built 
by  Lewis  IX.  of  France,  surnamed  the  Saint  ;  who 
also  repaired  the  city  during  the  Holy  Warst.  In 
subsequent  times  it  fell  into  decay  ;  but  its  final  ruin 
is  said  to  have  been  effected  by  Feckerdine,  Emir  of 
the  Druses,  when  he  had  established  an  independent 
power,  with  the  view  of  preventing  the  Grand 
Signior  from  landing  a  maritime  force  here  to  act 
against  him.  He  destroyed  all  the  little  ports,  from 
Bairout  to  Acra,  by  sinking  boats  and  stones  to  pre- 

»  Vol.  I.b.  4,c.  1. 

f  During  the  Crusades,  Sidon  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Chris- 
tians. They  lost  it  A.  D.  1111.  In  1250  it  was  recovered  by  the 
Saracens  ;  but  in  1289  they  were  compelled  to  surrender  it  again 
to  the  Christians. 

A  A  2 


vent  the  Turkish  ships  from  entering  them*.  He 
then  built  a  castle,  which  still  exists.  He  erected 
also  a  magnificent  palace  in  the  Italian  style  ;  but 
that  is  in  ruins. 

In  the  time  of  Volney,  Sayda  contained  about  five 
thousand  inhabitants ;  in  1816  from  six  thousand 
to  seven  thousand.  Of  these  there  are  one  thousand 
Christians,  five  hundred  Jews,  the  rest  are  Mahom- 
medans.  The  climate  is  mild,  agreeable,  and 

The  huge  stones  of  which  the  mole  was  built  may 
still  be  seen,  being  capable  of  filling  its  whole  thick- 
ness. Some  of  these  are  twelve  feet  long,  eleven 
broad,  and  five  deep.  It  is  supposed  to  have  been 
built  by  Lewis  IX. ;  but  this,  perhaps,  was  not  the 
case,  since  it  contains,  on  the  top  of  it,  a  work  of  a 
much  more  ancient  date. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  town  is  a  modern  fort, 
built  by  Degnizlu ;  but  consisting  merely  of  a  large 
tower,  incapable  of  resisting  any  serious  attack. 

"  Sidon  was  the  mother  of  Tyre,"  says  Mr.  Robin- 
son ;  "  yet  it  was  speedily  eclipsed  by  that  city,  in 
fame,  in  riches,  and  in  importance.  After  sharing 
in  its  fortunes,  during  the  space  of  many  centuries, 
it  has  finally  survived  its  rival,  and  is  again  a  place 
of  considerable  trade." 

The  buildings  of  Sayda,  according  to  Mr.  Bucking- 
ham, are  not  at  all  superior  to  the  common  order  of 
Mahommedan  edifices  in  the  modern  towns  of  Syria. 
The  streets  are  extremely  narrow,  the  mosques  mean, 
the  caravanserais  small  and  incommodious,  and  the 
bazaars  few,  and  badly  furnished  even  with  the  com- 
monest necessaries.  According  to  another  traveller, 
Sayda  is  ill-built,  dirty,  and  full  of  ruins.  These 
ruin?,  however,  are  of  a  comparatively  modern  date. 
*  In  the  sixteenth  ccnturv. 


Few  of  ancient  times  remain.  Tlure  is,  neverthe- 
less, a  large  tesselated  pavement  of  variegated 
marble,  representing  a  horse,  and  tolerably  perfect 
in  some  parts  for  ten  feet  in  length,  remaining  close  to 
the  sea,  on  the  northern  extremity  of  the  city,  which 
shows  that  the  sea  encroaches  on  the  land.  There 
are  also  several  columns  of  granite  wrought  into 
the  walls ;  and  some  stand  as  posts  on  the  bridge 
leading  to  the  fort ;  and  near  the  gate  of  the  town 
is  a  small  square  building,  which  contains  the  tombs 
of  such  of  the  Emirs  of  the  Druses  as  died  when 
Sayda  was  in  their  possession. 

Sayda  is  the  principal  port  of  Damascus.  The 
harbour,  like  all  those  on  this  coast,  was  formed  with 
much  art,  and  at  an  immense  expense,  by  means  of 
long  piers.  These  works,  which  subsisted  entire 
under  the  lower  empire,  are  now  fallen  into  decay. 
"  So  great  are  the  mutations,  occasioned  by  time," 
says  Mr.  Buckingham,  "  that  but  for  the  identity  of 
name  and  position,  there  would  be  scarcely  any  marks 
left  by  which  to  recognise  even  the  site  of  the  present 
emporium  here  alluded  to.  The  stranger,  who  visits 
it  in  its  present  state,  will  look  around  in  vain  for  any 
of  those  vestiges  of  its  former  grandeur  which  the 
description  of  the  ancient  historians  would  lead  him 
to  expect ;  and  which,  indeed,  are  still  to  be  seen  in 
most  of  the  other  celebrated  cities  of  the  East, — whe- 
ther in  Greece,  Egypt,  Syria,  or  Asia  Minor.* " 


THE  true  origin  of  Smyrna  is  rather  doubtful.  One* 
account  is,  that  such  of  the  Achaians  as  were  de- 
scended from  ,/Eolus,  and  had  hitherto  inhabited  Laco- 
nia,  being  driven  thence  by  the  Dorians,  after  some 

*  Herodotus  ;  Diodorus  ;  Pliny  ;  Plutarch  ;  Arrian  ;  Quintus 
Curtius  ;  Justin  ;  Prideaux  ;  Rollin  ;  Stackhouse  ;  Volney  ;  Drum- 
mood  ;  Buckingham ;  Robinson. 


wandering,  settled  in  that  part  of  Asia  Minor  which, 
from  them,  was  called  jEolis  ;  where  they  founded 
twelve  cities,  one  of  which  was  Smyrna.  According 
to  Herodotus,  however,  it  owed  its  foundation  to 
the  Cumicans,  who  were  of  Thessalian  extraction  ; 
who,  having  built  the  city  of  Cuma,  and  finding  it 
too  small  to  contain  their  number,  erected  another 
city,  which  they  named  Smyrna,  from  the  wife  of 
their  general,  Theseus.  According  to  some,  it  was 
built  by  Tantalus  ;  and  others  insist,  and  perhaps 
with  great  truth,  that  it  was  founded  by  persons  who1 
inhabited  a  quarter  of  Ephesus  called  Smyrna.  Some 
have  ascribed  it  to  an  Amazon  of  that  name  :  in  re- 
spect to  whom  Sir  George  Wheler  informs  us,  that 
they  stamped  their  money  with  a  figure  of  her  head, 
and  that  he  got  several  pieces  of  them  very  rare,  and 
saw  many  more.  One  small  one  had  her  head 
crowned  with  towers,  and  a  two-edged  hatchet  on 
her  shoulder.  On  another  her  whole  habit ;  thus — 
her  head  crowned  with  a  tower,  as  before ;  a  two- 
edged  axe  upon  her  shoulder,  holding  a  temple  in  her 
right  hand,  with  a  short  vest  let  down  to  her  knees,  and 
buskins  half  way  up  her  legs.  On  another  she  was 
dressed  in  the  habit  of  a  Hercules.  Whatever  its 
origin  might  be,  certain  it  is,  that  it  was  one  of  the 
richest  and  most  powerful  cities  of  Asia,  and  became 
one  of  the  twelve  cities  of  the  Ionian  confederacy. 

Smyrna  has  been  subject  to  many  revolutions,  and 
been  severally  in  the  possession  of  the  JEolians, 
lonians,  and  Macedonians. 

The  Lydians  took  possession  under  Ardys,  son  of 
Gyges  ;  and  having  destroyed  it,  the  inhabitants  dis- 
persed themselves  into  several  districts. 

Alexander,  in  compliance  with  the  directions  of  a 
vision,  he  saw  near  the  temple  of  the  Furies,  rebuilt  it 
four  hundred  years  after  it  had  been  destroyed  by  the 
Lydians.  Strabo,  however^  attributes  its  re-establish- 


mentto  Antigonus  anclLysimachus.  Butasneitherthat 
author  nor  Arrian  mention  Alexander  as  having  done 
so,  it  is  not  improbable  that  he  only  meditated  the 
doing  so  ;  that  Antigonus  followed  tip  his  design ; 
and  that  Lysimachus  carried  fts  completion  into  effect. 

At  Smyrna  there  were  none  of  the  tyrant*,  who 
oppressed  many  other  cities  of  Asia.  Even  the 
Romans  respected  the  happy  state  of  this  town,  and 
left  it  the  shadow  of  liberty.  This  is  a  fine  pane- 
gyric upon  the  system  of  polity,  that  must  have  been 
adopted  and  invariably  preserved. 

There  is  another  circumstance, highly  to  its  honour: 
the  inhabitants  believed  that  Homer  was  born  in 
their  city,  and  they  showed  a  place  which  bore  the 
poet's  name.  They  also  paid  him  divine  honours. 
Of  all  the  cities,  which  contended  for  the  honoivr  of 
having  given  birth  to  this  transcend  ant  poet,  Smyrna 
has  undoubtedly  the  most  reason  on  her  side. 
Herodotus  absolutely  decides  in  favour  of  Smyrna, 
assuring  us,  that  he  was  born  on  the  banks  of  the 
river  Meks,  whence  he  took  the  name  of  Melesigenes1. 

The  inhabitants  are  said  to  have  been  much  given 
to  luxury  and  indolence  ;  .but  they  were  universally 
esteemed  for  their  valour  and  intrepidity  when  called 
into  action.  Anacharsis  is  made  to  speak  of  their 
city  in  the  following  manner: — "  Our  road,  which 
was  almost  everywhere  overshadowed  by  beautiful 
andrachnes,  led  us  to  the  mouth  of  the  Hermus ; 
and  thence  our  view  extended  over  that  superb  bay, 
formed  by  a  peninsula,  on  which  are  the  cities  of 
Erythrse  and  Teos.  At  the  bottom  of  it  are  some 
small  villages,  the  unfortunate  remains  of  the  ancient 
city  of  Smyrna,  formerly  destroyed  by  the  Lydians. 
They  still  bear  the  same  name;  and,  should  circum- 
stances one  day  permit  the  inhabitants  to  unite  and 
form  one  town,  defended  by  walls,  their  situation 
will  doubtless  attract  an  immense  commerce." 


It  was  the  first  town  of  Asia  Minor,  according  to 
Tacitus,  which,  even  during  the  existence  of  Carthage, 
erected  any  temple  to  ';  Rome  the  Goddess."  Part 
of  the  city  was  destroyed  hy  Dolabella,  when  he 
slew  Trehonius,  one  of  the  conspirators  against  Caesar. 
But  it  flourished  greatly  under  the  early  emperors: 
Marcus  Aurelius  repaired  it  after  it  had  heen 
destroyed  by  an  earthquake ;  and  under  Caracalla  it 
took  the  name  of  the  first  city  of  Asia. 

Smyrna  was  much  celebrated  for  its  stately  build- 
ings, magnificent  temples,  and  marble  porticoes.  It 
had  several  grand  porticoes  of  a  square  form,  amongst 
which  was  one  in  which  stood  a  temple  of  Homer, 
adorned  with  a  statue  of  the  bard.  There  was  also 
a  gymnasium,  and  a  temple  dedicated  to  the  mother 
of  the  gods.  Where  the  gymnasium  was,  however, 
is  now  past  conjecture;  but  part  of  its  theatre  was 
still  in  existence  in  the  time  of  Sir  George  Wheler. 
"  The  theatre,"  says  he,  "  is  on  the  brow  of  the  hill 
north  of  the  course,  built  of  white  marble,  but  now 
is  going  to  be  destroyed,  to  build  the  new  Kan  and 
Bazar  hard  by  the  fort  below,  which  they  are  now 
about;  and  in  doing  whereof  there  hath  been  lately 
found  a  pot  of  medals,  all  of  the  emperor  Gallienus' 
family,  and  the  other  tyrants  that  reigned  in  his 
time."  There  were  also  there  the  remains  of  a  circus, 
and  a  considerable  number  of  ancient  foundations 
and  noble  structures;  but  what  they  were  Sir  George 
considered  uncertain.  He  found  also  many  inscrip- 
tions and  medals,  on  which  the  names  of  Tiberius, 
Claudius,  and  Nero  were  to  be  read ;  on  others,  sepul- 
chral monuments.  Among  these,  was  one  with  an 
inscription  "  to  the  emperor  Adrian,  Olympian, 
Saviour  and  Founder." 

In  the  Armenian  church -yard  he  saw  an  inscrip- 
tion— "  Good  Fortune  to  the  most  splendid  Metro- 
politan, and  thrice  Neocorus  of  the  emperor,  accord- 


infj  to  the  judgment  of  the  most  holy  senate  of 

31  any  writers  do  not  seem  to  be  aware,  that  the 
ancient  Smyrna  did  not  occupy  the  spot  where 
modern  Smyrna  stands,  but  one  about  two  miles  and  a 
half  distant.  It  was  built  partly  on  the  brow  of  a 
hill,  and  partly  on  a  plain  towards  the  port,  and  had 
a  temple  dedicated  to  Cybele.  It  was  then  the  most 
beautiful  of  all  the  Asiatic  cities.  "  But  that  which 
was,  and  ever  will  be,  its  true  glory,"  says  Sir 
George  Whcler,  "  was  their  early  reception  of  the 
gospel  of  Jesus  Christ — glorious  in  the  testimony  he 
has  given  of  them,  and  happy  in  the  faithful  pro- 
mises he  made  to  them.  Let  us,  therefore,  consider 
what  he  writeth  to  them  by  the  Evangelist  St. 
John: — (Apoc.  ii.  9.)  'I  know  thy  works  and  tri- 
bulation, and  poverty;  but  thou  art  rich.  And  I 
know  the  blasphemy  of  them,  that  say  they  are 
Jews,  and  are  not :  but  are  the  Synagogue  of  Satan. 
Fear  none  of  those  things,  which  thou  shalt  suffer. 
Behold,  the  Devil  shall  cast  some  of  ye  in  prison, 
that  ye  may  be  tried;  and  ye  shall  have  tribulation 
ten  days.  Be  thou  faithful  unto  death ;  and  I  will 
ofive  thee  a  crown  of  life.' " 

Previous  to  the  year  1675,  it  had  been  partially 
destroyed,  and  several  times,  by  earthquakes  ;  and 
it  was  predicted  that  a  seventh  convulsion  would  be 
fatal  to  the  whole  city.  Such  a  calamity,  attended 
by  a  dreadful  fire,  and  the  swallowing  up  of  multi- 
tudes by  the  incursion  of  the  sea,  recurred  in  1688, 
and  did,  indeed,  very  nearly  fulfil  the  prophecy. 

*  A  very  ancient  basso-rilievo,  among  the  antiquities  at  Wilton 
House,  brought  from  Smyrna,  represents  Mantlicus,  the  son  of 
yEtlius,  giving  thanks  to  Jupiter,  for  his  son's  being  victor  in  the 
five  exercises  of  the  Olympic  games ;  wherein  is  shown,  by  an 
inscription  of  the  oldest  Greek  letters,  the  ancient  Greek  way  of 
wilting  that  was  in  use  six  hundred  years  before  our  Saviour. 


"Repeated  strokes,"  says  Sir  John  Hobhouse,  "and 
almost  annual  pestilences,  have  since  that  period 
laid  waste  this  devoted  city  ;  and  yet  the  convenience 
of  a  most  spacious  and  secure  harbour,  together  with 
the  luxuriant  fertility  of  the  surrounding  country, 
and  the  prescriptive  excellence  allowed  nearly  two 
thousand  years  to  this  port,  in  preference  to  the  other 
maritime  stations  of  Asia  Minor,  still  operate  to  col- 
lect and  keep  together  a  vast  mass  of  inhabitants  from 
every  quarter  of  the  globe." 

According  to  Pococke,  the  city  might  have  been 
about  four  miles  in  compass ;  of  a  triangular  form. 
It  seems  to  have  extended  about  a  mile  on  the  sea, 
and  three  miles  on  the  north,  south,  and  east  sides, 
taking  in  the  compass  of  the  castle.  This  stands  on 
the  remains  of  the  ancient  castle,  the  walls  of  which 
were  of  the  same  kind  of  architecture  as  the  city 
walls  on  the  hill.  It  is  all  in  ruins,  except  a  small 
part  of  the  west  end,  which  is  always  kept  shut 

One  of  the  gateways  of  white  marble  has  been 
brought  from  another  place ;  and  in  the  architrave 
round  the  arch  there  is  a  Greek  inscription  of  the 
middle  ages.  At  another  gate  there  is  a  colossal  head, 
said  to  be  that  of  the  Amazon  Smyrna.  It  is  of 
fine  workmanship,  and  the  tresses  particularly  flow 
in  a  very  natural  manner.  "  Smyrna,"  says  Pococke, 
"  was  one  of  the  finest  cities  in  these  parts,  and  the 
streets  were  beautifully  laid  out,  well-paved,  and 
adorned  with  porticoes,  both  above  and  below. 
There  was  also  a  temple  of  Mars,  a  circus,  and  a 
theatre;  and  yet  there  is  now  very  little  to  be  seen 
of  all  these  things." 

Upon  a  survey  of  the  castle,  Dr.  Chandler  col- 
lected, that,  after  being  re-edified  by  John  Angelus 
Comnenus,  its  condition,  though  less  ruinous  than 
before,  was  far  more  mean  and  ignoble.  The  old 


Avail,  of  which  many  remnants  may  be  discovered, 
is  of  a  solid  massive  construction,  worthy  of  Alex- 
ander and  his  captains.  All  the  repairs  are  mere 
patchwork.  On  the  arch  of  a  gateway,  which  is  of 
marble,. is  inscribed  a  copy  of  verses,  giving  an  ele- 
gant and  poetical  description  of  the  extreme  misery 
from  which  the  above-mentioned  emperor  raised  the 
city ;  concluding  with  an  address  to  the  Omnipotent 
liuler  of  heaven  and  earth,  that  he  would  grant 
him  and  his  queen,  whose  beauty  it  celebrates,  a 
reign  of  many  years.  On  each  side  is  an  eagle,  rudely 

Near  the  sea  is  the  ground- work  of  a  stadium, 
stripped  of  its  marble  seats  and  decorations.  Below 
the  theatre  is  part  of  a  slight  wall.  The  city  walls 
have  long  since  been  demolished.  Even  its  ruins 
are  removed.  Beyond  the  deep  valley,  however, 
in  which  the  Meles  winds,  behind  the  castle,  are 
several  portions  of  the  wall  of  the  Pomcerium,  which 
encompassed  the  city  at  a  distance,  but  broken. 
The  facings  are  gone,  and  masses  left  only  of  rubble 
and  cement. 

The  ancient  city  has  supplied  materials  for  those 
public  edifices,  which  have  been  erected  by  the  Turks. 
The  Bezestan  and  the  Vizir  khan  were  both  raised 
with  the  white  marble  of  the  theatre.  The  very 
ruins  of  the  stones  and  temples  are  vanished.  "  We 
saw,"  says  Dr.  Chandler,  "  remains  of  one  only ; 
some  shafts  of  columns  of  variegated  marble,  much 
injured,  in  the  way  ascending  through  the  towa  to 
the  castle.  Many  pedestals,  statues,  inscriptions, 
and  medals  have  been,  and  are  still,  discovered  in 
digging.  Perhaps,"  continues  our  author,  "  no  place 
has  contributed  more  to  enrich  the  cabinets  and  col- 
lections of  Europe." 

"  Smyrna,"  says  a  celebrated  French  writer,  "  the 
queen  of  the  cities  of  Anatolia,  and  extolled  by  the 


ancients  under  the  title  of  '  the  lovely,  the  crown  of 
Ionia,  the  ornament  of  Asia,'  braves  the  reiterated 
efforts  of  conflagrations  and  earthquakes.  Ten  times 
destroyed,  she  has  ten  times  risen  from  her  ruins  with 
new  splendour.  According  to  a  very  common  Grecian 
system,  the  principal  buildings  were  erected  on  the 
face  of  a  hill  fronting  the  sea.  The  hill  supplied 
marble,  while  its  slope  afforded  a  place  for  the  seats 
rising  gradually  above  each  other  in  the  stadium,  or 
the  great  theatre  for  the  exhibition  of  games.  Al- 
most every  trace  of  the  ancient  city,  however,  has 
been  obliterated  during  the  contests  between  the 
Greek  empire  and  the  Ottomans,  and  afterwards  by 
the  ravages  of  Timour,  in  1402.  The  foundation  of 
the  stadium  remains;  but  the  area  is  sown  with  grain. 
There  are  only  a  few  vestiges  of  the  theatre ;  and  the 
castle,  which  crowns  the  hill,  is  chiefly  patchwork, 
executed  by  John  Comnenus  on  the  ruins  of  the  old 
one,  the  walls  of  which,  of  immense  strength  and 
thickness,  may  still  be  discovered." 

This  city  was  visited  a  short  time  since  by  the 
celebrated  French  poet  and  traveller  La  Martine. 
He  has  thus  spoken  of  its  environs : — "  The  view 
from  the  top  of  the  hill  over  the  gulf  and  city  is 
beautiful.  On  descending  the  hill  to  the  margin  of 
the  river,  which  I  like  to  believe  is  tne  Meles,  we 
were  delighted  with  the  situation  of  the  bridge  of  the 
caravans,  very  near  one  of  the  gates  of  the  town. 
The  river  is  limpid,  slumbering  under  a  peaceful  arch 
of  sycamores  and  cypresses  ;  we  seated  ourselves  on 
its  bank.  If  this  stream  heard  the  first  notes  of 
Homer,  I  love  to  hear  its  gentle  murmurings  amidst 
the  roots  of  the  palm-trees  ;  I  raise  its  waters  to  my 
lips.  Oh  !  might  that  man  appear  from  the  Western 
world,  who  should  weave  its  history,  its  dreams,  and 
its  heaven,  into  an  epic  !  Such  a  poem  is  the  sepul- 
chre of  times  gone  by,  to  which  posterity  conies  to 


venerate  traditions,  and  eternalise  by  its  worship  the 
great  actions  and  sublime  thoughts  of  human  nature. 
Its  author  engraves  his  name  on  the  pedestal  of  the 
statue  which  he  erects  to  man,  and  lie  lives  in  all 
the  ideas  with  which  he  enriches  the  world  of  imagi- 

According  to  the  same  author,  Smyrna  in  no 
respect  resembles  an  Eastern  town  ;  it  is  a  large  and 
elegant  factory,  where  the  European  consuls  and 
merchants  lead  the  life  of  Paris  and  London. 

Though  frequently  and  severely  visited  by  the 
plague,  it  contains  one  hundred  and  twenty  thousand 
inhabitants ;  and  may  be  considered  as  the  "great 
emporium  of  the  Levant*. 


WHEN  Diocletian  selected  a  spot  for  his  retire- 
ment, he  solicitously  observed,  that  his  palace  should 
command  every  beauty  that  the  country  afforded. 
In  this  retirement  he  began  to  live,  to  see  the  beauty 
of  the  sun,  and  to  enjoy,  as  Vopiscus  relates,  true 
happiness  in  the  society  of  those  he  had  known  in 
his  youtht.  His  palace  was  situated  at  Spalatro,  in 

While  residing  at  this  place,  Diocletian  made  a 

*  Pausanias  ;  Arrian  ;  Quintus  Curtius  ;  Wbeler  ;  Poeocke  ; 
Chandler  ;  Barthelemy  ;  Hobhouse  ;  La  Marline. 

•f"  The  valour  of  Diocletian  was  never  found  inadequate  to  his 
duty  or  to  the  occasion  ;  but  he  appears  not  to  have  possessed  the 
daring  and  generous  spirit  of  a  hero,  who  courts  danger  and  fame, 
disdains  artifice,  and  boldly  challenges  the  allegiance  of  his  equals. 
His  abilities  were  useful  rather  than  splendid  ;  a  vigorous  mind, 
improved  by  the  experience  and  study  of  mankind  ;  dexterity  and 
application  in  business;  a  judicious  mixture  of  liberality  and 
economy  ;  steadiness  to  pursue  his  ends  ;  flexibility  to  vary  his 
means  ;  and,  above  all,  the  great  art  of  submitting  his  own  passions, 
as  well  as  those  of  others,  to  the  interest  of  his  ambition,  and  of 
colouring  his  ambition  with  the  most  specious  pretences  of  justice 
and  public  utility.  Like  Augustus,  Diocletian  may  be  considered 


very  remarkable  and  strictly  true  confession  : — 
"  Four  or  five  persons,"  said  he,  u  who  are  closely 
united,  and  resolutely  determined  to  impose  on  a 
prince,  may  do  it  very  easily.  They  never  show 
things  to  him  but  in  such  a  light  as  they  are  sure 
will  please.  They  conceal  whatever  would  contri- 
bute to  enlighten  him  ;  and  as  they  only  besiege  him 
continually,  he  cannot  be  informed  of  any  thing  but 
through  their  medium,  and  does  nothingbut  what  they 
think  fit  to  suggest  to  him.  Hence  it  is,  that  he 
bestows  employments  on  those  he  ought  to  exclude 
from  them  ;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  removes  from 
offices  such  persons  as  are  most  worthy  of  filling 
them.  In  a  word,  the  best  prince  is  often  sold  by 
these  men,  though  he  be  ever  so  vigilant,  and  even 
suspicious  of  them." 

As  the  voyager  enters  the  bay,  the  marine  wall 
and  long  arcades  of  the  palace,  one  of  the  ancient 
temples,  and  other  parts  of  that  building,  present 
themselves.  The  inhabitants  have  destroyed  some 
parts  of  the  palace,  in  order  to  procure  materials  for 
building.  In  other  places  houses  are  built  of  the  old 
foundations ;  and  modern  works  are  so  intermingled 
with  the  ancient,  as  scarcely  to  be  distinguishable.  , 

The  palace  of  Diocletian  possessed  all  those  advan- 
tages of  situation,  to  which  the  ancients  were  most 
attentive.  It  was  so  great  that  the  emperor  Con- 
stantinus  Porphyrogenitus,  who  had  seen  the  most 
splendid  buildings  of  the  ancients,  affirms*,  that  no 
plan  or  description  of  it  could  convey  a  perfect  idea 
of  it.  The  vast  extent  of  ground  which  it  occupied  is 
surprising  at  first  sight ;  the  dimensions  of  one  side  of 

as  the  founder  of  a  new  empire  ;  like  the  adopted  son  of  Caesar,  he 
was  distinguished  as  a  statesman  rather  than  a  warrior ;  nor  did 
either  of  those  princes  employ  force  whenever  their  purpose  could 
be  effected  by  policy. — GIBBON. 

*  De  Administrando  Iniperio. 


the  quadrangle,  including  the  towers,  being  no  lessthan 
six  hundred  and  ninety-eight  feet,  and  of  the  other 
four  hundred  and  ninety-two  feet : — making  the  su- 
perficial contents  four  hundred  and  thirteen  thousand 
two  hundred  and  sixteen  feet ;  that  is,  about  nine 
and  a  half  English  acres.  But  when  it  is  considered 
that  it  contained  proper  apartments  not  only  for  the 
emperor  himself,  and  for  the  numerous  retinue  of 
officers  who  attended  his  court,  but  likewise  edifices 
and  open  spaces  for  exercises  of  different  kinds,  that 
it  was  capable  of  lodging  a  pra?torian  cohort,  and  that 
two  temples  were  erected  within  its  precincts,  we  shall 
not  conclude  the  area  to  have  been  too  large  for  such 
a  variety  of  buildings. 

For  a  description  of  this  celebrated  place,  we  must 
refer  to  31r.  Adam's  Antiquities ;  but  there  is  one 
circumstance  that  may  be  highly  interesting  at  the 
present  time,  which  is,  that  not  the  smallest  vestige 
of  a  fire-place  is  to  be  seen  in  any  part  of  the  build- 
ing ;  and  it  may  be  therefore  conjectured,  that  the 
various  apartments  might  have  been  heated  by  flues 
or  funnels,  conveying  and  distributing  heated  air. 

Of  the  temples,  one  of  them  was  dedicated  to 
/Esculapius ;  the  ascent  to  which  was  by  a  stair  of 
fifteen  steps,  and  it  received  no  light  but  from  the 
door.  Beneath  it  are  vaults  of  great  strength ;  its 
roof  is  an  arch  adorned  with  sunk  pannels  of  beau- 
tiful workmanship,  and  its  walls  are  of  a  remarkable 
thickness.  This  temple  remains  almost  entire. 

There  is  another  temple,  dedicated  to  Jupiter,  who 
was  worshipped  by  Diocletian  with  peculiar  venera- 
tion ;  and  in  honour  of  whom  he  assumed  the  name 
of  Jovius.  This -temple  is  surroxmded  with  one  row 
of  columns,  having  a  space  between  them  and  the 
wall.  It  is  lighted  by  an  arched  window  over  the 
door,  and  is  vaulted  beneath  like  that  of  ^Esculapius. 
There  are  remains  of  two  other  buildings,  not  much 


inferior  in  extent,  nor  probably  in  original  magnifi- 
cence ;  but  by  the  injuries  of  time,  and  the  depreda- 
tions of  the  Spalatrines,  these  are  reduced  to  a  very 
ruinous  condition. 

Besides  these  the  visitor  sees  large  vaults  along 
that  side  of  the  palace  which  looks  to  the  sea;  partly 
destroyed,  partly  filled  up,  and  some  occupied  by 
merchants  as  storehouses. 

In  one  of  the  towers  belonging  to  the  palace,  Dio- 
cletian is  supposed  to  have  been  buried ;  and  we  are 
told  that,  about  two  hundred  and  seventy-five  years 
ago,  the  body  of  the  emperor  was  discovered  there  in 
a  sarcophagus  of  porphyry. 

The  shafts  of  the  columns  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter 
are  of  oriental  alabaster  of  one  stone.  The  capitals 
and  bases  of  the  columns,  and  on  the  entablature,  are 
of  Parian  marble.  The  shafts  of  the  columns  of  the 
second  order,  which  is  composite,  are  alternately  of 
verd-antique,  or  ancient  green  marble  and  porphyry, 
of  one  piece.  The  capitals  and  entablature  are  also 
of  Parian  marble. 

All  the  capitals  throughout  the  palace  are  raffled 
more  in  the  Grecian  than  the  Roman  style ;  so 
that  Mr.  Adam*  thinks  it  probable,  that  Diocletian, 
who  had  been  so  often  in  Greece,  brought  his  arti- 
ficers thither,  in  order  to  vary  the  execution  of  his 
orders  of  architecture  in  this  palace,  from  those  he 
had  executed  at  his  baths  at  Rome,  which  are  ex- 
tremely different  both  in  formation  and  executiont. 

*  Adam's  Antiquities  at  Diocletian's  palace  at  Spalatro,  p.  67. 
Thus  the  Abate  Fortis  : — "E  'bastevolmente  now  agli  amatori 
dell' architettura,  e  dell'  antichitk,  I'opera  del  Signor  Adam,  die 
a  donato  molto  a  quc'  supcrbi  vestigi  coll'  abituale  cleganza  del  suo 
toccalapis  e  del  bulino.  In  generale  la  rozzezza  del  scalpello,  e  '1 
cativo  gusto  del  secolo  vi  gareggiano  colla  tuagnificenza  del  fabri- 
cato." — Vide  Viaggio  in  Dalmazia,  p.  40.  For  the  plan  and  views 
of  the  palace,  temples  of  Jupiter  and  TEsculapius,  with  the  Dalma- 
tian coast,  vide  "  Voyage  de  1'Istrie  et  de  la  Dalmatic. " 
•)•  Gibbon  ;  Adam. 



THIS  was  a  town  in  Caria,  where  a  Macedonian 
colony  took  up  their  abode;  and  which  several 
Syrian  monarchs  afterwards  adorned  and  beautified. 
It  was  named  after  the  wife  of  Antiochus  Soter,  of  whom 
history  gives  the  following  account.  "  Antiochus 
was  seized  with  a  lingering  distemper,  of  which  the 
physicians  were  incapable  of  discovering  the  cause  ; 
for  which  reason  his  condition  was  thought  entirely 
desperate.  Erasistratus,  the  most  attentive  and  skil- 
ful of  all  the  physicians,  having  carefully  considered 
every  symptom  with  which  the  indisposition  of  the 
young  prince  was  attended,  believed  at  last  that  he 
had  discovered  its  true  cause,  and  that  it  proceeded 
from  a  passion  he  had  entertained  for  some  lady ;  in 
which  conjecture  he  was  not  deceived.  It,  however, 
was  more  difficult  to  discover  the  object  of  a  passion, 
the  more  violent  fr*m  the  secrecy  in  which  it  re- 
mained. The  physician,  therefore,  to  assure  himself 
fully  of  what  he  surmised,  passed  whole  days  in  the 
apartment  of  his  patient,  and  when  he  saw  any  lady 
enter,  he  carefully  observed  the  countenance  of  the 
prince,  and  never  discovered  the  least  emotion  in  him, 
except  when  Stratonice  came  into  the  chamber,  either 
alone,  or  with  her  consort ;  at  which  times  the  young 
prince  was,  as  Plutarch  observes,  always  affected 
with  the  symptoms  described  by  Sappho,  as  so  many 
indications  of  a  violent  passion.  Such,  for  instance, 
as  a  suppression  of  voice ;  burning  blushes  ;  suffusion 
of  sight ;  cold  sweat ;  a  sensible  inequality  and  dis- 
order of  pulse ;  with  a  variety  of  the  like  symptoms. 
When  the  physician  was  afterwards  alone  with  his 
patient,  he  managed  his  inquiries  with  so  much  dex- 
terity, as  at  last  drew  the  secret  from  him.  Antio- 
chus confessed  his  passion  for  queen  Stratonice  his 
mother-in-law,  and  declared  that  he  had  in  vain  em- 

VOL.  II.  B  B 


ployed  all  his  efforts  to  vanquish  it :  he  added,  that 
he  had  a  thousand  times  had  recourse  to  every  con- 
sideration that  could  be  represented  to  his  thoughts, 
in  such  a  conjuncture ;  particularly  the  respect  due 
from  him  to  a  father  and  a  sovereign,  by  whom  he 
•was  tenderly  beloved  ;  the  shameful  circumstance  of 
indulging  a  passion  altogether  unjustifiable,  and  con- 
trary to  all  the  rules  of  decency  and  honour;  the 
folly  of  harbouring  a  design  he  ought  never  to  be 
desirous  of  gratifying ;  but  that  his  reason,  in  its 
present  state  of  distraction,  entirely  engrossed  by 
one  object,  would  hearken  to  nothing.  And  he  con- 
cluded with  declaring,  that,  to  punish  himself,  for 
desires  involuntary  in  one  sense,  but  criminal  in  every 
other,  he  had  resolved  to  languish  to  death,  by  dis- 
continuing all  care  of  his  health,  and  abstaining  from 
every  kind  of  food.  The  physician  gained  a  very 
considerable  point,  by  penetrating  into  the  source  of 
his  patient's  disorder;  but  the  application  of  the  pro- 
per remedy  was  much  more  difficult  to  be  accom- 
plished ;  and  how  could  a  proposal  of  this  nature  be 
made  to  a  parent  and  king!  AVhcn  Seleucus  made 
the  next  inquiry  after  his  son's  health,  Erasistratus 
replied,  that  his  distemper  was  incurable,  because  it 
arose  from  a  secret  passion  which  could  never  be  gra- 
tified, as  the  lady  he  loved  was  not  to  be  obtained. 
The  father,  surprised  and  afflicted  at  this  answer, 
desired  to  know  why  the  lady  was  not  to  be  ob- 
tained ?  '  Because  she  is  my  wife  ! '  replied  the  phy- 
sician, '  and  I  am  not  disposed  to  yield  her  up  to  the 
embraces  of  another.'  '  And  will  you  not  part  witli 
her  then,'  replied  the  king,  '  to  preserve  the  life  of  a 
son  I  so  tenderly  love  !  Is  this  the  friendship  you 
profess  for  me  ? '  '  Let  me  entreat  you,  my  lord,' 
said  Erasistratus,  '  to  imagine  yourself  for  one  mo- 
ment in  my  place,  would  you  resign  your  Stratonice 
to  his  arms  ?  If  you,  therefore,  who  are  a  father, 


•would  not  consent  to  such  a  sacrifice  for  the  welfare 
of  a  son  so  dear  to  you,  how  can  you  expect  another 
should  do  it  ?'  'I  would  resign  Stratonice,  and  my 
empire  to  him,  with  all  my  soul,'  interrupted  the 
king.  '  Your  majesty  then,'  replied  the  physician, 
'  has  the  remedy  in  your  own  hands ;  for  he  loves 
Stratonice.'  The  father  did  not  hesitate  a  moment 
after  this  declaration,  and  easily  obtained  the  consent 
of  his  consort :  after  which,  his  son  and  that  princess 
were  crowned  king  and  queen  of  upper  Asia.  Julian 
the  Apostate,  however,  relates  in  a  fragment  of  his 
writings  still  extant,  that  Antiochus  could  not  espouse 
Stratonice,  till  after  the  death  of  his  father. 

"  Whatever  traces  of  reserve,  moderation,  and  even 
modesty,  appear  in  the  conduct  of  this  young  prince," 
says  Rollin  at  the  conclusion  of  this  history,  "  his 
example  shows  us  the  misfortune  of  giving  the  least 
entrance  into  the  heart  of  an  unlawful  passion,  capa- 
ble of  discomposing  all  the  happiness  and  tranquillity 
of  life." 

Stratonice  was  a  free  city  under  the  Romans. 
Hadrian  erected  several  structures  in  it,  and  thence 
took  the  opportunity  of  calling  it  Hadrianopolis. 

It  is  now  a  poor  village,  and  called  Eskihissar.  It 
was  remarkable  for  a  magnificent  temple,  dedicated 
to  Jupiter,  of  which  no  foundations  are  now  to  be 
traced,  but  in  one  part  of  the  village  there  is  a  grand 
gate  of  a  plain  architecture.  There  was  a  double 
row  of  large  pillars  from  it,  which  probably  formed 
the  avenue  to  the  temple ;  and  on  each  side  of  the 
gate  there  was  a  semicircular  alcove  niche,  and  a 
colonnade  from  it,  which,  with  a  wall  on  each  side 
of  the  gate,  might  make  a  portico,  that  was  of  the 
Corinthian  order.  Fifty  paces  further  there  are  re- 
mains of  another  colonnade.  To  the  south  of  this 
are  ruins  of  a  building  of  large  hewn  stone,  supposed 
to  have  belonged  to  the  temple  of  Serapis.  There 
B  B  2 


is  also  a  large  theatre,  the  front  of  which  is  ruined  ; 
there  are  in  all  about  forty  seats,  with  a  gallery  in 
the  middle,  and  another  at  the  top. 

Chandler  gives  a  very  agreeable  account  of  this 
village: — "Thehousee  are  scattered  among  woody  hills 
environed  by  huge  mountains ;  one  of  which  has  its 
summit  as  white  as  chalk.  It  is  watered  by  a  limpid 
and  lively  rill,  with  cascades.  The  site  is  strewed 
with  marble  fragments.  Some  shafts  of  columns  are 
standing  single ;  and  one  with  a  capital  on  it.  By 
a  cottage  are  three,  with  a  pilaster  supporting  an 
entablature,  but  enveloped  in  thick  vines  and 
trees.  Near  the  theatre  are  several  pedestals  of 
statues ;  one  records  a  citizen  of  great  merit  and 
magnificence.  Above  it  is  a  marble  heap ;  and  the 
whole  building  is  overgrown  with  moss,  bushes,  and 
trees.  Without  the  village,  on  the -opposite  side,  are 
broken  arches,  with  pieces  of  massive  wall  and  sarco- 
phagi. Several  altars  also  remain,  with  inscriptions; 
once  placed  in  sepulchres*. 

NO.  xxxiv. — SUSA. 

STRABO  says  that  Susa  was  built  by  Tithonus  or 
Tithon,  the  father  of  Memnon  ;  and  this  origin  is  in 
some  degree  supported  by  a  passage  in  Herodotus, 
wherein  that  historian  calls  it  "  the  city  of  Memnon." 
In  Scripture  it  is  called  "  Shushan."  It  was  an 
oblong  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  stadia  in  circuit ; 
situated  on  the  river  Cuta?us  or  Uhlai. 

Susa  derived  its  name  from  the  number  of  lilies 
which  grew  on  the  banks  of  the  river  on  which  it 
stood.  It  was  sheltered  by  a  high  ridge  of  mountains 
on  the  north,  which  rendered  it  very  agreeable  during 
winter.  But  in  summer  the  heat  was  so  intense  and 
parching,  that  the  inhabitants  wore  accustomed  to 
*~Rol!iu;  Chandler. 


cover  their  houses  two  cubits  deep  with  earth.  It 
was  in  this  city  that  Ahasuerus  gave  the  great  feast 
which  lasted  one  hundred  and  eighty-three  days. 

Barthelemy  makes  Anacharsis  write  to  his  friend 
in  Scythia  to  the  following  purport : — "  The  kincrg  of 
Persia,  besides  Persepolis,  have  caused  other  palaces 
to  be  built ;  less  sumptuous,  indeed,  but  of  wonder- 
ful beauty,  at  Ecbatana  and  Susa.  They  have,  also, 
spacious  parks,  which  they  call  paradises,  and  which 
are  divided  into  two  parts.  In  the  one,  armed  with 
arrows  and  javelins,  they  pursue  on  horseback, 
through  the  forests,  the  deer  which  are  shut  up  in 
them ;  and  in  the  other,  in  which  the  art  of  garden- 
ing has  exhausted  its  utmost  efforts,  they  cultivate 
the  most  beautiful  flowers,  and  gather  the  most  deli- 
cious fruits.  They  are  not  less  attentive  to  adorn 
these  parks  with  superb  trees,  which  they  commonly 
dispose  in  the  form  called  Quincunx."  He  gives,  also, 
an  account  of  the  great  encouragement  afforded  to 
agriculture.  "  But  our  attention  was  still  more  en- 
gaged by  the  conspicuous  protection  and  encourage- 
ment which  the  sovereign  grants  to  agriculture  ;  and 
that,  not  by  some  transient  favours  and  rewards,  but 
by  an  enlightened  vigilance  more  powerful  than 
edicts  and  laws.  He  appoints  in  every  district  two 
superintendants;  one  for  the  military,  and  the  other 
for  civil  affairs.  The  office  of  the  former  is  to  pre- 
serve the  public  tranquillity  ;  and  that  of  the  latter 
to  promote  the  progress  of  industry  and  agriculture. 
If  one  of  these  should  not  discharge  his  duty,  the 
other  may  complain  of  him  to  the  governor  of  the 
province,  or  the  sovereign  himself.  If  the  monarch 
sees  the  country  covered  with  trees,  harvests,  and  all 
the  productions  of  which  the  soil  is  capable,  he  heaps 
honours  on  the  two  officers,  and  enlarges  their  govern- 
ment. But  if  he  finds  the  lands  uncultivated,  they 
are  directly  displaced,  and  others  appointed  in 


their  stead.  Commissioners  of  incorruptible  inte- 
grity exercise  the  same  justice  in  the  districts  through 
which  the  sovereign  does  not  pass." 

Susa  is  rendered  remarkable  by  the  immensity  of 
wealth,  hoarded  up  in  it  by  the  Persian  kings,  and 
which  fell  into  the  hands  of  Alexander,  when,  twenty 
days  after  leaving  Babylon,  he  took  possession  of  that 
city.  There  were  50,000  talents*  of  silver  in  ore 
and  ingots ;  a  sum  equivalent,  of  our  money,  to 
7,500,000/.  Besides  this,  there  were  five  thousand 
talents' t  worth  of  purple  of  Hcrmione,  which,  though 
it  had  been  laid  up  for  one  hundred  and  ninety  years, 
retained  its  freshness  and  beauty  :  the  reason  assigned 
for  which  is,  that  the  purple  wool  was  combed  with 
honey,  and  the  white  with  white  oil  J.  Besides  this, 
there  were  a  thousand  other  things  of  extraordinary 
value.  "  This  wealth,"  says  one  of  the  historians, 
"  was  the  produce  of  the  exactions  imposed  for  seve- 
ral centuries  upon  the  common  people,  from  whose 
sweat  and  poverty  immense  revenues  were  raised. 
"  The  Persian  monarchs,"  he  goes  on  to  observe, 
"fancied  they  had  amassed  them  for  their  children  and 
posterity  ;  but,  in  one  hour,  they  fell  into  the  hands 
of  a  foreign  king,  who  was  able  to  make  a  right  use 
of  them  :  for  Alexander  seemed  to  be  merely  the 
guardian  or  trustee  of  the  immense  riches  which  he 
found  hoarded  up  in  Persia ;  and  applied  them  to  no 
other  use  than  the  rewarding  of  courage  and  merit." 

Here,  too,  were  found  many  of  the  rarities  which 
Xerxes  had  taken  from  Greece;  and  amongst  others, 

*  This  is  Quintus  Curtius'  account.  Plutarch  says  40,000  talents. 
f  Or  five  thousand  talents  weight.  Dacier  calls  it  so  many 
hundred-weight  ;  and  the  eastern  talent  was  near  that  weight. 
Pliny  tells  us,  that  a  pound  of  the  double-dipped  Tynan  purple,  in 
the  time  of  Augustus,  sold  for  a  hundred  crowus. — LANGHORNE. 
-  £  Plutarch  says,  that  in  his  time  specimens  were  still  to  be  seen 
of  the  same  kind  and  age,  in  all  their  pristine  lustre. 


the  brazen  statues  of  Harmodius  and  Aristogiton, 
which  Alexander  soon  after  sent  to  Athens. 

This  was  the  city  .in  which  a  curious  scene  occur- 
red between  Alexander  and  Sisyganibis,  Darius' 
mother,  whom  he  had  taken  prisoner  at  the  battle 
of  Issus.  He  had  left  her  at  Susa,  with  Darius' 
children  :  and  having  received  a  quantity  of  purple 
stuffs  and  rich  habits  from  Macedonia,  made  after 
the  fashion  of  his  own  country,  he  sent  them  to 
Sisyganibis ;  desiring  his  messengers  to  tell  her,  that 
if  the  stuffs  pleased  her,  she  might  teach  her  grand- 
children, who  were  with  her,  the  art  of  weaving 
them  for  their  amusement.  Now  the  working  in 
wool  was  considered  an  ignominy  by  the  Persian 
women.  When  Sisygambis  heard  Alexander  s  mes- 
sage, therefore,  she  burst  into  tears.  This  being 
related  to  the  conqueror,  he  thought  it  decorous 
to  do  away  the  impression.  He  therefore  visited 
Sisygambis.  "  Mother,"  said  he,  for  he  valued  Da- 
rius' mother  next  to  his  own,  "  the  stuff,  in  which 
you  see  me  clothed,  was  not  only  a  gift  of  my  sisters, 
but  wrought  by  their  fingers.  Hence  I  beg  you  to 
believe,  that  the  custom  of  my  country  misled  me ; 
and  do  not  consider  that  as  an  insult,  which  was 
owing  entirely  to  ignorance.  I  believe  I  have  not 
yet  done  any  thing  which  I  knew  interfered  with 
your  manners  and  customs.  I  was  told,  that  among 
the  Persians  it  is  a  sort  of  crime  for  a  son  to  seat 
himself  in  his  mother's  presence,  without  first  ob- 
taining her  leave.  You  are  sensible  how  cautious  I 
have  been  in  that  particular ;  and  that  I  never  sat 
down  till  you  had  first  laid  your  commands  upon 
me  to  do  so.  And  every  time  that  you  were  going  to 
fall  down  prostrate  before  me,  I  only  ask  you,  whether 
I  would  suffer  it  ?  As  the  highest  testimony  of  the 
veneration  I  owe  you,  I  always  called  you  by  the  ten- 
der name  of  mother,  though  this  belongs  properly  to 


Olympia  only,  to  whom  I  owe  my  birth."  On 
hearing  this  Sisygambis  was  extremely  well  satisfied, 
and  became  afterwards  so  partial  to  the  conqueror  of 
her  son  and  country,  that  when  she  heard  of  the 
death  of  Alexander  she  wept  as  if  she  had  lost  a 
son.  "  Who  now  will  take  care  of  my  daughters?" 
she  exclaimed.  "  Where  shall  we  find  another  Alex- 
ander?" At  last  she  sank  under  her  grief.  "This 
princess,"  says  Rollin,  "  who  had  borne  with  patience 
the  death  of  her  father,  her  husband,  eighty  of  her 
brothers,  who  were  murdered  in  one  day  by  Ocnus, 
and,  to  say  all  in  one  word,  that  of  Darius  her  son, 
and  the  ruin  of  her  family;  though  she  had,  I  say, 
submitted  patiently  to  all  these  losses,  she  however 
had  not  strength  of  mind  sufficient  to  support  herself 
after  the  death  of  Alexander.  She  would  not  take 
any  sustenance,  and  starved  herself  to  death,  to  avoid 
surviving  this  last  calamity/' 

Alexander  found  in  Susa  all  the  captives  of  qua- 
lity he  had  left  there.  He  married  Statira,*  Darius' 
eldest  daughter,  and  gave  the  youngest  to  his  dear 
llephsestion.  And  in  order  that,  by  making  these 
marriages  more  common,"  his  own  might  not  be 
censured,  he  persuaded  the  greatest  noblemen  in 
his  court,  and  his  principal  favourites,  to  imitate 
him.  Accordingly  they  chose,  from  amongst  the 
noblest  families  of  Persia,  about  eighty  young  mai- 
dens, whom  they  married.  His  design  was,  by  these 
alliances,  to  cement  so  strongly  the  union  of  the  two 
nations,  that  they  should  henceforward  form  but 
one,  under  his  empire.  The  nuptials  were  solem- 
nised after  the  Persian  manner.  He  likewise  feasted 
all  the  rest  of  the  Macedonians  who  had  married  be- 
fore in  that  country.  .It  is  related  that  there  were 
nine  thousand  guests  at  this  feast,  and  that  he  gavo 
each  of  them  a  golden  cup  for  the  libations. 


When  at  Susa,  Alexander  found  a  proof  of  the 
misgovernment  of  which  his  satraps  had  been  guilty 
during  his  absence.  The  Susians  loudly  complained 
of  the  satrap  Abulites,  and  his  son  Oxathres,  of 
spoliation  and  tyranny.  Being  convicted  of  the 
crimes  of  which  they  were  charged,  they  were  both 
sentenced  to  death. 

Josephus  says,  that  Daniel's  wisdom  did  not  only 
reach  to  things  divine  and  political,  but  also  to  arts 
and  sciences,  and  particularly  to  that  of  architecture  ; 
in  confirmation  of  which,  he  speaks  of  a  famous 
edifice  built  by  him  at  Susa,  in  the  manner  of  a 
castle,  which  he  says  still  subsisted  in  his  time,  and 
finished  wit''  such  wonderful  art,  that  it  then  seemed 
as  fresh  and  beautiful  as  if  it  had  been  but  newly 
built.  "  Within  this  palace,"  continues  Josephus, 
"  the  Persian  and  Parthian  kings  were  usually  buried; 
and,  for  the  sake  of  the  founder,  the  keeping  of  it 
was  committed  to  one  of  the  Jewish  nation,  even  to 
his  time.  It  was  a  common  tradition  in  those  parts 
for  many  ages,  that  Daniel  died  at,  Susa,  and  there 
they  show  his  monument  to  this  day.  It  is  certain 
that  Daniel  used  to  go  thither  from  time  to  time,  and 
he  himself  tells  us,  that  '  he  did  the  king's  business 
there.'  " 

There  being  somo  doubt  whether  the  ancient  Susa 
is  the  modern  Shus,  or  the  modern  Sinister,  we  shall 
not  enter  into  the  argument,  but  describe  them  both. 

The  ruins  of  Snus  are  situate  in  the  province  of 
Kuzistan,  or  Chusistan.  They  extend  about  twelve 
miles*  from  one  extremity  to  the  other,  stretching  as 
far  as  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Kerah,  occupying  an 
immense  space  between  that  river  and  the  Abzal ; 
and,  like  the  ruins  of  Babylon,  Ctesiphon,  and  Kufa, 

*  Fragments  of  earthenware,  scattered  in  the  greatest  profusion, 
are  found  to  the  distance  of  twenty-six  miles. — WALPOLE'S  Travels 
in  Turkey,  vol.  i.  420. 


consisting  of  hillocks  of  earth  and  rubbish,  covered 
with  broken  pieces  of  brick  and  coloured  tile. 

There  are  two  mounds  larger  than  the  rest.  The 
first  is  about  a  mile  in  circumference,  and  nearly  one 
hundred  feet  in  height.  The  other  is  not  quite  so 
high,  but  double  the  circumference.  The  Arabs 
often  dig  with  a  view  of  getting  treasures  of  gold  in 
these  two  mounds ;  and  every  now  and  then  dis- 
cover large  blocks  of  marble,  covered  with  hierogly- 
phics. The  mounds  in  general  bear  considerable 
resemblance  to  those  of  Babylon ;  but  with  this  dif- 
ference to  distinguish  them  :  instead  of  being  entirely 
composed  of  brick,  they  consist  of  clay  and  pieces  of 
tile,  with  irregular  layers  of  brick  and  mortar,  five  or 
six  feet  thick,  intended,  it  would  seem,  as  a  kind  of 
prop  to  the  mass.  This  is  one  reason  for  supposing 
that  Shus  is  the  ancient  Susa ;  and  not  Shuster.  For 
Strabo  says,  that  the  Persian  capital  was  entirely 
built  of  brick  ;  there  not  being  a  single  stone  in 
the  province  :  whereas  the  quarries  of  Sinister  are 
very  celebrated  ;  and  almost  the  whole  of  that  town 
is  built  of  stone.  But  let  the  question,  says  a  mo- 
dern traveller,  be  decided  as  it  may,  the  site  of  the 
city  of  Shus  is  now  a  gloomy  wilderness,  infested  by 
lions,  hyasnas,  and  other  beasts  of  prey.  "  The  dread 
of  these  furious  animals,"  says  Mr.  Kinneir,  "  com- 
pelled us  to  take  shelter  for  the  night  within  the  walls 
that  encompassed  Daniel's  tomb." 

At  the  foot  of  the  most  elevated  of  the  pyramids 
stands  what  is  called  "  the  Tomb  of  Daniel ;"  a  small, 
comparatively  modern,  building,  erected  on  the  spot 
where  the  relics  of  the  prophet  are  believed  to  rest. 
Others  doubt  this  circumstance ;  among  whom  is  Dr. 
Vincent*,  who  insists,  that  to  the  legendary  tradition 
of  the  tomb  of  Daniel  little  more  respect  is  due,  than 
to  the  legends  of  the  church  of  Rome,  and  the  tradi- 
*•  Nearchus,  p.  415. 


tions  of  the  Mahometans  in  general.  The  antiquity 
of  the  tradition  is,  nevertheless,  considerable  ;  for  it 
is  not  only  mentioned  by  Benjamin  of  Tudela,  who 
visited  Shus  in  the  latter  part  of  the  twelfth  century, 
but  by  one  of  the  earliest  Mussulman  writers,  Ahmed 
of  Kufah,  who  died  A.H.  117  (A.D.  735),  and  re- 
cords the  removal  of  the  prophet's  coffin  to  the  bed  of 
the  river. 

SHYSTER  is  the  capital  of  Kuzistan,  and  is  situate 
at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  of  Bucktiari,  on  an  emi- 
nence commanding  the  rapid  course  of  the  Karoon, 
across  which  is  a  bridge  of  one  arch,  upwards  of 
eighty  feet  high ;  from  the  summit  of  which  the 
Persians  often  throw  themselves  into  the  water,  with- 
out sustaining  the  smallest  injury.  It  is  situated  so 
agreeably  in  respect  to  climate  and  supplies  of  all 
kinds,  that  while  Shus,  in  the  old  Persian,  language, 
signified  "  delightful,"  Sinister  had  a  more  expressive 
one  ;  "  most  delightful." 

Shuster,  from  the  ruins  yet  remaining,  must  have 
been  once  of  great  magnificence  and  extent.  The 
most  worthy  of  observation  amongst  these  ruins  are 
the  castle,  a  dyke,  and  a  bridge.  "  Part  of  the  walls 
of  the  first,"  says  Mr.  Kinneir,  "  said  to  have  been 
the  abode  of  Valerian*,  are  still  standing.  They  occupy 
a  small  hill  at  the  western  extremity  of  the  town, 
from  which  there  is  a  fine  view  of  the  river,  moun- 
tains, and  adjoining  country.  This  fortress  is,  on 
two  sides,  defended  by  a  ditch,  now  almost  choked 
with  sand  ;  and  on  the  other  two,  by  a  branch  of  the 
Karoon.  It  has  but  one  gateway,  built  in  the  Roman 
fashion,  formerly  entered  by  a  draw-bridge.  The 
hill  is  almost  entirely  excavated,  and  formed  into 
snrdals  and  subterranean  aqueducts,  through  which 
the  water  still  continues  to  flow." 

*  When  taken  prisoner  by  Sapor. 


Not  far  from  the  castle  is  the  dyke  to  which  we 
have  alluded.  This  dyke  was  built  by  Sapor. 
"  Not,"  says  Mr.  Kinneir,  as  "  D'Herbelot  would 
insinuate,  to  prevent  a  second  deluge,  but  rather  to 
occasion  one,  by  turning  a  large  proportion  of  the 
water  into  a  channel  more  favourable  to  agriculture, 
than  that  which  Nature  had  assigned  to  it." 

This  dyke  is  constructed  of  cut  stone,  bound  toge- 
ther by  clamps  of  iron,  about  twenty-feet  broad,  and 
four  hundred  yards  long,  with  two  small  arches  in 
the  middle.  It  has  lately  been  rebuilt  by  Mahomet 
Ali  Maerza,  governor  of  Kermanshaw. 

The  fate  of  Valerian,  to  whom  we  have  alluded,  is 
thus  recorded  by  Gibbon  : — "  The  voice  of  history, 
which  is  often  little  more  than  the  organ  of  hatred  or 
flattery,  reproaches  Sapor  with  a  proud  abuse  of  the 
rights  of  conquest.  We  are  told  that  Valerian,  in 
chains,  but  invested  with  the  imperial  purple,  was 
exposed  to  the  rmiltitude,  a  constant  spectacle  of 
fallen  greatness ;  and  that  whenever  the  Persian 
monarch  mounted  on  horseback,  he  placed  his  foot 
upon  the  neck  of  a  Roman  emperor.  Notwithstand- 
ing all  the  remonstrances  of  his  allies,  who  repeatedly 
advised  him  to  remember  the  vicissitudes  of  fortune, 
to  dread  the  returning  power  of  Rome,  and  to  make 
his  illustrious  captive  the  pledge  of  peace,  not  tho 
object  of  insult,  Sapor  still  remained  inflexible. 
When  Valerian  sank  under  the  weight  of  shame  and 
grief,  his  skin,  stuffed  with  straw,  and  formed  into 
the  likeness  of  a  human  figure,  was  preserved  for 
ages  in  the  most  celebrated  temple  of  Persia ;  a  more 
real  monument  of  triumph  than  the  sacred  trophies 
of  brass  and  marble,  so  often  erected  by  Roman 
vanity*.  The  tale  is  moral  and  pathetic ;  but  the 

*  The  Pagan  writers  lament,  the  Christian  insult,  the  misfortune* 
of  Valerian.  Their  various  testimonies  are  accurately  collected  by 


truth  of  it  may  very  fairly  be  called  in  question.  It 
is  unnatural  to  suppose,  that  a  jealous  monarch 
should,  even  in  the  person  of  a  rival,  thus  publicly 
degrade  the  majesty  of  kings.  Whatever  treatment 
the  unfortunate  Valerian  might  experience  in  Persia, 
it  is  at  least  certain,  that  the  only  emperor  of  Rome 
who  had  ever  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy, 
languished  away  his  life  in  hopeless  captivity."  The 
place  of  that  captivity  is  said  to  have  been  Shuster*. 


Dissolved  in  case  and  soft  delights  they  lie, 
Till  every  sun  annoys,  and  every  wind 
Has  chilling  force,  and  every  rain  offends. 

DYER,  Ruins  of  Rome. 

SYBARIS  was  a  town  of  Lucania,  situated  on  the 
banks  of  the  Bay  of  Tarentum.  It  was  founded  by 
a  colony  of  Achaians  ;  and  in  process  of  time  became 
very  powerful. 

The  walls  of  this  city  extend  six  miles  and  a  half  in 
circumference,  and  the  suburbs  covered  the  banks  of 
the  Crathis  for  seven  miles. 

Historians  and  orators,  of  all  ages,  have  been  guilty 
of  praising  heroes.  "For  myown  part,"  saysMr.  Swin- 
burne, "  I  cannot  help  feeling  pity  for  the  hard  fate  of 
the  Sybarites,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  the  dis- 
covery of  many  most  useful  pieces  of  chamber  and 
kitchen  furniture.  They  appear  to  have  been  a  peo- 
ple of  great  taste,  and  to  have  set  the  fashion,  in 
point  of  dress,  throughout  all  Greece.  Their  cooks,  em- 

Tillemont,  torn.  iii.  p.' 739,  &c.  So  little  has  been  preserved  in 
eastern  history  before  Mahomet,  that  the  modern  Persians  are 
totally  ignorant  of  the  victory  of  Sapor,  an  event  so  glorious  to  their 
nation.  See  Bibliotheque  Oricntalv. — GIBBON. 

*  Strubo  ;  Plutarch  ;  Arrian  ;  Quintus  Curtius  ;  Prideaux  ; 
Rollin  ;  Gibbon;  Vincent;  Hcimell  ;  Barthelemy ;  Kinneir; 


broidercrs,  and  confectioners,  were  famous  over  all  the 
polite  world;  and  we  may  suppose  their  riding-masters 
did  not  enjoy  a  less  brilliant  reputation,  since  we  are 
told  of  their  having  taught  their  horses  to  dance  to  a 
particular  tune.  The  public  voice,  however,  of  all 
ages,  has  been  against  them.  Sybaris"""  was  ten 
leagues  from  Croton.  Four  neighbouring  states,  and 
twenty-five  cities,  were  subject  to  it ;  so  that  it  was 
alone  able  to  raise  an  army  of  three  hundred  thou- 
sand men.  The  opulence  of  Sybaris  was  soon  fol- 
lowed by  luxury,  and  such  a  dissoluteness  as  is 
scarcely  possible.  The  citizens  employed  themselves 
in  nothing  but  banquets,  games,  shows,  parties  of 
pleasure,  and  carnivals.  Public  rewards  and  marks 
of  distinction  were  bestowed  on  those  who  gave  the 
most  magnificent  entertainments ;  and  even  to  such 
cooks  as  were  best  skilled  in  the  important  art  of 
making  new  refinements  to  tickle  the  palate.  The 
Sybarites  carried  their  delicacy  and  effeminacy  to 
such  a  height,  that  they  carefully  removed  from  their 
city  all  such  artificers  whose  work  was  noisy ;  and 
would  not  suffer  any  cocks  in  it,  lest  their  shrill, 
piercing  crow  should  disturb  their  slumbers. 

All  these  evils  were  heightened  by  dissension  and 
discord,  which  at  last  proved  their  ruin.  Five  hun- 
dred of  the  wealthiest  in  the  city  having  been  expel- 
led by  the  faction  of  one  Telys,  fled  to  Croton.  Telys 
demanded  to  have  them  surrendered  to  him  ;  and,  on 
the  refusal  of  the  Crotonians  to  deliver  them  up, 
prompted  to  this  generous  resolution  by  Pythagoras, 
who  then  lived  among  them,  Avar  was  declared.  The 
Crotonians  were  headed  by  Milo,  the  famous  champion; 
over  whose  shoulders  a  lion's  skin  was  thrown,  and 
himself  armed  with  a  club,  like  another  Hercules.  The 
latter  gained  a  complete  victory,  and  made  a  dread- 
*  RoTli^T" 


ful  havoc  of  those  who  fled,  so  that  very  few  escaped  ; 
and  Sybaris  was  depopulated. 

About  sixty  years  after  this  some  Thessalians  came 
and  settled  in  it  ;  however,  they  did  not  long  enjoy 
peace,  being  driven  out  by  the  Crotonians.  Being 
thus  reduced  to  the  most  fatal  extremity,  they  im- 
plored the  succour  of  the  Lacedaemonians  and  Athe- 
nians. The  latter,  moved  to  compassion  at  their 
deplorable  condition,  after  causing  proclamation  to 
be  made  in  Peloponnesus,  that  all  who  were  willing 
to  assist  that  colony  were  at  liberty  to  do  it,  sent  the 
Sybarites  a  fleet  of  ten  ships,  under  the  command  of 
Lampon  and  Xenocrates.  They  built  a  city  near  the 
ancient  Sybaris,  and  called  it  Thurium. 

Two  men,  greatly  renowned  for  their  learning,  the 
one  an  orator,  and  the  other  an  historian,  settled  in 
this  colony.  The  first  was  Lysias,  at  that  time  but 
fifteen  years  of  age.  He  lived  in  Thurium,  till  that 
ill  fate  which  befel  the  Athenians  in  Sicily,  and  then 
went  to  Athens. 

The  second  was  Herodotus.  Though  he  was 
born  in  Halicarnassus,  a  city  of  Caria,  he  was  con- 
sidered as  a  native  of  Thurium,  because  he  settled 
there  with  that  colony.  Divisions  soon  broke  out  in 
the  city,  on  occasion  of  the  new  inhabitants,  whom 
the  rest  would  exclude  from  all  public  employments  and 
privileges.  But  as  these  were  much  more  numerous, 
they  repulsed  all  the  ancient  Sybarites,  and  got  the  sole 
possession  of  the  city.  Being  supported  by  the  al- 
liance they  made  with  the  people  of  Croton,  they 
grew  very  powerful ;  and,  having  settled  a  popular 
form  of  government  in  their  city,  they  divided  the 
citizens  into  ten  tribes,  which  they  called  by  the 
names  of  the  different  nations  whence  they  sprang. 

Sybaris  was  destroyed  five  times  ;  but  had  always 
the  good  fortune  to  be  restored.  It  at  length,  how- 


ever,  fell  into  irredeemable  decay  ;  and,  no  doubt, 
justly,  for  every  excess*,  whether  of  luxury  or  voluptu- 
ousness, could  be  found  there.  The  indolence  of  the 
inhabitants  was  so  great,  that  they  boasted  that  they 
never  saw  the  sun  either  rise  or  set.  The  greatest  en- 
couragement was  liberally  lavished  on  such  as  invented 
new  pleasures ;  and,  as  a  natural  consequence,  though 
the  city  enjoyed  a  long  period  of  prosperity,  not  a 
single  citizen's  name  has  been  preserved  to  posterity, 
who  is  entitled  to  admiration,  either  for  deeds  of 
heroism,  or  the  practice  of  milder  virtues  in  private 

There  is,  nevertheless,  one  anecdote  recorded  in 
their  favour.  Being  enslaved  by  the  Lucanians,  and 
afterwards  subjected  to  the  Romans,  they  still  re- 
tained a  fond  attachment  to  the  manners  of  Greece  ; 
and  are  said  to  have  displayed  their  partiality  to  their 
mother-country,  in  a  manner  that  evinces  both  their 
taste  and  their  feeling.  Being  compelled  by  the  will 
of  the  conquerors,  or  by  other  circumstances,  to  adopt 
a  foreign  language  and  foreign  manners,  they  were 
accustomed  to  assemble  annually,  on  one  of  the  great 
festivals  of  Greece,  in  order  to  revive  the  memory  of 
their  Grecian  origin,  to  speak  their  primitive  lan- 
guage, and  to  deplore,  with  tears  and  lamentations, 
their  sad  degradation.  It  would  afford  peculiar 
pleasure  to  discover  some  monument  of  a  people  of 
so  much  sensibility,  and  of  sucb  persevering  pa- 

Seventy  days  sufficed  to  destroy  all  their  grandeur! 
Five  hundred  and  seventy-two  years  before  the 
Christian  era,  the  Crotoniates,  under  the  famous 
athlete  Milo,  as  we  have  already  related,  defeated 
the  Sybarites  in  a  pitched  battle,  broke  down  the 
dams  of  the  Crathis,  and  let  the  furious  stream  into 

*  Lempriere. 


the  town,  where  it  soon  overturned  and  swept  away 
every  building  of  use  and  ornament.  The  inhabit- 
ants were  massacred  without  mercy ;  and  the  few 
that  escaped  the  slaughter,  and  attempted  to  restore 
their  city,  were  cut  to  pieces  by  a  colony  of  Athe- 
nians, who  afterwards  removed  to  some  distance,  and 
founded  Thurium. 

"  Many  ages,  alas !"  continues  Mr.  Swinburne, 
"  have  now  revolved  since  man  inhabited  these  plains 
in  sufficient  numbers  to  secure  salubrity.  The  rivers 
have  long  rolled  lawless  over  these  low,  desolated 
fields ;  leaving,  as  they  shrink  back  to  their  beds, 
black  pools  and  nauseous  swamps,  to  poison  the 
whole  region,  and  drive  mankind  still  farther  from  its 
ancient  possessions.  Nothing  in  reality  remains  of 
Sybaris,  which  once  gave  law  to  nations,  and  could 
muster  even  so  large  a  force  as  300,000  fighting  men. 
Not  one  stone  remains  upon  another*  !" 


THIS  was  a  town  in  the  Thebais,  nearly  under  the 
tropic  of  Cancer  ;  greatly  celebrated  for  the  first  at- 
tempt to  ascertain  the  measure  of  the  circumference 
of  the  earth  by  Eratosthenes,  who,  about  the  year 
•276  A.  c.,  was  invited  from  Athens  to  Alexandria, 
by  Ptolemy  Evergetes. 

Juvenal,  the  poet,  was  banished  there,  on  the  pre- 
tence of  commanding  a  cohort,  stationed  in  the  neigh- 

Its  principal  antiquities  are  a  small  temple,  sup- 
posed to  be  the  remains  of  Eratosthenes'  observatory, 
the  remains  of  a  Roman  bridge,  and  the  ruins  of 
the  Saracen  town.  The  latter  includes  the  city 
wall,  built  of  unburnt  bricks,  and  defended  by  square 
towers,  and  several  mosques  with  lofty  minarets, 
and  many  large  houses  in  a  state  of  wonderful  pre- 
*  Lcmpricre  ;  Rollin  ;  Swinburne ;  Eustace. 

VOL.  II.  C  C 


servation,  still  entire,   though  resting  on  very  frail 

"  Syene,  which,  under  so  many  different  masters," 
says  a  celebrated  French  geographer,  "  has  been  the 
southern  frontier  of  Egypt,  presents  in  a  greater  degree 
than  any  other  spot  on  the  surface  of  the  globe,  that 
confused  mixture  of  monuments,  which,  even  in  the 
destinies  of  the  most  potent  monarchs,  reminds  us  of 
human  instability.  Here  the  Pharaohs,  and  the 
Ptolemies,  raised  the  temple,  and  the  palaces  which 
are  found  half  buried  under  the  drifting  sand.  Here 
are  forts  and  villas  built  by  the  Romans  and  Arabians; 
and  on  the  remains  of  all  these  buildings  French  in- 
scriptions are  found,  attesting  that  the  warriors,  and 
the  learned  men  of  modern  Europe,  pitched  their 
tents,  and  erected  their  observatories  on  this  spot. 
But  the  eternal  power  of  nature  presents  a  still  more 
magnificent  spectacle.  Here  are  the  terraces  of 
reddish  granite,  of  a  particular  character,  hence 
called  syenite, — a  term  applied  to  those  rocks,  which 
differ  from  granite  in  containing  particles  of  horn- 
blende. These  mighty  terraces,  are  shaped  into  peaks, 
across  the  bed  of  the  Nile,  and  over  them  the  river 
rolls  majestically  its  impetuous  foaming  waves. 
Here  are  the  quarries  from  which  the  obelisks  and 
colossal  statues  of  the  Egyptian  temples  were  dug. 
An  obelisk,  partially  formed  and  still  remaining 
attached  to  the  native  rock,  bears  testimony  to  the 
labours  and  patient  efforts  of  human  art.  On  the 
polished  surfaces  of  these  rocks,  hieroglyphic  sculp- 
tures represent  the  Egyptian  deities,  together  with 
the  sacrifices  and  offerings  of  this  nation ;  which, 
more  than  any  other,  has  identified  itself  with  the 
country  which  it  inhabited,  and  has,  in  the  most 
literal  sense,  engraved  the  records  of  its  glory  on  the 
terrestrial  globe*. 

*  Wilkinson  ;  Malte-Bran. 



"  THE  fame  of  states,  now  no  longer  existing, 
lives,"  says  Mr.  Swinburne,  "  in  books  or  tradition  ; 
and  we  reverence  their  memory  in  proportion  to  the 
wisdom  of  their  laws,  the  private  virtues  of  their 
citizens,  the  policy  and  courage  with  which  they 
defended  their  own  dominions,  or  advanced  their 
victorious  standards  into  those  of  their  enemies. 
Some  nations  have  rendered  their  names  illustrious, 
though  their  virtues  and  valour  had  but  a  very  con- 
fined sphere  to  move  in  ;  while  other  commonwealths 
and  monarchies  have  subdued  worlds,  and  roamed 
over  whole  continents  in  search  of  glory  and  power. 
Syracuse  must  be  numbered  in  the  former  class,  and 
amongst  the  most  distinguished  of  that  class.  In 
public  and  private  wealth,  magnificence  of  buildings, 
military  renown,  and  excellence  in  all  arts  and 
sciences,  it  ranks  higher  than  most  nations  of  anti- 
quity. The  great  names  recorded  in  its  annals  still 
command  our  veneration  ;  though  the  trophies  of 
their  victories,  and  the  monuments  of  their  skill, 
have  long  been  swept  away  by  the  hand  of  time." 

Syracuse  is  a  city,  the  history  of  which  is  so 
remarkably  interesting  to  all  those  who  love  liberty, 
that  we  shall  preface  our  account  of  its  ruins  by 
adopting  some  highly  important  remarks  afforded  us 
by  that  celebrated  and  amiable  writer  to  whose 
learning  and  genius  we  have  been  so  greatly  indebted 
throughout  the  whole  of  this  work : — (Rollin). 
"  Syracuse,"  says  he,  "  appears  like  a  theatre,  on 
which  many  surprising  scenes  have  been  exhibited  ; 
or  rather  like  a  sea,  sometimes  calm  and  untroubled, 
but  oftener  violently  agitated  by  winds  and  storms, 
always  ready  to  overwhelm  it  entirely.  We  have 
seen,  in  no  other  republic,  such  sudden,  frequent, 
c  c  2 


violent,  and  various  revolutions  :  sometimes  enslaved 
by   the  most   cruel   tyrants ;    at  others,  under  the 

fovernment  of  the  wisest  kings :  sometimes  aban- 
oned  to  the  capricious  will  of  a  populace,  without 
either  government  or  restriction ;  sometimes  per- 
fectly docile  and  submissive  to  the  authority  of 
law  and  the  empire  of  reason  ;  it  passed  alternately 
from  the  most  insupportable  slavery  to  the  most 
grateful  liberty ;  from  convulsions  and  frantic  emo- 
tions, to  a  wise,  peaceable,  and  regular  conduct. 
To  what  are  such  opposite  extremes  and  vicissi- 
tiules  to  be  attributed  ?  Undoubtedly,  I  think,  the 
levity  and  inconstancy  of  the  the  Syracusans,  which 
was  their  distinguishing  characteristic,  had  a  great 
share  in  them  ;  but  what  I  am  convinced  conduced 
the  most  to  them,  was  the  very  form  of  their  govern- 
ment, compounded  of  the  aristocratic  and  demo- 
cratic; that  is  to  say,  divided  between  the  senate  or 
elders,  and  the  people.  As  there  was  no  counter- 
poise in  Syracuse  to  support  a  right  balance  between 
those  two  bodies,  when  authority  inclined  either  to 
the  one  side  or  the  other,  the  government  presently 
changed,  either  into  a  violent  and  cruel  tyranny,  or 
an  unbridled  liberty,  without  order  or  regulation. 
The  sudden  confusion,  at  such  times,  of  all  orders  of 
the  state,  made  the  way  to  the  sovereign  power  easy 
to  the  most  ambitious  of  the  citizens.  To  attract 
the  affection  of  their  country,  and  soften  the  yoke  to 
their  fellow-citizens,  some  exercised  that  power  with 
lenity,  wisdom,  equity,  and  popular  behaviour ;  and 
others,  by  nature  less  virtuously  inclined,  carried  it 
to  the  last  excess  of  the  most  absolute  and  cruel 
despotism,  under  pretext  of  supporting  themselves 
against  the  attempts  of  their  citizens,  who,  jealous 
of  their  liberty,  thought  every  means  for  the  re- 
covery of  it  legitimate  and  laudable.  There  were, 


besides,  other  reasons  that  rendered  the  government 
of  Syracuse  difficult,  and  thereby  made  way  for  the 
frequent  changes  it  underwent.  That  city  did  not 
forget  the  signal  victories  it  had  obtained  against  the 
formidable  power  of  Africa,  and  that  it  had  carried  its 
victorious  arms  and  terror  even  to  the  walls  of  Car- 
thage. Besides  which,  riches,  the  natural  effect  of  com- 
merce, had  rendered  the  Syracusans  proud,  haughty, 
and  imperious,  and  at  the  same  time  had  plunged 
them  into  a  sloth  and  luxury,  that  inspired  them 
with  a  disgust  for  all  fatigue  and  application.  They 
abandoned  themselves  blindly  to  their  orators,  who 
had  acquired  an  absolute  ascendant  over  them.  In 
order  to  make  them  obey,  it  was  necessary  either  to 
flatter  or  reproach  them.  They  had  naturally  a 
fund  of  equity,  humanity,  and  good  nature;  and 
yet,  when  influenced  by  the  seditious  discourses  of 
the  orators,  they  would  proceed  to  excessive  violence 
and  cruelties,  which  they  immediately  after  repented. 
When  they  were  left  to  themselves,  their  liberty, 
which  at  that  time  knew  no  bounds,  soon  degenerated 
into  caprice,  fury,  violence,  and  even  frenzy.  On  the 
contrary,  when  they  were  subjected  to  the  yoke,  they 
became  base,  timorous,  submissive,  and  creeping  like 
slaves.  With  a  small  attention  to  the  whole  series  of  the 
history  of  the  Syracusans,  it  may  easily  be  perceived, 
as  Galba  afterwards  said  of  the  Romans,  that  they 
were  equally  incapable  of  bearing  either  entire  liberty 
or  entire  servitude  ;  so  that  the  ability  and  policy  of 
those,  who  governed  them,  consisted  in  keeping  the 
people  to  a  wise  medium  between  those  two  extremes, 
by  seeming  to  leave  them  an  entire  freedom  in  their 
resolutions,  and  reserving  only  to  themselves  the  care 
of  explaining  the  utility,  and  facilitating  the  execu- 
tion, of  good  measures.  And  in  this  some  of  its 
magistrates  and  kings  were  wonderfully  successful ; 


under  whose  government  the  Syracusans  always 
enjoyed  peace  and  tranquillity,  were  obedient  to 
their  princes,  and  perfectly  submissive  to  the  laws. 
And  this  induces  one  to  conclude,  that  the  revolu- 
tions of  Syracuse  were  less  the  effect  of  the  people's 
levity,  than  the  fault  of  those  that  governed  them, 
who  had  not  the  art  of  managing  their  passions, 
and  engaging  their  affection,  which  is  properly 
the  science  of  kings,  and  of  all  who  command 

Syracuse  was  founded  about  seven  hundred  and 
thirty-two  years  before  the  Christian  era,  by  a  Co- 
rinthian named  Archias  ;  one  of  the  Heraclidae. 

The  two  first  ages  of  its  history  are  very  obscure ; 
it  does  not  begin  to  be  known  till  after  the  age  of 
Gelon,  and  furnishes  in  the  sequel  many  great  events 
for  the  space  of  more  than  two  hundred  years. 
During  all  that  time  it  exhibits  a  perpetual  alter- 
nation of  slavery  under  the  tyrants,  and  liberty  under 
a  popular  government,  till  Syracuse  is  at  length 
subjected  to  the  Romans,  and  makes  part  of  their 

The  Carthaginians,  in  concert  with  Xerxes,  having 
attacked  the  Greeks  who  inhabited  Sicily,  whilst 
that  prince  was  employed  in  making  an  irruption 
into  Greece,  Gelon,  who  had  made  himself  master  of 
Syracuse,  obtained  a  celebrated  victory  over  the 
Carthaginians,  the  very  day  of  the  battle  of  Thermo- 

Gelon,  upon  returning  from  his  victory,  repaired 
to  the  assembly  without  arms  or  guards,  to  give  the 
people  an  account  of  his  conduct.  He  was  chosen 
king  unanimously.  He  reigned  five  or  six  years, 
solely  employed  in  the  truly  royal  care  of  making 
his  people  happy. 

Gelon  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  man  who  became 


more  virtuous  by  being  raised  to  a  throne.  He  was 
eminent  for  honesty,  truth,  and  sincerity;  he  never 
wronged  the  meanest  of  his  subjects,  and  never 
promised  a  thing  which  he  did  not  perform. 

Hiero,  the  eldest  of  Gelon's  brothers,  succeeded 
him.  The  beginning  of  his  reign  was  worthy  of 
great  praise.  Simonides  and  Pindar  celebrated  him 
,in  emulation  of  each  other.  The  latter  part  of  it, 
however,  did  not  answer  the  former.  He  reigned 
eleven  years. 

Thrasybulus,  his  brother,  succeeded  him.  He 
rendered  himself  odious  to  all  his  subjects,  by  his 
vices  and  cruelty.  They  expelled  him  the  throne 
and  city,  after  a  reign  of  one  year. 

After  his  expulsion,  Syracuse  and  all  Sicily  en- 
joyed their  liberty  for  the  space  of  almost  sixty 

During  this  interval,  the  Athenians,  animated  by 
the  warm  exhortations  of  Alcibiades,  turned  their 
arms  against  Syracuse;  this  was  in  the  sixth  year  of 
the  Peloponnesian  war.  This  event  was  fatal  to 
the  Athenians. 

The  reign  of  Dionysius  the  Elder  is  famous  for 
its  length  of  thirty-eight  years,  and  still  more  for 
the  extraordinary  events  with  which  it  was  at- 

Dionysius,  son  of  the  elder  Dionysius,  succeeded 
him.  He  contracted  a  particular  intimacy  with 
Plato,  and  had  frequent  conversations  with  him. 
He  did  not  long  improve  from  the  wise  precepts  of 
that  philosopher,  hut  soon  abandoned  himself  to  all 
the  vices  and  excesses  which  attend  tyranny. 

Besieged  by  Dion,  he  escaped  from  Sicily,  and 
retired  into  Italy,  where  he  was  assassinated,  in  his 
house  by  Callippus. 

Thirteen  months  after  the  death  of  Dion,  Hippa- 
rinus,  brother  of  Dionysius  the  Younger,  expelled 


Callippus,  and  established  himself  in  Syracuse. 
During  the  two  years  of  his  reign,  Sicily  was  agitated 
by  great  commotions. 

Dionysius  the  Younger,  taking  advantage  of  these 
troubles,  reascends  the  throne  ten  years  after  having 
quitted  it.  At  last,  reduced  by  Timoleon,  he  retires 
to  Corinth.  Here  he  preserved  some  semblance  of 
his  former  tyranny,  by  turning  schoolmaster,  and 
exercising  a  discipline  over  boys,  when  he  could  no 
longer  tyrannise  over  men.  He  had  learning,  and 
was  once  a  scholar  to  Plato,  whom  he  caused  to 
come  again  into  Sicily,  notwithstanding  the  unworthy 
treatment  he  had  met  with  from  Dionysius's  father. 
Philip,  king  of  Macedon,  meeting  him  in  the  streets 
of  Corinth,  and  asking  him  how  he  came  to  lose  so 
considerable  a  principality  as  had  been  left  him  by 
his  father,  he  answered,  that  his  father  had  indeed 
left  him  the  inheritance,  but  not  the  fortune  which 
had  preserved  both  himself  and  that;  however, 
Fortune  did  him  no  great  injury,  in  replacing  him 
on  the  dunghill,  from  which  she  had  raised  his 

Timoleon  restored  liberty  to  Syracuse.  He  passed 
the  rest  of  his  life  there  in  a  glorious  retirement, 
beloved  and  honoured  by  all  the  citizens  and 

This  interval  of  liberty  was  of  no  long  duration. 
Agathocles,  in  a  short  time,  makes  himself  tyrant 
of  Syracuse.  He  commits  unparalleled  cruelties. 
He  forms  one  of  the  boldest  designs  related  in  history, 
carries  the  war  into  Africa,  makes  himself  master  of 
the  strongest  places,  and  ravages  the  whole  country. 
After  various  events,  he"  perishes  miserably,  after  a 
reign  of  about  twenty-eight  years*. 

*  He  was,  according  to  most  historians,  the  son  of  a  potter,  but 
all  allow  him  to  have  worked  at  the  trade.  From  the  obscurity 
of  his  birth  and  condition,  Polybius  raises  an  argument  to  prove  his 


Syracuse  took  new  life  again  for  some  time,  and 
tasted  with  joy  the  sweets  of  liberty.  But  she 
suffered  much  from  the  Carthaginians,  who  disturbed 
her  tranquillity  by  continual  wars.  She  called  in 
Pyrrhus  to  her  aid.  The  rapid  success  of  his  arms 
at  first  gave  him  great  hopes,  which  soon  vanished. 
Pyrrhus,  by  a  sudden  retreat,  plunged  the  Syra- 
cusans  into  new  misfortunes.  They  were  not  happy 
and  in  tranquillity  till  the  reign  of  Hiero  II.,  which 
was  very  long,  and  almost  always  pacific. 

Hieronymus  scarce  reigned  one  year.  His  death 
was  followed  with  great  troubles,  and  the  taking  of 
Syracuse  by  Marcellus. 

Of  this  celebrated  siege,  since  it  was  the  ruin  of 
Syracuse,  it  is  our  duty  to  give  some  account. 

"  The  Romans  carrying  on  their  attacks  at  two  different 
places,  Syracuse  was  in  great  consternation,  and  apprehended 
that  nothing  could  oppose  so  terrible  a  power,  and  such  mighty 
efforts  ;  and  it  had  indeed  been  impossible  to  have  resisted 
them,  without  the  assistance  of  a  single  man,  whose  wonderful 
industry  was  every  thing  to  the  Syracusans — this  was  Archi- 
medes. He  had  taken  care  to  supply  the  walls  with  all  things 
necessary  to  a  good  defence.  As  soon  as  his  machines  began 
to  play  on  the  land-side,  they  discharged  upon  the  infantry  all 
sorts  of  darts,  and  stones  of  enormous  weight,  which  flew  with 
so  much  noise,  force,  and  rapidity,  that  nothing  could  oppose 
their  shock.  They  beat  down  and  dashed  to  pieces  all  before 

"  Marcellus  succeeded  no  better  on  the  side  of  the  sea.  Archi- 
medes had  disposed  his  machines  in  such  a  manner  as  to  throw 
darts  to  any  distance.  Though  the  enemy  lay  far  from  the 
city,  he  reached  them  with  his  larger  and  more  forcible  balistse 
and  catapultse.  When  they  overshot  their  mark,  he  had 
smaller,  proportioned  to  the  distance,  which  put  the  Romans 

capacity  and  talents,  in  opposition  to  the  slanders  of  Timseus.  But 
his  greatest  eulogium  was  the  praise  of  Scipio.  That  illustrious 
Roman  being  asked,  who,  in  his  opinion,  were  the  most  prudent  in 
the  conduct  of  their  affairs,  and  most  judiciously  bold  in  the  execu- 
tion of  their  designs,  answered,  Agathocles  and  Dionysius.  (Polyb. 
1.  xv.  p.  1003,  edit.  Gronov.)  However,  let  his  capacity  have 
been  ever  so  great,  it  was  exceeded  by  his  cruelties. — flollin. 


into  such  confusion  as  made  them  incapable  of  attempting 
any  thing. 

"  This  was  not  the  greatest  danger.  Archimedes  had  placed 
lofty  and  strong  machines  behind  the  walls,  which  suddenly 
letting  fall  vast  beams,  with  an  immense  weight  at  the  end  of 
them,  upon  the  ships,  sunk  them  to  the  bottom.  Besides  this, 
he  caused  an  iron  grapple  to  be  let  out  by  a  chain  ;  the  person 
who  guided  the  machine  having  caught  hold  of  the  head  of  a 
ship  with  this  hook,  by  the  means  of  a  weight  let  down  within 
the  walls,  it  was  lifted  up  and  set  upon  its  stern,  and  held  so 
for  some  time ;  then,  by  letting  go  the  chain  either  by  a  wheel 
or  a  pulley,  it  was  let  fall  again  with  its  whole  weight  either 
on  its  head  or  side,  and  often  entirely  sunk.  At  other  times  the 
machines  dragging  the  ship  towards  the  shore  by  cords  and 
hooks,  after  having  made  it  whirl  about  a  great  while,  dashed 
it  to  pieces  against  the  points  of  the  rocks  which  projected 
under  the  walls,  and  thereby  destroyed  all  within  it.  Galleys, 
frequently  seized  and  suspended  in  the  air,  were  whirled  about 
with  rapidity,  exhibiting  a  dreadful  sight  to  the  spectators  ; 
after  which  they  were  let  fall  into  the  sea,  and  sunk  to  the 
bottom,  with  all  that  were  in  them. 

"  Marcellus,  almost  discouraged,  and  at  a  loss  what  to  do, 
retired  as  fast  as  possible  with  his  galleys,  and  sent  orders  to 
his  land  forces  to  do  the  same.  He  called  also  a  council  of 
war,  in  which  it  was  resolved  the  next  day,  before  sun-rise,  to 
endeavour  to  approach  the  walls.  They  were  in  hopes  by  this 
means  to  shelter  themselves  from  the  machines,  which,  for  want 
of  a  distance  proportioned  to.  their  force,  would  be  rendered  in- 

"But  Archimedes  had  provided  against  all  contingencies.  He 
had  prepared  machines  long  before,  as  we  have  already  observed, 
that  carried  to  all  distances  a  proportionate  quantity  of  darts, 
and  ends  of  beams,  which  being  very  short,  required  less  time 
for  preparing  them,  and  in  consequence  were  more  frequently 
discharged.  He  had  besides  made  small  chasms  or  loop-holes 
in  the  walls  at  little  distances,  where  he  had  placed  scorpions, 
which,  not  carrying  far,  wounded  those  who  approached,  with- 
out being  perceived  but  by  that  effect. 

"  When  the  Romans,  according  to  their  design,  had  gained  the 
foot  of  the  walls,  and  thought  themselves  well  covered,  they 
found  themselves  exposed  either  to  an  infinity  of  darts,  or  over- 
whelmed with  stones,  which  fell  directly  upon  their  heads ;  - 
there  being  no  part  of  the  wall  which  did  not  continually  pour 
that  mortal  hail  upon  them.  This  obliged  them  to  retire. 
But  they  were  no  sooner  removed  than  a  new  discharge  of  darts 
overtook  them  in  their  retreat ;  so  that  they  lost  great  numbers 


of  men,  and  almost  all  their  galleys  were  disabled  or  beat  to 
pieces,  without  being  able  to  revenge  their  loss  in  the  least  upon 
their  enemies  :  for  Archimedes  had  planted  most  of  his  machines 
in  security  behind  the  walls  ;  and  the  Romans,  says  Plutarch, 
repulsed  by  an  infinity  of  wounds,  without  seeing  the  place  or 
hand  from  which  they  came,  seemed  to  fight  in  reality  with  the 

"  Marcellus,  though  at  a  loss  what  to  do,  and  not  knowing 
how  to  oppose  the  machines  of  Archimedes,  could  not,  how- 
ever, forbear  pleasantries  upon  them.  '  Shall  we  persist,'  said 
he  to  his  workmen  and  engineers,  '  in  making  war  with  this 
Briareus  of  a  geometrician,  who  treats  my  galleys  and  sambucse 
so  rudely  ?  He  infinitely  exceeds  the  fabled  giants  with  their 
hundred  hands,  in  his  perpetual  and  surprising  discharges  upon 
us.'  Marcellus  had  reason  for  referring  to  Archimedes  only  ; 
for  the  Syracusans  were  really  no  more  than  the  members  of  the 
engines  and  machines  of  that  great  geometrician,  who  was  him- 
self the  soul  of  all  their  powers  and  operations.  All  other  arms 
were  unemployed  ;  for  the  city  at  that  time  made  use  of  none, 
either  defensive  or  offensive,  but  those  of  Archimedes. 

"  Marcellus  at  length  renounced  his  hopes  of  being  able  to 
make  a  breach  in  the  place,  gave  over  his  attacks,  and  turned 
the  siege  into  a  blockade.  The  Romans  conceived  they  had  no 
other  resource  than  to  reduce  the  great  number  of  people  in  the 
city  by  famine,  in  cutting  off  all  provisions  that  might  be 
brought  to  them  either  by  sea  or  land.  During  the  eight  months 
in  which  they  besieged  the  city,  there  were  no  kind  of  stra- 
tagems which  they  did  not  invent,  nor  any  actions  of  valour 
left  untried,  almost  to  the  assault,  which  they  never  dared  to 
attempt  more.  So  much  force,  on  some  occasions,  have  a  sin- 
gle man,  and  a  single  science,  when  rightly  applied. 

"  A  burning  glass  is  spoken  of,  by  means  of  which  Archi- 
medes is  said  to  have  burned  part  of  the  Roman  fleet. 

"  In  the  beginning  of  the  third  campaign,  Marcellus  almost 
absolutely  despairing  of  being  able  to  take  Syracuse,  either  by 
force,  because  Archimedes  continually  opposed  him  with  invin- 
cible obstacles,  or  famine,  as  the  Carthaginian  fleet,  which  was 
returned  more  numerous  than  before,  easily  threw  in  convoys, 
deliberated  whether  he  should  continue  before  Syracuse  to  push 
the  siege,  or  turn  his  endeavours  against  Agrigentum.  But 
before  he  came  to  a  final  determination,  he  thought  proper  to 
try  whether  he  could  make  himself  master  of  Syracuse  by  some 
secret  intelligence. 

"  This,  too,  having  miscarried,  Marcellus  found  himself  in 
new  difficulties.  Nothing  employed  his  thoughts  but  the  shame 
of  raising  a  siege,  after  having  consumed  so  much  time,  and 


sustained  the  loss  of  so  many  men  and  ships  in  it.  An  accident 
supplied  him  with  a  resource,  and  gave  new  life  to  his  hopes. 
Some  Roman  vessels  had  taken  one  Damippus,  whom  Epicydes 
had  sent  to  negociate  with  Philip  king  of  Macedon.  The 
Syraeusans  expressed  a  great  desire  to  ransom  this  man,  and 
Marcellus  was  not  averse  to  it.  A  place  near  the  port  Trogilus 
was  agreed  on  for  the  conferences  concerning  the  ransom  of  the 
prisoner.  As  the  deputies  went  thither  several  times,  it  came 
into  a  Roman  soldier's  thoughts  to  consider  the  wall  with 
attention.  After  having  counted  the  stones,  and  examined- 
with  his  eye  the  measure  of  each  of  them,  upon  a  calculation 
of  the  height  of  the  wall,  he  found  it  to  be  much  lower  than  it 
was  believed,  and  concluded,  that  with  ladders  of  a  moderate 
size  it  might  be  easily  scaled.  Without  loss  of  time  he  related 
the  whole  to  Marcellus.  Marcellus  did  not  neglect  this  advice, 
and  assured  himself  of  its  reality  with  his  own  eyes.  Having 
caused  ladders  to  be  prepared,  he  took  the  opportunity  of  a 
festival  that  the  Syracusans  celebrated  for  three  days  in  honour 
of  Diana,  during  which  the  inhabitants  gave  themselves  up 
entirely  to  rejoicing  and  good  cheer.  At  the  time  of  night 
when  he  conceived  that  the  Syracusans,  after  their  debauch, 
began  to  fall  asleep,  he  made  a  thousand  chosen  troops,  in 
profound  silence,  advance  with  their  ladders  to  the  wall.  When 
the  first  got  to  the  top  without  noise  or  tumult,  the  others 
followed,  encouraged  by  the  boldness  and  success  of  their 
leaders.  These  thousand  soldiers,  taking  the  advantage  of  the 
enemy's  stillness,  who  were  either  drunk  or  asleep,  soon  scaled 
the  wall. 

"  It  was  then  no  longer  time  to  deceive,  but  terrify  the  enemy. 
The  Syracusans,  awakened  by  the  noise,  began  to  rouse,  and  to 
prepare  for  action.  Marcellus  made  all  his  trumpets  sound 
together,  which  so  alarmed  them,  that  all  the  inhabitants  fled, 
believing  every  cpuarter  of  the  city  in  the  possession  of  the 
enemy.  The  strongest  and  best  part,  however,  called  Achra- 
dina,  was  not  yet  taken,  because  separated  by  its  walls  from 
the  rest  of  the  city. 

"  All  the  captains  and  officers  with  Marcellus.  congratulated 
him  upon  this  extraordinary  success.  For  himself,  when  he 
had  considered  from  an  eminence  the  loftiness,  beauty,  and 
extent  of  that  city,  he  is  said  to  have  shed  tears,  and  to  have 
deplored  the  unhappy  condition  it  was  upon  the  point  of 

"  As  it  was  then  autumn,  there  happened  a  plague,  which 
killed  great  numbers  in  the  city,  and  still  more  in  the  Roman 
and  Carthaginian  camps.  The  distemper  was  not  excessive  at 
first,  and  proceeded  only  from  the  bad  air  and  season;  but 


afterwards  the  communication  with  the  infected,  and  even  the 
care  taken  of  them,  dispersed  the  contagion;  from  whence  it 
happened  that  some,  neglected  and  absolutely  abandoned,  died 
of  the  violence  of  the  malady,  and  others  received  help,  which 
became  fatal  to  those  who  brought  it.  Nothing  was  heard 
night  and  day  but  groans  and  lamentations.  At  length,  the 
being  accustomed  to  the  evil  had  hardened  their  hearts  to  such 
a  degree,  and  so  far  extinguished  all  sense  of  compassion  in 
them,  that  they  not  only  ceased  to  grieve  for  the  dead,  but  left 
.  them  without  interment.  Nothing  was  to  be  seen  every  where 
but  dead  bodies,  exposed  to  the  view  of  those  who  expected  the 
same  fate.  The  Carthaginians  suffered  much  more  from  it 
than  the  others.  As  they  had  no  place  to  retire  to,  they  almost 
all  perished,  with  their  generals  Hippocrates  and  Himilcon. 
Marcellus,  from  the  breaking  out  of  the  disease,  had  brought 
his  soldiers  into  the  city,  where  the  roofs  and  shade  was  of 
great  relief  to  them ;  he  lost,  however,  no  inconsiderable 
number  of  men. 

"  Amongst  those,  who  commanded  in  Syracuse,  there  was  a 
Spaniard  named  Mericus:  him  a  means  was  found  to  corrupt. 
He  gave  up  the  gate  near  the  fountain  Arethusa  to  soldiers 
sent  by  Marcellus  in  -the  night  to  take  possession  of  it.  At 
day-break  the  next  morning,  Marcellus  made  a  false  attack  at 
Achradina,  to  draw  all  the  forces  of  the  citadel  and  the  isle 
adjoining  to  it,  to  that  side,  and  to  facilitate  the  throwing  some 
troops  into  the  isle,  which  would  be  unguarded,  by  some 
vessels  he  had  prepared.  Every  thing  succeeded  according  to 
his  plan.  The  soldiers,  whom  those  vessels  had  landed  in  the 
isle,  finding  almost  all  the  posts  abandoned,  and  the  gates  by 
which  the  garrison  of  the  citadel  had  marched  out  against 
Marcellus  still  open,  they  took  possession  of  them  after  a  slight 

"  The  Syracusans  opened  all  their  gates  to  Marcellus,  and 
sent  deputies  to  him  with  instructions  to  demand  nothing" 
further  from  him  than  the  preservation  of  the  lives  of  them- 
selves and  their  children.  Marcellus  having  assembled  his 
council,  and  some  Syracusans  who  were  in  his  camp,  gave  his 
answer  to  the  deputies  in  their  presence  : — '  That  Hiero,  for 
fifty  years,  had  not  done  the  Roman  people  more  good  than 
those  who  have  been  masters  of  Syracuse  some  years  past  had 
intended  to  do  them  harm ;  but  that  their  ill-will  had  fallen 
upon  their  own  heads,  and  they  had  punished  themselves  for 
their  violation  of  treaties  in  a  more  severe  manner  than  the 
Romans  could  have  desired.  That  he  had  besieged  Syracuse 
during  three  years  ;  not  that  the  Roman  people  might  reduce 
it  into  slavery,  but  to  prevent  the  chiefs  of  the  revolters  from 


continuing  it  under  oppression.  That  he  had  undergone  many 
fatigues  and  dangers  in  so  long  a  siege,  but  that  he  thought  he 
had  made  himself  ample  amends  by  the  glory  of  having  taken 
that  city,  and  the  satisfaction  of  having  saved  it  from  the  entire 
ruin  it  seemed  to  deserve.'  After  having  placed  a  guard  upon 
the  treasury,  and  safe-guards  in  the  houses  of  the  Syracusans, 
who  had  withdrawn  into  his  camp,  he  abandoned  the  city  to 
be  plundered  by  the  troops.  It  is  reported  that  the  riches 
which  were  pillaged  in  Syracuse  at  this  time  exceeded  all  that 
could  have  been  expected  at  the  taking  of  Carthage  itself." 

The  chronicles  of  Syracuse  *  commemorate  endless 
and  bitter  dissentions  among  the  several  ranks  of 
citizens,  the  destruction  of  liberty  by  tyrants,  their 
expulsion  and  re-establishment,  victories  over  the 
Carthaginians,  and  many  noble  struggles  to  vindicate 
the  rights  of  mankind  ;  till  the  fatal  hour  arrived, 
when  the  Roman  leviathan  swallowed  all  up.  In- 
glorious peace  and  insignificance  were  afterwards, 
for  many  ages,  the  lot  of  Syracuse  ;  and,  probably, 
the  situation  was  an  eligible  one,  except  in  times  of 
such  governors  as  Verres.  At  length,  Rome  herself 
fell  in  her  turn,  a  prey  to  conquest,  and  barbarians 
divided  her  ample  spoils.  The  Vandals  seized  upon 
Sicily ;  but  it  was  soon  wrested  from  them  by  Theo- 
doric  the  Goth ;  and  at  his  death,  fell  into  the  hands 
of  the  Eastern  emperor.  Totila  afflicted  Syracuse 
with  a  long  but  fruitless  siege  :  yet  it  was  not  so  well 
defended  against  the  Saracens.  These  cruel  enemies 
took  it  twice,  and  exercised  the  most  savage  barba- 
rities on  the  wretched  inhabitants.  They  kept  pos- 
session of  it  two  hundred  years,  and  made  an  obsti- 
nate resistance  against  Earl  Roger,  in  this  fortress, 
which  was  one  of  the  last  of  their  possessions,  that 
yielded  to  his  victorious  arms. 

"  It  is  truly  melancholy,"  says  Mr.  Brydone,  "  to 
think  of  the  dismal  contrast,  that  its  former  magni- 
ficence'makes  with  its  present  meanness.  The  mighty 

*  Swinburne. 


Syracuse,  the  most  opulent  and  powerful  of  all  the 
Grecian  cities,  which,  by  its  own  strength  alone,  was 
able  at  different  times  to  contend  against  all  the 
power  of  Carthage  and  of  Rome,  in  which  it  is  re- 
corded to  have  repulsed  fleets  of  2000  sail,  and  armies 
of  200,000  men;  and  contained  within  its  walls, 
what  no  other  city  ever  did  before  or  since,  fleets  and 
armies  that  were  the  terror  of  the  world: — this 
haughty  and  magnificent  city  is  reduced  even  below 
the  consequence  of  the  most  insignificant  borough." 

In  its  most  flourishing  state  Syracuse,  according 
to  Strabo,  extended  twenty-two  and  a  half  English 
miles  in  circumference  *,  and  was  divided  into  four 
districts ;  each  of  which  was,  as  it  were,  a  separate 
city,  fortified  with  three  citadels,  and  three-fold 

Of  the  four  cities  t  that  composed  this  celebrated 
city,  there  remains  only  Ortygia,  by  much  the  small- 
est, situated  in  the  island  of  that  name.  It  is  about 
two  miles  round.  The  ruins  of  the  other  three  are 
computed  at  twenty-two  miles  in  circumference. 
The  walls  of  these  are  every  where  built  with  broken 
marbles,  covered  over  with  engravings  and  inscrip- 
tions ;  but  most  of  them  defaced  and  spoiled.  The 
principal  remains  of  antiquity  are  a  theatre  and  am- 
phitheatre, many  sepulchres,  the  Latomie,  the  cata- 
combs, and  the  famous  Ear  of  Dionysius,  which  it  was 
impossible  to  destroy.  The  Latomie  now  forms  a 
noble  subterraneous  garden,  and  is,  indeed,  a  very 
beautiful  and  romantic  spot.  The  whole  is  hewn  out 
of  a  rock  as  hard  as  marble,  composed  entirely  of  a 
concretion  of  gravel,  shells,  and  other  marine  bodies ; 

*  This  aecotmt  Mr.  Swinburne  suspected  of  exaggeration  ;  but 
after  spending  two  days  in  tracing  the  ruins,  and  making  reasonable 
allowances  for  the  encroachments  of  the  sea,  be  was  convinced  of 
the  exactness  of  Strabo's  measurement, 
•j-  Brydone. 


and  many  orange,  bergamot,  and  fig  trees,  grow  out  of 
the  hard  rock,  where  there  is  no  mark  of  any  soil. 

There  are  many  remains  of  temples.  The  Duke 
of  Montalbano,  who  has  written  on  the  antiquities 
of  Syracuse,  reckons  nearly  twenty ;  but  few  of  these 
now  are  distinguishable.  A  few  fine  columns  of  that 
of  Jupiter  Olympius  still  remain  ;  and  the  temple  of 
Minerva  (now  converted  into  the  cathedral  of  the  city, 
and  dedicated  to  the  Virgin)  is  almost  entire. 

There  are  some  remains,  also,  of  Diana's  temple, 
near  to  the  church  of  St,  Paul ;  but  they  are  not 

The  palace  of  Dionysius,  his  tomb,  the  baths  of 
Daphnis,  and  other  ancient  buildings,  and  all  their 
statues  and  paintings*,  have  disappeared  ;  but  the 
Ear,  of  which  history  speaks  so  loud,  still  remains. 
It  is  no  less  a  monument  of  the  ingenuity  and  mag- 
nificence, than  of  the  cruelty  of  the  tyrant.  It 
is  a  huge  cavern,  cut  out  of  the  hard  rock,  exactly 
in  the  form  of  the  human  ear.  The  perpendicular 
height  of  it  is  about  eighty  feet,  and  the  length 
is  no  less  than  two  hundred  and  fifty.  The  cavern 
was  said  to  be  so  contrived,  that  every  sound, 
made  in  it,  was  collected  and  united  into  one 
point  as  into  a  focus.  This  was  called  the  tympa- 
num ;  and  exactly  opposite  to  it  the  tyrant  had  made  a 
hole,  communicating  with  a  little  apartment,  in  which 
he  used  to  conceal  himself.  He  applied  his  own  ear 
to  this  hole,  and  is  said  to  have  heard  distinctly  every 
word  that  was  spoken  in  the  cavern  below.  This 
apartment  was  no  sooner  finished,  than  he  put  to 

*  Plutarch  relates,  Marcellns  took  the  spoils  of  Sicily,  con- 
sisting, in  part,  of  the  most  valuable  statues  and  paintings  of  Syra- 
cuse, purposely  to  adorn  his  triumph,  and  ornament  the  city  of 
Rome,  -which,  before  his  time,  had  never  known  any  curiosity  of 
that  kind  ;  and  he  adds,  that  Marccllus  took  merit  to  himself  for 
being  the  first,  who  taught  the  Romans  to  admire  the  exquisite  per- 
formances of  Greece. 


death  all  the  workmen  that  had  heen  employed  in  it. 
He  then  confined  all  those  that  he  suspected  of  being 
his  enemies ;  and  hy  hearing  their  conversation 
judged  of  their  guilt,  and  condemned  or  acquitted 

The  holes  in  the  rock,  to  which  the  prisoners  were 
chained,  still  remain,  and  even  the  lead  and  iron  in 
several  of  the  holes. 

The  cathedral",  now  dedicated  to  Our  Lady  of  the 
Pillar,  was  the  temple  of  Minerva,  on  the  summit  of 
which  her  statue  was  fixed ;  holding  a  broad,  reful- 
gent shield.  Every  Syracusan,  that  sailed  out  of  the 
port,  was  bound  by  his  religion  to  carry  honey, 
flowers,  and  ashes,  which  he  thr^ew  into  the  sea,  the 
instant  he  lost  sight  of  the  buckler.  This  was  to 
ensure  a  safe  return.  The  temple  is  built  in  the 
Doric  proportions,  used  in  the  rest  of  Sicily.  Its 
exterior  dimensions  are  one  hundred  and  eighty-five 
feet  in  length,  and  seventy-five  in  breadth. 

The  amphitheatret  is  in  the  form  of  a  very  eccen- 
tric ellipse  ;  but  the  theatre  is  so  entire,  that  most  of 
the  seats  still  remain. 

The  great  harbour  ran  into  the  heart  of  the  city, 
and  was  called  "  Marmoreo,"  because  it  was  entirely 
encompassed  with  buildings  of  marble.  Though  the 
buildings  are  gone,  the  harbour  exists  in  all  its 
beauty.  It  is  capable  of  receiving  vessels  of  the 
greatest  burden,  and  of  containing  a  numerous  fleet. 
Although  at  present  this  harbour  is  entirely  neg- 
lected, it  might  easily  be  rendered  a  great  naval  and 
commercial  station. 

The  catacombs  are  a  great  work;  not  inferior 
either  to  those  of  Rome  or  Naples,  and  in  the  same 

There  was  also  a  prison,  called  Latomiae,  a  word 
signifying  a  quarry.  Cicero  has  particularly  described 
*^  Swinburne.  t  Brydone. 

VOL.  II.  D  D 


this  dreadful  prison,  winch  was  a  cave  dug  out  of 
the  solid  rock,  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  paces 
long,  and  twenty  feet  broad,  and  almost  one  hundred 
feet  below  the  surface  of  the  earth.  Cicero,  also, 
reproaches  Verres  with  imprisoning  Roman  citizens 
in  this  place;  which  was  the  work  of  Dionysius,  who 
caused  those  to  be  shut  up  in  it,  who  had  the  mis- 
fortune to  have  incurred  his  displeasure.  It  is  now 
a  noble  subterranean  garden. 

The  fountain  of  Arethusa*  also  still  exists.  It 
was  dedicated  to  Diana,  who  had  a  magnificent 
temple  near  its  banks,  where  great  festivals  were 
annually  celebrated  in  honour  of  that  goddess.  It  is 
indeed  an  astonishing  fountain,  and  rises  at  once  out 
of  the  earth  to  the  size  of  a  river ;  and  many  of  the 
people  believe,  even  to  this  day,  that  it  is  the  iden- 
tical river,  Arethusa,  that  was  said  to  have  sunk 
under -ground  near  Olympia  in  Greece,  and,  conti- 
nuing its  course  five  hundred  or  six  hundred  miles 
below  the  ocean,  rose  again  in  this  spot.t 


THE  glory  of  Thebes  "belongs  to  a  period,  prior  to 
the  commencement  of  authentic  history.  It  is  re- 
corded only  by  the  divine  light  of  poetry  and  tradi- 
tion, which  might  be  suspected  as  fable,  did  not 
such  mighty  witnesses  remain  to  attest  the  truth. 
A  curious  calculation,  made  from  the  rate  of  increase 
of  deposition  by  the  Nile,  corroborated  by  other 
evidence,  shows  however  that  this  city  must  have 
been  founded  four  thousand  seven  hundred  and  sixty 
years  ago,  or  two  thousand  nine  hundred  and  thirty 
before  Christ.  There  are  the  ruins  of  a  temple,  bear- 
ing an  inscription,  stating  that  it  was  founded  by 
Osymandyas,  who  reigned,  according  to  M.  Cham- 

*  Brydone.          f  Plutarch  ;  Rollin  ;  Swinburne  ;  Brydone. 


pollioii,   two    thousand   two   hundred   and   seventy 
years  before  Christ. 

Thebes  was  called,  also,  Diospolis,  as  having  been 
saci-ed  to  Jupitc-r ;  and  Hecatompylos,  on  account,  it 
is  supposed,  of  its  having  had  a  hundred  gates. 

"  Not  all  proud  Thebes'  unrivull'd  walls  contains, 
The  world's  great  empress,  on  the  Egyptian  plain  ; 
That  spreads  her  conquests  o'er  r.  thousand  states, 
And  pours  her  heroes  through  a  hundred  gates — 
Two  hunched  horsemen,  and  two  hundred  cars, 
From  each  wide  portal  issuing  to  the  wars." 


"  This  epithet  Hecatompylos,  however,"  says  Mr. 
Wilkinson,  "  applied  to  it  by  Homer,  has  generally 
been  supposed  to  refer  to  the  hundred  gates  of  its 
wall  of  circuit ;  but  this  difficulty  is  happily  solved 
by  an  observation  of  Diodorus,  that  many  suppose 
them  '  to  have  been  the  propylaea  of  the  temples,' 
and  that  this  expression  rather  implies  a  plurality, 
than  a  definite  number." 

Historians  are  unanimously  agreed,  that  Menes 
was  the  first  king  of  Egypt.  It  is  pretended,  and 
not  without  foundation,  that  he  is  the  same  with 
Misraim,  the  son  of  Cham.  Cham  was  the  second 
son  of  Noah.  When  the  family  of  the  latter,  after 
the  attempt  of  building  the  Tower  of  Babel,  dis- 
persed themselves  into  different  countries ;  Cham 
retired  to  Africa,  and  it  was,  doubtless,  he  who 
afterwards  was  worshipped  as  a  god,  under  the 
name  of  Jupiter  Ammon.  He  had  four  children, 
Chus,  Misraim,  Phut,  and  Canaan.  Chus  settled 
in  Ethiopia,  Misraim  in  Egypt,  which  generally  is 
called  in  Scripture  after  his  name,  and  by  that  of 
Cham,  his  father.  Phut  took  possession  of  that  part 
of  Africa  which  lies  westward  of  Egypt ;  and  Ca- 
naan, of  the  country  which  has  since  borne  his  name. 

Misraim  is  agreed  to  be  the  same  as  Menes,  whom 
all  historians  declare  to  be  the  first  king  of  Egypt ; 

D  D    2 


the  institutor  of  the  worship  of  the  gods,  and  of  tho 
ceremonies  of  the  sacrifices. 

Some  ages  after  him,  Busiris  built  the  city  of 
Thebes,  and  made  it  the  seat  of  his  empire.  This 
prince  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  the  Busiris  who, 
in  so  remarkable  a  manner,  distinguished  himself  by 
his  inordinate  cruelties.  In  respect  to  Osymandyas, 
Diodorua  gives  a  Tery  particular  account  of  many 
magnificent  edifices  raised  by  him ;  one  of  which 
was  adorned  with  sculpture  and  paintings  of  great 
beauty,  representing  an  expedition  against  the  Bac- 
trians,  a  people  of  Asia,  whom  he  had  invaded  with 
four  hundred  thousand  foot,  and  twenty  thousand 
horse.  In  another  part  of  the  edifice  was  exhibited 
an  assembly  of  the  judges,  whose  president  wore  on 
his  breast  a  picture  of  Truth,  with  her  eyes  shut, 
and  himself  surrounded  with  books ;  an  emphatic- 
emblem,  denoting  that  judges  ought  to  be  perfectly 
versed  in  the  laws,  and  impartial  in  the  adminis- 
tration of  them.  The  king,  also,  was  painted  there, 
offering  to  the  gods  silver  and  gold,  which  he  drew 
from  the  mines  of  Egypt,  amounting  to  the  sum  of 
sixteen  millions. 

So  old  as  this  king's  reign,  the  Egyptians  divided 
the  year  into  twelve  months,  each  consisting  of  thirty 
days ;  to  which  they  added,  every  year,  five  days  and 
six  hours.  To  quote  the  words  of  a  well-known 
writer,  (Professor  Heeren,)  "  its  monuments  testify 
to  us  a  time  when  it  was  the  centre  of  the  civilisa- 
tion of  the  human  race ;  a  civilisation,  it  is  true, 
which  has  not  endured,  but  which,  nevertheless, 
forms  one  of  the  steps  by  which  mankind  has  at- 
tained to  higher  perfection." 

Although  Thebes  had  greatly  fallen  from  its 
former  splendour,  in  the  time  of  Cambyses  the 
Persian  it  was  the  fury  of  this  lawless  and  merciless 
conqueror  that  gave  the  last  blow  to  its  grandeur, 


about  520  years  before  the  Christian  era.  He  pil- 
laged its  temples,  and  carried  away  the  ornaments 
of  gold,  silver,  and  ivory.  Before  this  period,  no 
city  in  the  world  could  be  compared  with  it  in  size, 
beauty,  and  wealth  ;  and  according  to  the  expression 
of  Diodorus — "  The  sun  had  never  seen  so  maoTiifi- 
cent  a  city." 

The  next  step  towards  the  decline  and  fall  of  this 
city  was,  as  we  learn  from  Diodorus,  the  preference 
given  to  Memphis ;  and  the  removal  of  the  seat  of 
government  thither,  and  subsequently  to  Sais  and 
Alexandria,  proved  as  disastrous  to  the  welfare,  as 
the  Persian  invasion  had  been  to  the  splendour,  of 
the  capital  of  Upper  Egypt.  "  Commercial  wealth," 
says  Mr.  Wilkinson,  "  on  the  accession  of  the  Ptole- 
mies, began  to  flow  through  other  channels.  Coptos 
and  Apollinopolis  succeeded  to  the  lucrative  trade  of 
Arabia ;  and  Ethiopia  no  longer  contributed  to  the 
revenues  of  Thebes ;  and  its  subsequent  destruction, 
after  a  three  years'  siege,  by  Ptolemy  Lathyrus, 
struck  a  death-blow  to  the  welfare  and  existence  of 
this  capital,  which  was,  thenceforth,  scarcely  deemed 
an  Egyptian  city.  Some  few  repairs,  however,  were 
made  to  its  dilapidated  temples  by  Evergetes  II., 
and  some  by  the  later  Ptolemies.  But  it  remained 
depopulated ;  and  at  the  time  of  Strabo's  visit,  was 
already  divided  into  small  and  detached  villages." 

Thebes  was,  perhaps,  the  most  astonishing  work 
ever  performed  by  the  hand  of  man.  In  the  time 
of  its  splendour,  it  extended  above  twenty-three 
miles ;  and  upon  any  emergency  could  send  into  the 
field  seven  hundred  thousand  men,  according  to 
Tacitus  ;  but  Homer  allows  only  that  it  could  pour 
through  each  of  its  hundred  gates  two  hundred  armed 
men,  with  their  chariots  and  horses,  which  makes 
about  forty  thousand  men,  allowing  two  men  to  each 


Though  its  walls  were  twenty-four  feet  in  thick- 
ness, and  its  buildings  the  most  solid  and  magnifi- 
cent ;  yet,  in  the  time  of  Strabo  and  of  Juvenal, 
only  mutilated  columns,  broken  obelisks,  and  temples 
levelled  with  the  dust,  remained  to  mark  its  situa- 
tion, and  inform  the  traveller  of  the  desolation  which 
time,  or  the  more  cruel  hand  of  tyranny,  can  assert 
over  the  proudest  monuments  of  human  art. 

"  Thebes,"  says  Strabo,  "  presents  only  remains  of  its 
former  grandeur,  dispersed  over  a  space  eighty  stadia  in 
length,  Here  are  found  great  number  of  temples,  in  part 
destroyed  by  Cambyses  ;  its  inhabitants  have  retired  to  small 
towns,  east  of  the  Nile,  where  the  present  city  is  built,  and 
to  the  western  shore,  near  Memnoninm  ;  at  •which  place  we 
admired  two  colossal  stone  figures,  standing  on  each  side,  the 
one  entire,  the  other  in  part  thrown  down,  it  has  been  said  by 
an  earthquake.  There  is  a  popular  opinion,  that  the  remaining 
part  of  this  statue,  towards  the  base,  utters  a  sound  once  a 
day.  Curiosity  leading  me  to  examine  this  fact,  I  went  thither 
•with  JElius  Gallus,  who  was  accompanied  with  his  numerous 
friends,  and  an  escort  of  soldiers.  I  heard  a  sound  about  six 
o'clock  in  the  morning,  but  dare  not  affirm  whether  it  pro- 
ceeded from  the  base,  from  the  colossus,  or  had  been  produced 
by  some  person  present ;  for  one  is  rather  inclined  to  suppose 
a  thousand  different  causes,  than  that  it  should  be  the  effect 
of  a  certain  assemblage  of  stones. 

"  Beyond  Memnonium  are  the  tombs  of  the  kings,  hewn 
out  of  the  rock.  There  are  about  forty,  made  after  a  mar- 
vellous manner,  and  worthy  the  attention  of  travellers.  Near 
them  are  obelisks,  bearing  various  inscriptions,  descriptive  of 
the  wealth,  power,  and  extensive  empire  of  those  sovereigns 
who  reigned  over  Scythia,  Bactriana,  Judaea,  and  what  is  now 
called  Ionia.  They  also  recount  the  various  tributes  those 
kings  had  exacted,  and  the  number  of  their  troops,  which 
amounted  to  a  million  of  men." 

We  now  proceed  to  draw  from  Diodorus  Siculus  : — 

"The  great  Diospolis , ' '  says  he,  "  which  the  Greeks  have  named 
Thebes,  was  six  miles^in  circumference.  Busiris,  who  founded 
it,  adorned  it  with  magnificent  edifices  and  presents.  The 
fame  of  its  power  and  wealth,  celebrated  by  Homer,  has 
filled  the  world.  Never  was  there  a  city  which  received  so 
many  offerings  in  silver,  gold  and  ivory,  colossal  statues  and 


obelisks,  each  cut  from  a  single  stone.  Four  principal  temples 
are  especially  admired  there  :  the  most  ancient  of  which  was  sur- 
passingly grand  and  sumptuous.  It  was  thirteen  stadia  in 
circumference,  and  surrounded  by  walls  twenty-four  feet  in 
thickness  and  forty-five  cubits  high.  The  richness  and  work- 
manship of  its  ornaments  were  correspondent  to  the  majesty 
of  the  building,  which  many  kings  contributed  to  embellish. 
The  temple  still  is  standing  ;  but  it  was  stripped  of  its  silver 
and  gold,  ivory,  and  precious  stones,  when  Cambyses  set  fire 
to  all  the  temples  of  Egypt." 

The  following  account  of  the  tomb  of  Osymandyas 
is  also  from  Diodorus  : — 

"Ten  stadia  from  the  tombs  of  the  kings  of  Thebes,  is 
the  admirable  one  of  Osymandyas.  The  entrance  to  it  is  by  a 
vestibule  of  various  coloured  stones,  two  hundred  feet  long, 
and  sixty-eight  high.  Leaving  this  we  enter  a  square  peris- 
tyle, each  side  of  which  is  four  hundred  feet  in  length. 
Animals  tsventy-four  feet  high,  cut  from  blocks  of  granite, 
serve  as  columns  to  support  the  ceiling,  which  is  composed, 
of  marble  slabs,  twenty-seven  feet  square,  and  embellished 
throughout  by  golden  stars  glittering  on  a  ground  of  azure. 
Beyond  this  peristyle  is  another  entrance ;  and  after  that  a 
vestibule,  built  like  the  first,  but  containing  more  sculptures 
of  all  kinds.  At  the  entrance  are  three  statues,  formed  from 
a  single  stone  by  Memnon  Syncite,  the  principal  of  which,  re- 
presenting the  king,  is  seated,  and  is  the  largest  in  Egypt.  One 
of  its  feet,  exactly  measured,  is  about  seven  cubits.  The  other 
had  figures  supported  on  its  knees  ;  the  one  on  the  right,  the 
other  on  the  left,  are  those  of  his  mother  and  daughter.  The 
whole  work  is  less  valuable  for  its  enormous  grandeur,  than  for 
the  beauty  of  the  sculpture,  and  the  choice  of  the  granite, 
which,  though  so  extensive,  has  neither  flaw  nor  blemish  on  its 
surface.  The  colossus  bears  this  inscription  :  '  I  am  Osyman- 
dyas, king  of  kings  ;  he  who  would  comprehend  my  greatness, 
and  where  I  rest,  let  him  destroy  some  one  of  these  works.' 
Beside  this,  is  another  statue  of  his  mother,  cut  from  a  single 
block  of  granite,  thirty  feet  high.  Three  queens  are  sculp- 
tured on  her  head,  intimating  that  she  was  a  daughter,  wife, 
and  mother  of  a  king.  After  this'portico  is  a  peristyle,  still  more 
beautiful  than  the  first  ;  on  the  stones  of  which  is  engraved, 
the  history  of  the  wars  of  Osymandyas,  against  the  rebels  of 
Bactriana.  The  facade  of  the  front  wall  exhibits  this  prince 
attacking  ramparts,  at  the  foot  of  which  the  river  flows.  He 
is  combating  advanced  troops  ;  and  by  his  side  is  a  terrible 
lion,  ardent  in  his  defence.  On  the  right  wall  are  captives  in 


chains,  with  their  hands  and  genitals  cut  off,  as  marks  of  re- 
proach for  (heir  cowardice.  The  wall  on  the  left  contains 
symbolical  figures  of  exceedingly  good  sculpture,  descriptive  of 
triumphs  and  sacrifice  of  Osymandyas  returning  from  this  war. 
In  the  centre  of  the  peristyle,  where  the  roof  is  open,  an  altar 
was  erected  of  a  single  stone  of  marvellous  bulk  and  exquisite 
workmanship  ;  and  at  the  farther  wall  are  two  colossal  figures, 
each  hewn  from  a  single  block  of  marble,  forty  feet  high, 
seated  on  their  pedestals.  This  admirable  peristyle  has  three 
gates,  one  between  the  two  statues,  and  the  others  on  each  side. 
These  lead  to  an  edifice  two  hundred  feet  square,  the  roof  of 
which  is  supported  by  high  columns  ;  it  resembles  a  magnificent 
theatre  ;  several  figures  carved  in  wood,  represent  a  tribunal 
administering  justice.  Thirty  judges  are  seen  on  one  of  the 
walls  ;  and  in  the  midst  of  them  the  chief  justice,  with  a  pile 
of  books  at  his  feet,  and  a  figure  of  Truth,  with  her  eyes  shut, 
suspended  from  his  neck  ;  beyond  is  a  walk,  surrounded  by 
edifices  of  various  forms,  in  which  were  tables  stored  with  all 
kinds  of  delicious  via'hds.  In  one  of  these,  Osymandyas,  clothed 
in  magnificent  robes,  offers  up  the  gold  and  silver  which  he 
annually  drew  from  the  mines  of  Egypt  to  the  gods.  Beneath, 
the  amount  of  this  revenue,  which  was  thirty-two  million 
ininas  of  silver,  was  inscribed.  Another  building  contained  the 
sacred  library,  at  the  entrance  of  which  these  words  were  read: 
'  Physic  for  the  soul.'  A  fourth  contained  all  the  deities  of 
Egypt,  with  the  king  offering  suitable  presents  to  each  ;  and 
calling  Osiris  and  the  surrounding  divinities  to  witness,  he  had 
exercised  piety  towards  the  gods,  and  justice  towards  men. 
Beside  the  library  stood  one  of  the  finest  of  these  edifices,  and 
in  it  twenty  couches  to  recline  on,  while  feasting  ;  also  the  sta- 
tues of  Jupiter,  Juno,  and  Osymandyas,  whose  body,  it  is  sup- 
posed, was  deposited  heYe,  Various  adjoining  apartments 
contained  representations  of  all  the  consecrated  animals  of 
Egypt.  Hence  was  the  ascent  to  the  sepulchre  of  the  king; 
on  the  summit  of  which  was  placerl  a  circle  of  gold,  in  thick- 
ness one  cubit,  and  three  hundred  and  sixty-five  in  circum- 
ference, each  cubit  corresponding  to  a  day  in  the  year  ;  and 
on  it  was  engraved  the  rising  and  setting  of  the  stars  for  that 
day,  with  such  astrological  indications  as  the  superstition  of 
the  Egyptians  had  affixed  to  them.  Cambyses  is  said  to  have 
carried  off  this  circle,  when  he  ravaged  Egypt.  Such,  accord- 
ing to  historians,  was  the  tomb  of  Osymandyas, which  surpassed 
all  others  as  well  by  its  wealth,  as  by  the  workmanship  of  the 
skilful  artists  employed." 

In  the  whole  of  Upper  Egypt,  adjacent  to  each 
city,  numerous  tombs  are  always  found  excavated 


in  the  neighbouring  mountains.  The  most  extensive 
and  highly  ornamented  are  nearest  to  the  base  ;  those 
of  smaller  dimensions,  and  Jess  decorated,  occupy  the 
middle ;  and  the  most  rude  and  simple  are  situated 
in  the  upper  parts. 

Those  adjacent  to  Thebes  are  composed  of  exten- 
sive galleries,  twelve  feet  broad  and  twenty  high, 
with  many  lateral  chambers. 

They  are  ornamented  with  pilasters,  sculptures, 
stucco,  and  paintings ;  both  ceilings  and  walls  are 
covered  with  emblems  of  war,  agriculture,  and 
music ;  and,  in  some  instances,  with  shapes  of  very 
elegant  utensils,  and  always  representing  offerings  of 
bread,  fruit,  and  liquors.  The  colours  upon  the 
ceilings  are  blue,  and  the  figures  yellow.  We  must, 
however,  refer  to  a  fuller  account : — that  of  Belzoni. 

"  GOURNOU  is  a  tract  of  rocks  about  two  miles  in  length, 
at  the  foot  of  the  Lybian  mountains,  on  the  west  of  Thebe?, 
and  was  the  burial-place  of  the  great  '  city  of  the  hundred 
gates.'  Every  part  of  these  rocks  is  cut  out  by  art,  in  the  form 
of  large  and  small  chambers,  each  of  which  has  its  separate  en- 
trance ;  and,  though  they  are  very  close  to  each  other,  it  is  sel- 
dom that  there  is  any  communication  from  one  to  another. 
I  can  truly  say,  it  is  impossible  to  give  any  description  suffi- 
cient to  convey  the  smallest  idea  of  these  subterranean  abodes 
and  their  inhabitants  ;  there  are  no  sepulchres  in  any  part  of 
the  world  like  them  ;  and  no  exact  description  can  be  given  of 
their  interior,  owing  to  the  difficulty  of  visiting  these  recesses. 
Of  some  of  these  tombs  many  persons  cannot  withstand  the 
suffocating  air,  which  often  causes  fainting.  A  vast  quantity  of 
dust  rises,  so  fine,  that  it  enters  into  the  throat  and  nostrils, 
and  chokes  to  such  a  degree,  thatit  requires  great  power  of  lungs 
to  resist  it,  and  the  strong  effluvia  of  the  mummies.  This  is 
not  all;  the  entry,  or  passage  where  the  bodies  are,  is  roughly 
cut  in  the  rocks,  and  the  falling  of  the  sand  from  the  ceiling 
causes  it  to  be  nearly  filled  up  : — so  that  in  some  places,  there  is 
not  a  vacancy  of  much  more  than  a  foot  left,  which  must  be 
passed  in  a  creeping  posture  on  the  hands  and  knees.  After 
getting  through  these  passages,  some  of  them  two  or  three  hun- 
dred yards  long,  you  generally  find  a  more  commodious  place, 
perhaps  high  enough  to  sit :  but  what  a  place  of  rest !  Sur- 
rounded by  bodies,  by  heaps  of  mummies  in  all  directions, 


which,  till  I  got  accustomed  to  the  sight,  impressed  me  with 
horror.  After  the  exertion  of  entering  iiito  such  a  place  through 
a  passage  of  sometimes  six  hundred  yards  in  length,  nearly 
overcome,  I  sought  a  resting-place,  found  one,  and  contrived  to 
sit;  but  when  my  weight  bore  on  the  body  of  an  Egyptian,  it 
crushed  it  like  a  band-box.  I  naturally  had  recourse  to  my 
hands  to  sustain  my  weight,  but  they  found  no  better  support ; 
so  that  I  sank  altogether  among  the  broken  mummies  with  a 
crash  of  bones,  rags,  and  wooden  cases,  which  raised  such  a 
dust  as  kept  me  motionless  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  waiting 
till  it  subsided  again.  Once  I  was  conducted  from  such  a  place 
to  another  resembling  it,  through  a  passage  about  twenty  feet 
in  length,  and  no  larger  than  that  a  body  could  be  forced 
through ;  it  was  choked  with  mummies,  and  I  could  not  pass 
•without  putting  my  face  in  contact  with  that  of  some  decayed 
Egyptian  ;  but,  as  the  passage  inclined  downwards,  my  own 
weight  helped  me  on,  and  I  could  not  avoid  being  covered  with 
bones,  legs,  arms,  and  heads;  rolling  from  above.  The  purpose 
of  my  researches  was  to  rob  the  Egyptians  of  their  papyri,  of 
which  I  found  a  few  hidden  in  their  breasts,  under  their  arms, 
in  the  space  above  their  knees,  or  on  the  legs,  and  covered  by 
the  numerous  folds  of  cloth  that  envelop  the  body. 

"  Nothing  can  more  plainly  distinguish  the  various  classes 
of  people,  than  the  manner  of  their  preservation.  In  the 
many  pits  that  I  have  opened,  I  never  saw  a  single  mummy 
standing,  and  found  them  lying  regularly  in  horizontal  rows, 
and  some  were  sunk  into  a  cement  which  must  have  been  nearly 
fluid  when  the  cases  were  placed  on  it.  The  lower  classes  were 
not  buried  in  cases  :  they  were  dried  up,  as  it  appears,  after  the 
usual  preparation.  Mummies  of  this  sort  were  in  the  propor- 
tion of  about  ten  to  one  of  the  better  class,  as  nearly  as  I  could 
calculate  from  the  quantity  of  both  T  have  seen  ;  the  linen 
in  which  they  are  folded  is  of  a  coarser  sort  and  less  in  quantity; 
they  have  no  ornaments  about  them  of  any  consequence,  and 
are  piled  up  in  layers,  so  as  to  fill,  in  a  rude  manner,  the  caves 
excavated  for  the  purpose.  In  general  these  tombs  are  to  be 
found  in  the  lower  grounds,  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  ;  they 
are  entered  by  a  small  aperture  arched  over,  or  by  a  shaft  four  or 
five  feetsquare,at  the  bottom  of  which  are  entrances  into  various 
chambers,  all  choked  up  with  mummies,  many  of  which  have 
been  rummaged  and  left  in  the  most  confused  state.  Among 
these  tombs  we  saw  some  which  contained  the  mummies  of  animals 
intermixed  with  human  bodies  ;  these  were  bulls,  cows,  sheep, 
monkeys,  foxes,  bats,  crocodiles,  fishes,  and  birds.  Idols  often 
occur,  and  one  tomb  was  filled  with  nothing  but  cats,  carefully 
folded  in  red  and  white  linen,  the  head  covered  by  a  mask  made 


of  the  same,  and  representing  the  cat.  I  have  opened  all  these 
sorts  of  animals.  Of  the  bull,  the  calf,  and  the  sheep,  there  is  ' 
no  part  but  the  head,  which  is  covered  with  linen  with  the  horns 
projecting  out  of  the  cloth;  the  rest  of  the  body  being  repre- 
sented by  two  pieces  of  wood  eighteen  inches  wide  and  three 
feet  long,  with  another  at  the  end,  two  feet  high,  to  form  the 
breast.  "  It  is  somewhat  singular,  that  such  animals  are  not  to 
be  met  with  in  the  tombs  of  the  higher  sort  of  people,  while 
few  or  no  papyri  are  to  be  found  among  the  lower  order;  and  if 
any  occur,  they  are  only  small  pieces  stuck  on  the  breast  with  a 
little  gum  or  asphaltum,  being  probably  all  that  the  poor  indi- 
vidual could  afford  to  himself.  In  those  of  the  better  classes 
other  objects  are  found.  I  think  they  ought  to  be  divided  into 
several  classes,  and  not  confined  to  three,  as  is  done  by  Hero- 
dotus in  his  account  of  the  mode  of  embalming.  In  the  same 
pit  where  I  found  mummies  in  cases,  1  have  found  others  with- 
out, and  in  these,  papyri  are  most  likely  to  be  met  with.  I 
remarked  that  those  in  cases  have  none.  It  appears  to  me  that 
those  that  could  afford  it  had  a  case  to  be  buried  in,  on  which 
the  history  of  their  lives  was  painted  ;  and  those  who  could  not 
afford  a  case,  were  contented  to  have  their  lives  written  on  pa- 
pyri, and  placed  above  their  knees.  The  cases  are  made  of 
sycamore,  some  very  plain,  some  richly  painted  with  well-exe- 
cuted figures  ;  all  have  a  human  face  on  the  lid  :  some  of  the 
larger  contain  others  within  them,  either  of  wood  or  plaster, 
and  painted  ;  some  of  the  mummies  have  garlands  of  flowers 
and  leaves  of  the  acacia,  or  Sunt-tree,  over  their  heads  and 
breats.  In  the  inside  of  these  mummies  are  often  found  lumps 
of  asphaltum,  sometimes  weighing  as  much  as  two  pounds. 
Another  kind  of  mummy  I  believe  I  may  conclude  to  have  be- 
longed exclusively  to  the  priests  :  they  are  folded  in  a  manner 
totally  differing  from  the  others,  and  with  much  more  care;  the 
bandages  consist  of  stripes  of  red  and  white  linen  intermixed, 
and  covering  the  whole  body,  but  so  carefully  applied,  that  the 
form  of  the  trunk  and  limbs  are  preserved  separate,  even  to  the 
fingers  and  toes  ;  they  have  sandals  of  painted  leather  on  the 
feet,  and  bracelets  on  their  arms  and  wrists.  The  cases  in  which 
these  mummies  are  preserved,  are  somewhat  better  executed 
than  the  rest. 

"  The  tombs  containing  the  better  classes  are  of  course 
superior  to  the  others;  some  are  also  more  extensive  than 
others,  having  various  apartments  adorned  witli  figures.^  It 
would  be  impossible  to  describe  the  numerous  little  articles 
found  in  them,  which  are  well  adapted  to  show  the  domestic 
habits  of  the  ancient  Egyptians.  It  is  here  the  smaller  idols 
are  occasionally  found,  either  lying  on  the  ground,  or  on  the 
cases.  Vases  made  of  baked  clay,  painted  over,  from  eight  to 

412  ntJINS    OP    ANCIENT    CITIES. 

eighteen  inches  in  size,  are  sometimes  seen,  containing  em- 
balmed entrails  ;  the  covers  represent  the  head  of  some  divi- 
nity, bearing  either  the  human  form,  or  that  of  a  monkey,  fox, 
cat,  or  other  animal.  I  met  with  a  few  of  these  made  of 
alabaster,  in  the  tombs  of  the  kings,  but  they  were  unfortu- 
nately broken  :  a  great  quantity  of  pottery  and  wooden  vessels 
are  found  in  some  of  the  tombs;  the  ornaments,  the  small  works 
in  clay  in  particular,  are  very  curious.  I  have  been  fortunate 
enough  to  find  many  specimens  of  their  manufactures,  among 
which  is  leaf-gold,  nearly  as  thin  as  ours  ;  but  what  is  singular, 
the  only  weapon  I  met  with  was  an  arrow,  two  feet  long. 

"  One  day  while  causing  the  walls  of  a  large  tomb  to  be 
struck  with  a  sledge-hammer,  in  order  to  discover  some  hidden 
chambers,  an  aperture,  a  foot  and  a  half  wide,  into  another 
tomb,  was  suddenly  made :  having  enlarged  it  sufficiently  to 
pass,  we  entered,  and  found  several  mummies  and  a  grsat 
quantity  of  broken  cases  ;  in  an  inner  apartment  was  a  square 
opening,  into  which  we  descended,  and  at  the  bottom  we  found 
a  small  chamber  at  each  side  of  the  shaft,  in  one  of  which  was 
a  granite  sarcophagus  with  its  cover,  quite  perfect,  but  so  situ- 
ated, that  it  would  be  an  arduous  undertaking  to  draw  it  out.'' 

Among  the  many  discoveries  of  the  enterprising 
Belzoni,  was  that  of  the  Tomhs  of  the  Kings  : — 

"  After  a  long  survey  of  the  western  valley,  I  could  observe 
only  one  spot  that  presented  the  appearance  of  a  tomb  :  accord- 
ingly I  set  the  men  to  work,  and  when  they  had  got  a  little  below 
the  surface,  they  came  to  some  large  stones  ;  having  removed 
these,  I  perceived  the  rock  had  been  cut  on  both  sides,  and 
found  a  passage  leading  downwards,  and  in  a  few  hours  came 
to  a  well-built  wall  of  stones  of  various  sizes,  through  which 
we  contrived  to  make  a  breach  ;  at  last  on  entering,  we  found 
ourselves  on  a  staircase,  eight  feet  wide  and  ten  high,  at  the 
bottom  of  which  were  four  mummies  in  their  cases,  lying  flat 
on  the  ground,  and  further  on  four  more :  the  cases  were  all 
painted,  and  one  had  a  large  covering  thrown  over  it  like  a 
pall.  These  I  examined  carefully,  but  no  further  discoveries 
were  made  at  this  place,  which  appears  to  have  been  intended 
for  some  of  the  royal  blood. 

"  Not  fifteen  yards  from  the  last  tomb  I  described,  I 
caused  the  earth  to  be  opened  at  the  foot  of  a  steep  hill,  and 
under  a  torrent  which,  when  it  rains,  pours  a  great  quantity 
of  water  over  the  spot :  on  the  evening  of  the  second  day,  we 
perceived  the  part  of  the  rock  which  was  cut  and  formed  the 
entrance,  which  was  at  length  entirely  cleared,  and  was  found 
to  be  eighteen  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  ground.  In  about 

RUINS    OP    ANCIENT    CITIES.  4 13 

an  hour  there  was  room  for  me  to  enter  through  a  pnssagethat 
the  earth  had  left  under  the  ceiling  of  the  first  corridor,  which 
is  thirty-six  feet  long  and  eight  or  nine  wide,  and  when  cleared, 
six  feet  nine  inches  high.  I  perceived  immediately,  by  the 
painting  on  the  ceiling,  and  by  the  hieroglyphics  in  bas-relief, 
that  this  was  the  entrance  into  a  large  and  magnificent  tomb. 
At  the  end  of  the  corridor,  I  came  to  a  staircase  twenty-three 
feet  long,  and  of  the  same  breadth  as  the  corridor,  with  a  door 
at  the  bottom,  twelve  feet  high  ;  this  led  to  another  corridor 
thirty-seven  feet  long,  and  of  the  same  width  and  height  as  the 
former  one,  each  side,  and  the  ceiling  sculptured  with  hiero- 
glyphics and  painted  ;  but  I  was  stopped  from  further  progress 
by  a  large  pit  at  the  other  end,  thirty  feet  deep  and  twelve 
•wide.  The  upper  part  of  this  was  adorned  with  figures,  from  the 
wall  of  the  passage  up  to  the  ceiling  ;  the  passages  from  the 
entrance,  all  the  way  to  this  pit,  were  inclined  at  an  angle  of 
about  eighteen  degrees.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  pit,  facing 
the  passage,  a  small  opening  was  perceived,  two  feet  wide,  and 
two  feet  six  inches  high,  and  a  quantity  of  rubbish  at  the 
bottom  of  the  wall ;  a  rope,  fastened  to  a  piece  of  wood  that 
•was  laid  across  the  passage,  against  the  projections  which  form 
a  kind  of  door,  appears  to  have  been  used  for  descending  into 
the  pit,  and  from  the  small  aperture  on  the  other  side  hung 
another,  for  the  purpose,  doubtless,  of  ascending  again  ;  but 
these  and  the  wood  crumbled  to  dust  on  touching  them,  from 
the  damp  arising  from  the  water  which  drained  into  the  pit 
down  the  passages.  On  the  following  day  we  contrived  a  bridge 
of  two  beams  to  cross  the  pit  by,  and  found  the  little  aperture 
to  be  an  opening  forced  through  a  wall,  which  had  entirely 
closed  the  entrance,  and  which  had  been  plastered  over  and 
painted,  so  as  to  give  the  appearance  of  the  tomb  having  ended 
at  the  pit,  and  of  there  having  been  nothing  beyond  it.  The 
rope  in  the  inside  of  the  wall,  having  been  preserved  from  the 
damp,  did  not  fall  to  pieces,  and  the  wood  to  which  it  was 
attached  was  in  good  preservation.  When  we  had  passed 
through  the  little  aperture,  we  found  ourselves  in  a  beautiful 
hall,  twenty-seven  feet  six  inches  by  twenty-five  feet  ten 
inches,  in  which  were  four  pillars,  three  feet  square.  At  the 
end  of  this  room,  which  I  shall  call  the  entrance  hall,  and 
opposite  the  aperture,  is  a  large  door,  from  which  three 
steps  lead  down  into  a  chamber  with  two  pillars,  four  feet 
square,  the  chamber  being  twenty-eight  by  twenty-five  feet ; 
the  walls  were  covered  with  figures,  which,  though  in  out- 
line only,  were  as  fine  and  perfect  as  if  drawn  only  the 
day  before.  On  the  left  of  the  aperture  a  large  staircase  of 
eighteen  steps,  descended  from  the  entrance-hall  into  a  cor- 


ridor,  thirty-six  feet  by  seven  wide  ;  and  we  perceived  that  the 
paintings  became  more  perfect  as  we  advanced  further ;  the 
figures  are  painted  on  a  white  ground,  and  highly  varnished. 
At  the  end  of  this  ten  steps  led  us  into  another,  seventeen  feet 
by  eleven,  through  which  we  entered  a  chamber,  twenty  feet 
by  fourteen,  adorned  in  the  most  splendid  manner  by  basso- 
relievos,  painted  like  the  rest.  Standing  in  this  chamber,  the 
spectator  sees  himself  surrounded  by  representations  of  the 
Egyptian  gods  and  goddesses.  Proceeding  further,  we  entered 
another  large  hall,  twenty-eight  feet  square,  with  two  rows  of 
pillars,  three  on  each  side,  in  a  line  with  the  walls  of  the  cor- 
ridors ;  at  each  side  is  a  small  chamber,  each  about  ten  or 
eleven  feet  square.  At  the  end  of  this  hall  we  found  a  large 
saloon,  with  an  arched  roof  or  ceiling,  thirty-two  feet  by 
twenty-seven  ;  on  the  right  was  a  small  chamber,  roughly  cut, 
and  obviously  left  unfinished  ;  and  on  the  left  there  is  another, 
twenty  six  by  twenty-three  feet,  with  two  pillars  in  it.  It  had 
a  projection  of  three  feet  all  round  it,  possibly  intended  to 
contain  the  articles  necessary  for  the  funeral  ceremonies ;  the 
whole  was  beautifully  painted  like  the  rest.  At  the  same  end 
of  the  room  we  entered  by  a  large  door  into  another  chamber, 
forty-three  feet  by  seventeen,  with  four  pillars  in  it,  one  of 
which  had  fallen  down  ;  it  was  covered  with  white  plaster 
where  the  rock  did  not  cut  smoothly,  but  there  were  no  paint- 
ings in  it.  We  found  the  carcass  of  a  bull  embalmed  with 
asphaltum,  and  also,  scattered  in  various  places,  an  immense 
quantity  of  small  wooden  figures  of  mummies,  six  or  eight 
inches  long,  and  covered  with  asphaltum  to  preserve  them  ; 
there  were  some  others  of  fine  baked  earth,  coloured  blue,  and 
highly  varnished.  On  each  side  of  the  two  little  rooms  were 
some  wooden  statues,  standing  erect,  four  feet  high,  with  a 
circular  hollow  inside,  as  if  to  contain  a  roll  of  papyrus,  which 
1  have  no  doubt  they  once  did.  In  the  centre  of  the  saloon  was 
a  SARCOPHAGUS  of  the  finest  oriental  alabaster,  nine  feet  five 
inches  long,  and  three  feet  seven  wide ;  it  is  only  two  inches 
thick,  and  consequently  transparent  when  a  light  is  held  within 
it ;  it  is  minutely  sculptured,  both  inside  and  out,  with  several 
hundred  figures,  not  exceeding  two  inches  in  length,  repre- 
senting, as  I  suppose,  the  whole  of  the  funeral  procession  and 
ceremonies  relating  to  the  dejeased.  The  cover  had  been 
taken  out,  and  we  found  it  broken  in  several  pieces  in  digging 
before  the  first  entrance  :  this  sarcophagus  was  over  a  staircase 
in  the  centre  of  the  saloon,  which  communicated  with  a  sub- 
terraneous passage,  leading  downwards,  three  hundred  feet  in, 
length.  At  the  end  of  this  we  found  a  great  quantity  of  bats' 
dung,  which  choked  it  up,  so  that  we  could  go  no  further 


without  digging  ;  it  was  also  nearly  filled  up  by  the  falling  in 
of  the  upper  part.  One  hundred  feet  from  the  entrance  is  a 
staircase,  in  good  preservation,  but  the  rock  below  changes  its 
substance.  This  passage  proceeds  in  a  south-west  direction 
through  the  mountain.  I  measured  the  distance  from  the 
entrance,  and  also  the  rocks  above,  and  found  that  the  passage 
reaches  nearly  half-way  through  the  mountain  to  the  upper 
part  of  the  valley.  I  have  reason  to  suppose  that  this  passage 
was  used  as  another  entrance  ;  but  this  could  not  be  after  the 
person  was  buried  there  ;  for,  at  the  bottom  of  the  stairs,  under 
the  sarcophagus,  a  wall  had  been  built,  which  entirely  closed 
this  communication  ;  hence  it  should  appear,  that  this  tomb 
had  been  opened  again  with  violence,  after  all  the  precautions 
mentioned  had  been  taken  to  conceal  the  existence  of  the 
greater  part  of  it ;  and  as  these  had  been  carefully  and  skilfully 
done,  it  is  probable  that^  the  intruder  must  have  had  a  guide 
who  was  acquainted  with  "the  place." 

The  rich  alabaster  sarcophagus,  mentioned  above,  is 
now  in  the  Soane  Museum,  Lincoln's-inn-fields,  Lon- 
don, and  remains  altogether  unrivalled  in  beauty  and 
curiosity.  How  it  came  there  is  thus  described  by 
Sir  John  Soane  : — 

"  This  marvellous  effort  of  human  industry  and  perseverance 
is  supposed  to  be  at  least  three  thousand  years  old.  It  is  of 
one  piece  of  alabaster,  between  nine  and  ten"  feet  in  length,  and 
is  considered  of  pre-eminent  interest,  not  only  as  a  work  of 
human  skill  and  labour,  but  as  illustrative  of  the  customs, 
arts,  religion,  and  government  of  a  very  ancient  and  learned 
people.  The  surface  of  this  monument  is  covered  externally 
and  internally  with  hieroglyphics,  comprehending  a  written 
language,  which  it  is  to  be  hoped  the  labour  of  modern  literati 
will  one  day  render  intelligible.  With  no  inconsiderable 
expense  and  difficulty  this  unique  monument  was  transferred 
'from  Egypt  to  England,  and  placed  in  the  British  Museum,  to 
the  trustees  of  which  it  was  offered  for  two  thousand  pounds. 
After  which  negotiation,  the  idea  of  purchasing  it  for  our 
national  collection  was  relinquished  ;  when  it  was  offered  to 
me  at  the  same  price,  which  offer  I  readily  accepted,  and 
shortly  after  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  this  splendid  relic  of 
Egyptian  magnificence  safely  deposited  in  a  conspicuous  part 
of  my  museum." 

"  On  entering  the  sepulchral  chamber,"  says  a  writer, 
giving  an  account  of  the  Soane  collection,  "  notwithstanding 
intense  anxiety  to  behold  a  work  so  unique  and  so  celebrated 


as  the  Belzoni  sarcophagus,  I  confess  that  the  place  in  which 
this  monument  of  antiquity  is  situated  became  the  overpowering 
attraction.  Far  above,  and  on  every  side,  were  concentrated 
the  most  precious  relics  of  architecture  and  sculpture,  disposed 
so  happily  as  to  offer  the  charm  of  novelty,  the  beauty  of 
picturesque  design,  and  that  sublimity  resulting  from  a  sense 
of  veneration,  due  to  the  genius  and  the  labours  of  the  '  mighty 
dead.'  The  light  admitted  from  the  dome  appeared  to  descend 
with  a  discriminating  effect,  pouring  its  brightest  beams  on 
those  objects  most  calculated  to  benefit  by  its  presence. 

"  The  more,"  says  the  same  writer,  speaking  of  the  sarco- 
phagus itself,  "  we  contemplate  this  interesting  memorial  of 
antiquity  and  regal  magnificence,  the  more  our  sense  of  its 
value  rises  in  the  mind.  We  consider  the  beauty  and  scarcity 
of  the  material,  its  transparency,  the  rich  and  mellow  hue, 
the  largeness  of  the  original  block,  the  adaptation  of  its  form 
to  the  purpose,  which  was  unquestionably  to  receive  a  body 
inclosed  in  numerous  wrappings,  and  doubly  cased,  according 
to  the  custom  of  the  Egyptians.  We  then  examine  the  carving 
of  innumerable  figures,  doubting  not  that  the  history  of  a  life 
fraught  with  the  most  striking  events  is  here  recorded ;  gaze 
on  the  beautiful  features  of  the  female  form  sculptured  at  the 
bottom  of  the  sarcophagus,  and  conclude  it  to  be  that  of  the 
goddess  Isis,  the  elongated  eye  and  the  delicate  foot  closely 
resembling  those  drawings  of  her,  given  by  the  learned  Mout- 
faucon ;  and  repeat  the  exclamation  of  Belzoni,  when  he 
declared  that  the  day  on  which  he  found  this  treasure  was  the 
happiest  of  his  life. 

"  Viewed  by  lamp-light,  the  effect  of  this  chamber  is  still 
more  impressive;  for,  seen  by  this  medium,  every  surrounding 
object,  however  admirable  in  itself,  becomes  subservient  to  the 
sarcophagus.  The  ancient,  the  splendid,  the  wonderful  sarco- 
phagus is  before  us,  and  all  else  are  but  accessories  to  its 
dignity  and  grandeur.  A  mingled  sense  of  awe,  admiration,  and 
delight  pervades  our  faculties,  and  is  even  oppressive  in  its 
intensity,  yet  endearing  in  its  associations." 

In  respect  to  the  -tomb,  in  which  this  splendid 
monument  was  discovered,  Belzoni,  on  his  arrival  in 
England,  constructed  and  exhibited  a  perfect  fac- 
simile of  it,  which  many  of  our  readers  will,  doubt- 
less, remember  having  seen. 

"  The  '  Tombs  of  the  Kings,'  as  their  name  implies*,  are  the 
*  SiiturJu)-  Miigazinc. 


sepulchres  in  which  are  deposited  the  earthly  remains  of  the 
ancient  Egyptian  monarchs  who  reigned  at  Thebes  ;  they  are 
called  by  some  Babor,  or  Biban  elMolook — a  traditional  appella- 
tion, signifying  the  Gate  or  Gates  of  the  Kings,  which  is  by 
others  applied  to  the  narrow  gorge  at  the  entrance  of  the  valley 
in  which  they  are  situated.  This  valley,  as  Champollion  re- 
marks, '  is  the  veritable  abode  of  death  ;  not  a  blade  of  grass, 
or  a  living  being  is  to  be  found  there,  with  the  exception  of 
jackals  and  hyaenas,  who,  at  a  hundred  paces  from  our  resi- 
dence, devoured  last  night  the  ass  which  had  served  to  carry 
my  servant  Barabba  Mohammed,  whilst  his  keeper  was  agree- 
ably passing  the  night  of  Ratnazan  in  our  kitchen,  which  is 
established  in  a  royal  tomb  entirely  ruined.' 

"  It  would  be  unnecessary,  were  it  possible,  to  give  a  detailed 
account  of  these  tombs,  or  of  the  sculptures  which  they  con- 
tain, and  of  which  our  interpretation  is  very  limited,  because 
they  often  refer  to  Egyptian  mysteries  of  which  we  have  but 
a  scanty  knowledge.  The  tomb,  which  of  all  others  stands  pre- 
eminently conspicuous,  as  well  for  the  beauty  of  its  sculptures 
as  the  state  of  its  preservation,  is  undoubtedly  that  discovered 
and  opened  by  Belzoni.  It  has  been  deprived  within  a  few 
years  of  one  of  its  chief  ornaments.  '  I  have  not  forgotten,' 
says  Champollion,  in  his  twenty-second  letter,  '  the  Egyptian 
Museum  of  the  Louvre  in  my  explorations ;  I  have  gathered 
monuments  of  all  sizes,  and  the  smallest  will  not  be  found  the 
least  interesting.  Of  the  larger  class  I  have  selected,  out  of 
thousands,  three  or  four  mummies  remarkable  for  peculiar 
decorations,  or  having  Greek  inscriptions;  and  next,  the  most 
beautiful  coloured  bas-relief  in  the  royal  tomb  of  Menephtha 
the  First  (Ousirei),  at  Biban-el-Molouk  ;  it  is  a  capital  speci- 
men, of  itself  worth  a  whole  collection  :  it  has  caused  me  much 
anxiety,  and  will  certainly  occasion  me  a  dispute  with  the 
English  at  Alexandria,  who  claim  to  be  the  lawful  proprietors 
of  the  tomb  of  Ousirei,  discovered  by  Belzoni  at  the  expense  of 
Mr.  Salt.  In  spite,  however,  of  this  fine  pretension,  one  of 
two  things  shall  happen  ;  either  my  bas-relief  shall  reach  Tou- 
lon, or  it  shall  go  to  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  or  the  bottom  of 
the  Nile,  rather  than  fall  into  the  hands  of  others  ;  my  mind 
is  made  up  on  that  point !" 

No  dispute,  however,  took  place,  and  the  bas-relief 
is  now  in  the  museum  for  which  it  was  destined. 

"  Nearly  two  thousand  years  ago,  these  tombs  were  an 
object  of  wonder  and  curiosity,  and  used  to  attract  visiters  from 
different  parts  of  the  earth  as  they  now  do.  It  was  the  prac- 
tice even  then  for  many  of  those  who  beheld  them  to  leave 

VOL.  II.  E  E 


some  memorial  of  their  visit  behind,  in  the  shape  of  an  inscrip- 
tion commemorating  the  date  at  which  they  '  saw  and  wondered,' 
to  use  the  expression  which  is  commonly  found  among  them. 
Some  of  these  inscriptions  are  curious  :  one  of  them  is  to  the 
following  effect  :  '  I,  the  Dadouchos  (literally  Torch-bearer), 
of  the  most  sacred  Eleiisinian  mysteries,  Nisagoras  of  Athens, 
having  seen  these  >-yrin<ies  (as  t/ie  tombs  were  commonly 
called),  a  very  long  time  after  the  divine  Plato  of  Athens,  have 
wondered  and  given  thauksto  the  Go>l  and  to  the  most  pious 
King  Constantine,  who  has  procured  me  this  favour.'  The 
tomb  in  which  this  was  written  seems  to  have  been  generally 
admired  above  all  others,  though,  as  Mr.  Wilkinson  tells  us, 
one  morose  old  gentleman  of  the  name  of  Epiphanius  declares 
that  '  he  saw  nothing  to  admire  but  the  stone,'  meaning  the 
alabaster  sarcophagus.  There  are  many  other  inscriptions : 
some  afford  internal  evidence  of  their  dates,  and  among  them 
are  four  relating  to  the  years  103,122,  147,  and  189  of  our 

"  A  great  many  of  the  painted  sculptures,  which  are  found  in 
these  tombs,  relate  to  the  idolatrous  worship  of  the  ancient 
Egyptians,  and  the  rites  and  ceremonies  which  they  practised 
in  connexion  with  it*.  But  besides  these,  there  are  others 
•which  afford  us  a  vast  quantity  of  interesting  information  upon 
the  subjects  of  their  domestic  usages  and  every-day  life.  In 
one  chamber  are  depicted  the  operations  of  preparing  and 
dressing  meat,  boiling  the  cauldron,  making  bread,  lighting  the 
fire,  fetching  water,  &c.  Another  presents  scenes  in  a  garden, 
where  a  boy  is  beaten  for  stealing  fruit;  a  canal  and  pleasure 
boats;  fruit  and  flowers  ;  the  mechanical  processes  of  various 
arts,  such  as  sculpture,  painting,  the  mixing  of  colours,  &c. 
In  the  Harper's  Tomb,  (so  called  from  there  being  among  the 
bas-reliefs  figures  of  a  man  playing  upon  an  instrument  resem- 
bling a  harp,)  which  was  first  visited  by  Bruce,  there  are  some 
*  The  folly  of  the  Egyptians  in  respect  to  their  deifications  is  well 
known  ;  and  for  this  they  are  ingeniously  reproached  by  the 

Who  has  not  heard,  where  Egypt's  realms  are  named, 

What  monster  gods  her  frantic  sons  have  framed  ? 

Here  Ibis  gorged  with  well-grown  serpents,  there 

The  Crocodile  commands  religious  fear. 

Through  towns  Diana's  power  neglected  lies, 

Where  to  her  dogs  aspiring  temples  rise  ; 

And  should  you  leeks  or  onions  eat,  no  time 

Would  expiate  the  sacrilegious  crime. 

Religious  nations  sure,  and  blest  abodes, 

Where  every  orchard  is  o'er-run  with  gods  ! 


curious  illustrations  of  the  furniture  which  was  in  use  among  the 
Egyptians  ;  tables,  chairs,  and  sideboards,  patterns  of  em- 
bossed  silk  and  chintz,  drapery  with  folds  and  fringe  are  there 
to  be  seen,  precisely  such,  we  are  told,  as  were  used  in  our  own 
country  some  years  ago  when  Egyptian  furniture  was  in  fashion. 
"  The  '  Tombs  of  the  Kings  '  bring  many  allusions  of  Scrip- 
ture to  the  mind,  as  is  remarked  by  Mr.  Jowett,  as  in  the  pas- 
sages of  Mark  v.  2,  3,  5,  and  particularly  of  Isaiah  xxii.  16. 
'  What  hast  thou  here,  and  whom  hast  thou  here,  that  thou 
hast  hewed  thee  out  a  sepulchre  here,  as  he  that  heweth 
him  out  a  sepulchre  on  high,  and  that  graveth  an  habitation 
for  himself  on  a  rock1}' 

"  Another  passage  of  the  same  prophet  might  be  applied  to 
the  pride  which  the  tenants  of  these  magnificent  abodes  took  in 
resting  as  magnificently  in  death  as  they  had  done  in  life  ;  he 
tells  us  (xiv.  18),  'All  the  kiniis  of  the  nations,  even  all  of 
them,  lie  in  glory,  every  one  in  his  own  house.' 

"  The  mystical  sculptures  upon  the  walls  of  the  chambers 
within  these  sepulchres,  cannot  be  better  described  than  in  the 
words  of  Ezekiel,  (viii.  8,  10) :  '  Then  said  he  unto  me,  Son 
of  man,  diy  now  in  the  wall :  and  when  I  had  digged  in  the 
ivall,  behold,  a  door ;  and  he  said  unto  me.  Go  in,  and  behold 
the  wicked  abominations  that  they  do  here.  So  I  went  in, 
and  saw  ;  ai<d,  behold,  every  form  of  creeping  things,  and 
abominable  beasts,  and  all  the  idols  of  the  house  of  Israel, 
pourtrayed  upon  the  wall  roundabout' 

"  '  The  Israelites,'  remarks  Mr.  Jowet.t,  '  were  but  copy- 
ists ;  the  master  sketches  are  to  be  seen  in  all  the  ancient 
temples  and  tombs  of  Egypt.'  These  are  the  places  in  which 
the  dead  bodies  of  the  inhabitants  of  ancient  Thebes  were  de- 
posited many  ages  ago  ;  and  notwithstanding  the  havoc  which, 
during  many  years,  has  been  made  among  them,  the  stores  of 
mummies  which  they  contain  would  almostappear  to  beinexhaus- 
tible  ;  indeed,  as  a  modern  writer  expresses  it,  it  would  scarcely 
be  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  the  mountains  are  merely  roofs 
over  the  masses  of  mummies  within  them.  The  coffins,  which 
are  made  of  sycamore-wood,  serve  as  fuel  to  the  Arabs  of  the 
whole  neighbourhood.  '  At  first,'  says  Mrs.  Lushington,  '  I  did 
not  relish  the  idea  of  my  dinner  being  dressed  with  this  resurrec- 
tion wood,  particularly -as  two  or  three  of  the  coffin  lids,  which 
~were  in  the  shape  of  human  figures,  were  usually  to  be  seen 
standing  upright  against  the  tree  under  which  the  cook  was 
performing  his  operations,  staring  with  their  large  eyes  as  if  in 
astonishment  at  the  new  world  upon  which  they  had  opened.' 

"  The  miserable  beings  who  have  fixed  their  dwellings  in 
these  cavern-  toinbs,  are  as  little  civillized  as  could  be  expected; 
EE  2 


our  female  traveller  describes  them  as  having  a  wild  and  reso- 
lute appearance.  '  Every  man  was  at  this  time  (1828)  armed 
with  a  spear,  to  resist,  it  was  said,  the  compulsory  levies  of  the 
Pacha,  who  found  it  vain  to  attack  them  in  their  fastnesses.  I, 
who  was  so  delighted  with  the  beauty  and  peace  of  our  new 
abode,  felt  quite  disturbed  to  discover  that  the  very  spot  where 
we  encamped  four  years  before,  witnessed  the  massacre  of  many 
hundreds  of  Arabs,  then  in  resistance  against  this  recruiting 
system,  and  who  were  blown  from  guns,  or  shot,  while  endea- 
vouring to  make  their  escape  by  swimming  across  the  river. 
The  poor  people,  however,  behaved  with  civility  to  us,  and  I 
felt  no  apprehension  at  going  among  them  with  a  single  com- 
panion, or  even  alone.  To  be  sure  we  were  obliged  to  take 
especial  care  of  our  property,  for  which  purpose  the  chief  of 
Luxor  assisted  us  by  furnishing  half-a-dozen  men  to  watch  by 
night  round  the  encampment.  Nevertheless,  once  after  I  had 
gone  to  sleep,  I  was  awakened  by  the  extinguishing  of  the  light, 
and  felt  my  little  camp-bed  raised  up  by  a  man  creeping  under- 
neath ;  he  fled  on  my  crying  out,  and  escaped  the  pursuit,  as 
he  had  the  vigilance,  of  our  six  protectors.' 

"  The  feelings  occasioned  by  the  sight  of  the  numerous  frag- 
ments of  mummies  which  are  to  be  found  scattered  in  every 
direction  in  the  neighbourhood  of  these  tombs,  must  be  to  one 
of  a  reflective  cast  of  mind  peculiarly  affecting.  The  Rev.  Mr. 
Jowett,  after  speaking  of  his  ascent  to  the  top  of  the  Libyan 
mountains,  '  which  command  a  magnificent  view  of  the  wind- 
ing of  the  Nile,  and  the  plain  of  the  hundred-gated  Thebes,' 
says,  '  as  we  were  descending  the  other  side  of  the  mountain, 
we  came  suddenly  on  a  part  where  thirty  or  forty  mummies  lay 
scattered  in  the  sand, — the  trunk  of  the  body  filled  with  pitch, 
and  the  limbs  swathed  in  exceeding  long  clothes.  The  forty 
days  spent  in  embalming  these  mortal  bodies,  (Genesis  1.  3.)  thus 
give  us  a  sight  of  some  of  our  fellow-creatures  who  inhabited 
thesa  plains  more  than  three  thousand  years  ago.  How  solemn 
the  reflection  that  their  disembodied  spirits  have  been  so  long 
waiting  to  be  united  again  to  their  reanimated  body  !  and  that 
this  very  body  which,  notwithstanding  its  artificial  preservation, 
we  see  to  be  a  body  of  humiliation,  will  on  its  great  change  be- 
come incorruptible  and  immortal.'  " 

The  following  observations  are  by  Mr.  Browne: — 
"  The  massy  and  magnificent  forms  of  the  ruins  that  remain 
of  ancient  Thebes,  the  capital  of  Egypt,  the  city  of  Jove,  the 
city  with  a  hundred  gates,  must  inspire  every  intelligent  spec- 
tator with  awe  and  admiration.  Diffused  on  both  sides  of  the 
Nile,  their  extent  confirms  the  classical  observations,  and 

RUINS    OP    A.VCIENT   CITIES.  42 \ 

Homer's  animated  description    rushes   into   the   memory  : 

'  Egyptian  Thebes,  in  whose  palaces  vast  wealth  is  stored  • 
from  each  of  whose  hundred  gates  issue  two  hundred  warriors, 
nth  their  horses  and  chariots.'  These  venerable  ruins,  pro- 
bably the  most  ancient  in  the  world,  extend  for  about  three 
leagues  in  length  along  the  Nile.  East  and  west  they  reach 
to  the  mountains,  a  breadth  of  aboin  two  leagues  and  a  half 
The  river  is  here  about  three  hundred  yards  broad.  The  cir- 
cumference of  the  ancient  city  must  therefore  have  been  about 
twenty-seven  miles.  In  sailing  up  the  Nile,  the  first  village 
you  come  to  within  the  precincts  is  Kourna,  on  the  west,  where 
there  are  few  houses,  the  people  living  mostly  in  the  caverns. 
Next  is  Abu-hadjadj,  a  village,  and  Karnak,  a  small  district 
both  on  the  east.  Far  the  largest  portion  of  the  city  stood  on 
the  eastern  side  of  the  river.  On  the  south-west  Medinet- 
Abu  marks  the  extremity  of  the  ruins  ;  for  Arment,  which  is 
about  two  leagues  to  the  south,  cannot  be  considered  as  a 

"  In  describing  the  ruins,  we  shall  begin  with  the  most  con- 
siderable, which  are  on  the  east  of  the  Nile.  The  chief  is  the 
Great  Temple,  an  oblong  square  building,  of  vast  extent,  with 
a  double  colonnade,  one  at  each  extremity.  The  massy  co- 
lumns and  walls  are  covered  with  hieroglyphics,  a  labour  truly 
stupendous.  1.  The  Great  Temple  stands  in  the  district  called 
Karnac.  2.  Next  in  importance  is  the  temple  at  Abu-Hadjadj. 
3.  Numerous  ruins,  avenues  marked  with  remains  of  sphinxes, 
&c.  On  the  west  side  of  the  Nile  appear,  1.  Two  colossal 
figures,  apparently  of  a  man  and  woman,  formed  of  a  calcareous 
stone  like  the  rest  of  the  ruins.  2.  Remains  of  a  large  temple, 
with  caverns  excavated  in  the  rock.  3.  The  magnificent  edi- 
fice styled  the  Palace  of  Memnon.  Some  of  the  columns  are 
about  forty  feet  high,  and  about  nine  and  a  half  in  diameter. 
The  columns  and  walls  are  covered  with  hieroglyphics.  This 
stands  at  Kourna.  4.  Behind  the  palace  is  the  passage  styled 
Biban-el-Moluk,  leading  up  the  mountain.  At  the  extremity 
of  this  passage,  in  the  sides  of  the  rock,  are  the  celebrated 
caverns  known  as  the  sepulchres  of  the  ancient  kings.  Several 
of  these  sepulchres  have  been  described  by  Pococke,  with  suf- 
ficient minuteness  ;  he  has  even  given  plans  of  them.  But  in 
conversation  with  persons  at  Assiut,  and  in  other  parts  of 
Egypt,  I  was  always  informed  that  they  had  not  been  disco- 
vered^ till  within  the  last  thirty  years,  when  a  son  of  Shech 
Hamiim,  a  very  powerful  chief  of  the  Arabs,  who  governed  all 
the  south  of  Egypt  from  Achmlm  to  Nubia,  caused  four  of 
them  to  be  opened,  in  expectation  of  finding  treasure. 

"  They  had  probably  been  rifled  in  very  ancient  times  ;  but 


how  the  memory  of  them  should  have  been  lost  remains  to  be 
explained.  One  of  those  which  I  visited  exactly  answers  Dr. 
Pococke's  description  ;  but  the  other  three  appear  materially 
different  from  any  of  his  plans.  It  is,  therefore,  possible  that 
gome  of  those  which  he  saw  have  been  gradually  closed  up  by 
the  sand,  and  that  the  son  of  Hamam  had  discovered  others. 
They  are  cut  into  the  free-stone  rock,  in  appearance,  upon  one 
general  plan,  though  differing  in  p'irts.  First,  a  passage  of 
some  length,  then  a  chamber ;  a  continuation  of  the  first  pas- 
sage turns  abruptly  to  the  right,  where  is  the  large  sepulchral 
chamber,  with  a  sarcophagus  of  red  granite  in  the  midst. 

"  In  the  second  part  of  the  passage  of  the  largest  are  several 
cells  or  recesses  on  both  sides.  In  these  appear  the  chief 
paintings,  representing  the  mysteries,  which,  as  well  as  the 
hieroglyphics  covering  all  the  walls,  are  very  fresh.  I  parti- 
cularly observed  the  two  harpers  described  by  Bruce  ;  but  his 
engraved  figures  seem  to  be  from  memory.  The  French  mer- 
chants at  Kahira  informed  me  that  he  brought  with  him  two 
Italian  artists ;  one  was  Luigi  Balugani,  a  Bolognese,  the  other 
Zucci,  a  Florentine." 

The  edifice  at  Luxor*  was  principally  the  work  of  two 
Egyptian  monarchs, — Amunoph  the  Third,  who  ascended 
the  throne  1430  years  before  the  Christian  era,  and  Rameses 
the  Second — the  Great,  as  he  is  surnamed, — whose  era  has 
been  fixed  at  1500  or  1350  B.  c.  The  Amenophium,  as  the 
more  ancient  part  erected  by  the  former  is  called,  com- 
prises all  that  extends  from  the  river  on  the  south  up  to  the 
great  court;  a  colonnade,  together  with  a  propyla  which 
bound  it  on  the  north,  is  thus  a  portion  of  it.  The  great 
court  itself,  with  the  propyla  forming  the  grand  entrance 
into  the  whole  building,  and  the  obelisks,  colossal  statues,  &c., 
was  the  work  of  Rameses  the  Second,  and  is  sometimes  called 
the  Rnmeseium  ;  under  this  appellation,  however,  it  must  not 
be  confounded  with  the  great  monument  of  the  same  monarch 
on  the  western  side  of  the  river.  As  this  great  edifice  is  very 
near  the  bank  of  the  river  where  it  forms  an  angle,  the  soil  is 
supported  by  a  solid  stone  wall,  from  which  is  thrown  out  a 
jetty  of  massive  and  well-cemented  brick,  fifty  yards  in  length, 
and  seven  in  width.  Mr.  Wilkinson  says  that  it  is  of  the  late 
era  of  the  Ptolemies,  or  Caesars,  since  blocks  bearing  the  sculp- 
ture of  the  former  have  been  used  in  its  construction  ;  and  the 
same  gentleman  communicates  the  unpleasant  intelligence  that 
the  river  having  formed  a  recess  behind  it,  threatens  to  sweep 
away  the  whole  of  its  solid  masonry,  and  to  undermine  the 

*  Parker. 


foundations  of  the  temple  itself.  This  jetty  formed  a  small 
port,  for  the  convenience  of  boats  navigating  the  river.  Mr.  • 
Hamilton  says  that  its  ruins  very  much  resemble  the  fragments 
of  the  bridge  called  that  of  Caligula  in  the  Bay  of  Baize  ;  which 
is  now  generally  believed  to  have  been  a  pier  for  the  purposes 
of  trade.  Dr.  Richardson  considered  the  workmanship  of  the 
embankment  to  be  entirely  Roman  ;  and  he  suggests  that  the 
temple  at  Luxor  was  probably  built  on  the  banks  of  the  Nile  for 
the  convenience  of  sailors  and  wayfaring  men ;  where,  without 
much  loss  of  time  they  might  stop,  say  their  prayers,  present 
their  offerings,  and  bribe  the  priests  for  promises  of  future 

"  The  entrance,"  says  Denon,  "  of  the  village  of  Luxor 
affords  a  striking  instance  of  beggary  and  magnificence.  W  hat 
a  gradation  of  ages  in  Egypt  is  offered  by  this  single  scene  ! 
What  grandeur  and  simplicity  in  the  bare  inspection  of  this 
one  mine  !  It  appears  to  me  to  be  at  the  same  time  the  most 
picturesque  group,  and  the  most  speaking  representation  of  the 
history  of  those  times.  Never  were  my  eyes  or  my  imagina- 
tion so  forcibly  struck  as  by  the  sight  of  this  monument.  I 
often  came  to  meditate  on  this  spot,  to  enjoy  the  past  and  the 
present  ;  to  compare  the  successive  generations  of  inhabitants, 
by  their  respective  works,  which  were  before  my  eye,  and  to 
store  in  my  mind  volumes  of  materials  for  future  meditations. 
One  day  the  sheik  of  the  village  accosted  me,  and  asked  if  it 
was  the  French  or  the  English  who  had  erected  these  monu- 
ments, and  this  question  completed  my  reflections." 

Every  spot  of  ground,  intervening  between  the 
walls  and  columns,  is  laid  out  in  plantations  of  corn 
and  olives,  inclosed  by  mud  walls. 

"  We  have  little  reason  to  suppose*,  that  when  Egypt  formed 
a  part  of  the  Eastern  empire,  its  former  capital  was  at  all 
raised  from  its  fallen  condition  ;  and  we  have,  unfortunately, 
but  too  much  reason  to  conclude,  that  under  the  dominion  of 
the  Arabian  caliphs,  it  sank  yet  deeper  into  desolation,  and 
the  destruction  of  its  monuments  was  continued  still  by  the 
same  agency  which  had  all  along  worked  their  ruin, — the  hand 
of  man.  Though  we  have  no  distinct  account  of  the  injuries 
inflicted  on  it  in  this  period,  we  may  infer  their  extent,  and 
the  motives  which  operated  to  produce  them,  from  the  follow- 
ing remarks  of  Abdallatif,  an  Arabian  physician  of  Bagdad, 
who  wrote  a  description  of  Egypt  in  the  fourteenth  century. 
He  tells  us,  that  formerly  the  sovereigns  watched  with  care 
*  Knight. 


over  the  preservation  of  the  ancient  monuments  remaining  in 
Egypt ;  '  but,  in  our  time,'  he  adds,  '  the  bridle  has  been  un- 
loosed from  men,  and  no  one  takes  the  trouble  to  restrain  their 
caprices,  each  being  left  to  conduct  himself  as  to  him  should 
seem  best.  When  they  have  perceived  monuments  of  colossal 
grandeur,  the  aspect  of  those  monuments  has  inspired  them 
with  terror  ;  they  have  conceived  foolish  and  false  ideas  of  the 
nature  of  these  remains  of  antiquity.  Every  thing,  which  had 
the  appearance  of  design,  has  been  in  their  eyes  but  a  signal  of 
hidden  treasure  ;  they  have  not  been  able  to  see  an  aperture  in 
a  mountain,  without  imagining  it  to  be  a  road  leading  to  some 
repository  of  riches.  A  colossal  statue  has  been  to  them  but 
the  guardian  of  the  wealth  deposited  at  its  feet,  and  the  im- 
placable avenger  of  all  attempts  upon  the  security  of  his  store. 
Accordingly,  they  have  had  recourse  to  all  sorts  of  artifice  to 
destroy  and  pull  down  these  statues  ;  they  have  mutilated  the 
figures,  as  if  they  hoped  by  such  means  to  attain  their  object, 
and  feared  that  a  more  open  attack  would  bring  ruin  upon 
themselves  ;  they  have  made  openings,  and  dug  holes  in  the 
stones,  not  doubting  them  to  be  so  many  strong  coffers  filled 
with  immense  sums ;  and  they  have  pierced  deep,  too,  in 
the  clefts  of  mountains,  like  robbers  penetrating  into  houses 
by  every  way  but  the  doors,  and  seizing  eagerly  any  oppor- 
tunity which  they  think  known  only  to  themselves.'  This  is 
the  secret  of  much  of  the  devastation  which  has  been  worked 
among  the  monuments  of  ancient  Egypt." 

The  village  of  Luxor*  is  built  on  the  site  of  the 
ruins  of  a  temple,  not  so  large  as  that  of  Karnac, 
but  in  a  better  state  of  preservation,  the  masses  not 
having  as  yet  fallen  through  time,  and  by  the  pressure 
of  their  own  weight.  The  most  colossal  parts  con- 
sist of  fourteen  columns,  of  nearly  eleven  feet  in 
diameter,  and  of  two  statues  of  granite  at  the  outer 
gate,  buried  up  to  the  middle  of  the  arms,  and  having 
in  front  of  them  the  two  largest  and  best  preserved 
obelisks  known.  They  are  rose-coloured,  are  still 
seventy  feet  above  the  ground,  and  to  judge  by  the 
deptli  to  which  the  figures  seem  to  be  covered,  about 
thirty  feet  more  may  be  reckoned  to  be  concealed 
from  the  eye;  making  in  all  one  hundred  feet  for  their 
height.  Their  preservation  is  perfect;  andthehiero- 
*  Anon. 


glyphics  with  which  they  are  covered  being  cut 
deep,  and  in  relief  at  the  bottom,  show  the  bold 
hand  of  a  master,  and  a  beautiful  finish.  The 
gravers,  which  could  touch  such  hard  materials, 
must  have  been  of  an  admirable  temper ;  and  the 
machines  to  drag  such  enormous  blocks  from  the 
quarries,  to  transport  them  thither,  and  to  set  them 
upright,  together  with  the  time  required  for  the 
labour,  surpass  all  conception. 

The  temple  is  very  near  the  river,  says  another 
writer,  and  there  is  a  good  ancient  jetty,  well  built 
of  bricks.  The  entrance  is  through  a  magnificent 
gateway  facing  the  north,  two  hundred  feet  in  front, 
and  fifty-seven  feet  high,  above  the  present  level  of 
the  soil.  Before  the  gateway,  and  between  the  obe- 
lisks, are  two  colossal  statues  of  red  granite ;  from 
the  difference  of  the  dresses,  it  is  judged  that  one 
was  a  male,  the  other  a  female,  figure.  They  are 
nearly  of  equal  sizes.  Though  buried  in  the  ground 
to  the  chest,  they  still  measure  twenty-one  or  twenty- 
two  feet  from  thence  to  the  top  of  the  mitres. 

The  gateway  is  filled  with  remarkable  sculptures, 
which  represent  the  triumph  of  some  ancient  monarch 
of  Egypt  over  an  Asiatic  enemy ;  and  which  we  find 
repeated  both  on  other  monuments  of  Thebes,  and 
partly,  also,  on  some  of  the  monuments  of  Nubia. 
This  event  appears  to  have  formed  an  epoch  in 
Egyptian  history,  and  to  have  furnished  materials 
both  for  the  historian  and  the  sculptor,  like  the  war 
of  Troy  to  the  Grecian  poet.  The  whole  length  of 
this  temple  is  about  eight  hundred  feet. 

In  speaking  of  the  gate  of  this  temple,  which  is 
now  become  that  of  the  village  of  Luxor,  Denon 
remarks  : — "  Nothing  can  be  more  grand,  and,  at  the 
same  time,  more  simple,  than  the  small  number  of 
objects  of  which  this  entrance  is  composed.  No  city 
whatever  makes  so  proud  a  display  at  its  appearance 

426-  RUINS    OP    ANCIENT    CITIES. 

as  tins  wretched  village ;  the  population  of  which 
consists  of  two  or  three  thousand  souls,  who  have 
taken  up  their  abode  on  the  roofs  and  beneath  the 
galleries  of  this  temple,  which  has,  nevertheless,  the 
air  of  being  in  a  manner  uninhabited." 

The  following  observations,  in  regard  to  the  sculp- 
tures at  Luxor,  are  from  the  Saturday  Magazine  : — 

"  On  the  front  of  the  great  propyla,  which  form  the  principal 
entrance  at  Luxor,  are  a  series  of  sculptures  which  have 
excited  the  wonder  of  all  who  have  ever  seen  them.  They  are 
spoken  of  as  being  entitled  to  rank  very  high  among  works  of 
ancient  art ;  as  Mr.  Hamilton  remarks  in  his  admirable  de- 
scription of  them,  they  far  surpass  all  the  ideas  which  till  they 
were  examined  had  been  formed  of  the  state  of  the  arts  in 
Egypt  at  the  era  to  which  they  must  be  attributed.  They  are 
cut  in  a  peculiar  kind  of  relief,  and  are  apparently  intended  to 
commemorate  some  victory  gained  by  an  ancient  monarch  of 
Egypt  over  a  foreign  enemy.  The  moment  of  the  battle, 
chosen,  is  when  the  hostile  troops  are  driven  back  in  their 
fortress,  and  the  Egyptians  are  evidently  to  be  soon  masters  of 
the  citadel. 

"  The  conqueror,  behind  whom  is  borne  aloft  the  royal 
standard,  in  the  shape  of  the  Doum,  or  Theban  palm-leaf,  is  of 
colossal  size :  that  is,  far  larger  than  all  the  other  warriors, 
standing  up  in  a  car  drawn  by  two  horses.  His  helmet  is 
adorned  with  a  globe  with  a  serpent  on  each  side.  He  is  in 
the  act  of  shooting  an  arrow  from  a  bow  which  is  full  stretched  ; 
around  him  are  quivers,  and  at  his  feet  is  a  lion  in  the  act  of 
rushing  foi  ward.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  life  and  spirit  in  the 
form  and  attitude  of  the  horses,  which  are  in  full  gallop, 
feathers  waving  over  their  heads,  and  the  reins  lashed  round  the 
body  of  the  conqueror.  Under  the  wheels  of  the  car,  and 
under  the  horses'  hoofs  and  bellies,  are  crowds  of  the  slain  ; 
some  stretched  on  the  ground,  others  falling.  On  the  e